[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spiro-pyrazolidinedione derivatives without quaternary chiral center were discovered by structure-based drug design and characterized as potent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors. The high metabolic stability of the spiro-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyridazine scaffold and enhancement of the activity by incorporation of a 7-methoxy group on the benzothiophene core successfully led to the identification of compound 4c as an orally bioavailable and highly potent ACC inhibitor. Oral administration of 4c significantly decreased the values of the respiratory quotient in rats, indicating the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spiro-lactone (S)-1 is a potent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor and was found to be metabolically liable in human hepatic microsomes. To remove one of the risk factors in human study by improving the metabolic stability, we focused on modifying the spiro-lactone ring and the benzothiophene portion of the molecule. Spiro-imide derivative 8c containing a 6-methylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine core exhibited potent ACC inhibitory activity and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibition is a validated therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes, exhibiting multiple antidiabetic effects with little or no risk of hypoglycemia. In our studies involving non-covalent DPP-4 inhibitors, a novel series of quinoline-based inhibitors were designed based on the co-crystal structure of isoquinolone 2 in complex with DPP-4 to target the side chain of Lys554. Synthesis and evaluation of designed compounds revealed 1-[3-(aminomethyl)-4-(4-methylphenyl)-2-(2-methylpropyl)quinolin-6-yl]piperazine-2,5-dione (1) as a potent, selective, and orally active DPP-4 inhibitor (IC₅₀=1.3 nM) with long-lasting ex vivo activity in dogs and excellent antihyperglycemic effects in rats. A docking study of compound 1 revealed a hydrogen-bonding interaction with the side chain of Lys554, suggesting this residue as a potential target site useful for enhancing DPP-4 inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) is an exciting new approach for the treatment of diabetes. To date there has been no DPP-4 chemotype possessing a carboxy group that has progressed into clinical trials. Originating from the discovery of the structurally novel quinoline derivative 1, we designed novel pyridine derivatives containing a carboxy group. In our design, the carboxy group interacted with the targeted amino acid residues around the catalytic region and thereby increased the inhibitory activity. After further optimization, we identified a hydrate of [5-(aminomethyl)-6-(2,2-dimethylpropyl)-2-ethyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)pyridin-3-yl]acetic acid (30c) as a potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor. The desired interactions with the critical active-site residues, such as a salt-bridge interaction with Arg125, were confirmed by X-ray cocrystal structure analysis. In addition, compound 30c showed a desired preclinical safety profile, and it was encoded as TAK-100.