ABSTRACT: Indomethacin is one of the group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which often cause gastric mucosal injury as a side effect. Infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells, production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of apoptotic signaling are involved in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric injury. We examined whether sake yeast-derived thioredoxin (a small redox-active protein with anti-oxidative activity and various redox-regulating functions) reduced indomethacin-induced gastric injury.
Gastric injury was produced by the intraperitoneal administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg body weight) to C57BL/6 mice. Prior to the administration of indomethacin, the mice were offered food pellets containing non-genetically modified sake yeast-derived thioredoxin (thioredoxin 200 μg/g) for 3 days. Histological examinations, assessment of myeloperoxidase activity, and analysis of the gene expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and a chemokine (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and CXCL1) were statistically evaluated. Indomethacin cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release from murine gastric epithelial GSM06 cells induced by 24-h treatment with 200 and 400 μM indomethacin after 1-h preincubation with 100 μg/ml sake yeast-derived thioredoxin.
Macroscopic (edema, hemorrhage, and ulcers) and histological (necrosis, submucosal edema, neutrophil infiltration) findings induced by indomethacin were significantly reduced by pretreatment with food pellets containing thioredoxin. Gastric myeloperoxidase activity and the gene expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) were also significantly reduced by this pretreatment compared with findings in the mice not pretreated with thioredoxin-containing food pellets. The administration of sake yeast-derived thioredoxin significantly reduced indomethacin-induced cytotoxicity in GSM06 cells.
We conclude that oral administration of sake yeast-derived thioredoxin reduces indomethacin-induced gastric injury. Sake yeast-derived thioredoxin may have therapeutic potential against indomethacin-induced gastric injury.
Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2012; 47(9):978-87. · 4.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The gastric corpus and antrum are believed to contain epithelial stem cells in the isthmus. However, the lack of useful markers has hindered studies of their origin. We explored whether Smad2/3, phosphorylated at specific linker threonine residues (pSmad2/3L-Thr), could serve as a marker for stem cells.
Stomachs, small intestines, and colons from Helicobacter felis-infected and noninfected C57BL/6 mice were examined. Double immunofluorescent staining of pSmad2/3L-Thr with Ki67, cytokeratin 8, or doublecortin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like-1 (DCAMKL1) was performed, and pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells were counted. After immunofluorescent staining, we stained the same sections with hematoxylin-eosin and observed these cells under a light microscope.
In infected mice, pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells were significantly increased in the corpus and antrum compared with those of noninfected mice (p < 0.0001). The number of Ki67 immunostaining-positive cells in the corpus and antrum of infected mice was also much greater than in the noninfected mice. Although pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells were detected among the Ki67 cells, immunohistochemical co-localization of pSmad2/3L-Thr with Ki67 was never observed. pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells showed immunohistochemical co-localization with cytokeratin 8, but some of them showed co-localization or adjacent localization with DCAMKL1 immunostaining-positive cells. Under a light microscope, pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells indicated undifferentiated morphological features and were confirmed in the isthmus. In small intestines and colons, pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells were detected in specific epithelial cells around crypt bases, where the respective putative stem cells are thought to exist.
We have identified the significant expression of pSmad2/3L-Thr in specific epithelial cells of the murine stomach and have suggested these cells to be epithelial stem cells.
Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2011; 46(4):456-68. · 4.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This case report describes posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) occurring after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for uterine myoma. This is the first report of PRES occurring after uterine vascular radiologic intervention. The mechanism by which UAE induced PRES is unclear.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 02/2010; 34 Suppl 2:S157-60. · 2.09 Impact Factor