Mary D Ari

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (8)31.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Brucellosis is uncommon in the United States; however, its circulation among wildlife and domestic cattle has been ongoing in Wyoming. To assess the public health threat of brucellosis circulation among animals, a seroprevalence study was undertaken among workers in professions considered to be at the highest risk for infection. METHODS:: A seroprevalence study was undertaken targeting individuals in at-risk professions in the affected area of the state. RESULTS:: Seroprevalence among study participants was 14.4%. Veterinarians were the main professional group that demonstrated a statistically significant association with measurable anti-Brucella antibodies. Vaccinating animals with Brucella vaccines was associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION:: The risk to the general public's health from the circulation of Brucella among wildlife and cattle can be attributed primarily to a limited subpopulation at high risk rather than a generally elevated risk.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 11/2012; DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31826e27ce · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis usually transmitted through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine from infected animals. Severe flooding can put individuals at greater risk for contracting leptospirosis in endemic areas. Rapid testing for the disease and large-scale interventions are necessary to identify and control infection. We describe a leptospirosis outbreak following severe flooding and a mass chemoprophylaxis campaign in Guyana. From January-March 2005, we collected data on suspected leptospirosis hospitalizations and deaths. Laboratory testing included anti-leptospiral dot enzyme immunoassay (DST), immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT). DST testing was conducted for 105 (44%) of 236 patients; 52 (50%) tested positive. Four (57%) paired serum samples tested by MAT were confirmed leptospirosis. Of 34 total deaths attributed to leptospirosis, postmortem samples from 10 (83%) of 12 patients were positive by IHC. Of 201 patients interviewed, 89% reported direct contact with flood waters. A 3-week doxycycline chemoprophylaxis campaign reached over 280,000 people. A confirmed leptospirosis outbreak in Guyana occurred after severe flooding, resulting in a massive chemoprophylaxis campaign to try to limit morbidity and mortality.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e39672. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039672 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported among Somali pastoralists in remote, arid Northeast Kenya, where drinking raw milk is common. Blood specimens from 12 patients, collected mostly in the late convalescent phase, were tested for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. All were negative for viral and typhoid serology. Nine patients had Brucella antibodies present by at least one of the tests, four of whom had evidence suggestive of acute infection by the reference serologic microscopic agglutination test. Three patients were positive for leptospiral antibody by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and two were positive for malaria. Although sensitive and specific point-of-care testing methods will improve diagnosis of acute febrile illness in developing countries, challenges of interpretation still remain when the outbreaks are remote, specimens collected too late, and positive results for multiple diseases are obtained. Better diagnostics and tools that can decipher overlapping signs and symptoms in such settings are needed.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2011; 85(5):909-12. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0030 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested paired sera from 584 febrile persons in an low-income urban community in Bangladesh for evidence of Leptospira infection. A total of 8.4% of the persons met criteria for definite or probable infection. Persons with leptospirosis were older than those with undifferentiated fever in this population. The dominant infecting serogroups in Bangladesh differed from serogroups commonly reported in nearby regions.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2010; 82(6):1127-30. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0574 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On 21 November 2005, a 32-year-old male resident of New York was hospitalized with suspected leptospirosis. He had participated in an endurance-length swamp race on 4-5 November 2005 outside of Tampa, Florida. We interviewed racers to assess illness, medical care, and race activities. A suspected case was defined as fever plus > or = 2 signs or symptoms of leptospirosis occurring in a racer after 4 November 2005. Individuals with suspected cases were referred for treatment as needed and were asked to submit serum samples for microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) and for rapid testing by the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay dipstick immunoglobulin M immunoassay. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and participating state health departments interviewed 192 (96%) of 200 racers from 32 states and Canada. Forty-four (23%) of 192 racers met the definition for a suspected case. The median age of the patients was 37 years (range, 19-66 years), and 128 (66.7%) were male. Fourteen (45%) of the 31 patients with suspected cases who were tested had their cases confirmed by serological testing (a single sample with MAT titer > or = 400), including the index case patient. Organisms of a potential novel serovar (species Leptospira noguchii) were isolated in culture from 1 case patient. Factors associated with increased risk of leptospirosis included swallowing river water (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-7.0), swallowing swamp water (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2), and being submerged in any water (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7). This report describes a leptospirosis outbreak that resulted in a high rate of symptomatic infection among adventure racers in Florida. The growing popularity of adventure sports may put more people at risk for leptospirosis, even in areas that have not previously been considered areas of leptospirosis endemicity.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2010; 50(6):843-9. DOI:10.1086/650578 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is a febrile zoonosis of worldwide distribution. A latex agglutination assay was evaluated in two studies, the first using a panel of well-characterized sera from patients with leptospirosis and from patients with other disease states and the second, a prospective hospital-based study, evaluating sera from 186 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with acute febrile illness. The confirmed leptospirosis serum panel included paired acute- and convalescent-phase specimens from 40 cases, of which 34 gave positive latex tests (case sensitivity, 85%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 70 to 94%). The other diseases represented in the panel of 112 specimens from nonleptospirosis patients included autoimmune diseases, brucellosis, dengue, melioidosis, malaria, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, viral hepatitis, and a number of other viral infections. The specificity of latex agglutination using this panel was 81% (95% CI, 73 to 87%). Among the patients with acute febrile illness, there were 25 cases of leptospirosis and 161 patients with other diagnoses. The sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination in this group were 88% (95% CI, 72 to 97%) and 98% (95% CI, 95 to 100%), respectively. In this evaluation, the two distinct groups of specimens gave similar results for sensitivity, but specificity was different in each study. The sensitivity and specificity observed for the hospital study were similar to those obtained in evaluations of other rapid tests in the same population. The results of this study suggest that multiple evaluations of new diagnostic assays should be performed, because performance characteristics may vary in different populations.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 06/2006; 44(5):1853-5. DOI:10.1128/JCM.44.5.1853-1855.2006 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We collected acute-phase serum samples from febrile patients at 2 major hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during an outbreak of dengue fever in 2001. A total of 18% of dengue-negative patients tested positive for leptospirosis. The case-fatality rate among leptospirosis patients (5%) was higher than among dengue fever patients (1.2%).
    Emerging infectious diseases 06/2005; 11(5):766-9. DOI:10.3201/eid1105.041212 · 7.33 Impact Factor