Martin Gallenberger

Universität Regensburg, Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (3)21.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in WD repeat domain 36 gene (WDR36) play a causative role in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. WDR36 is characterized by the presence of multiple WD40 repeats and shows homology to Utp21, an essential protein component of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome required for maturation of 18S rRNA. To clarify the functional role of WDR36 in the mammalian organism, we generated and investigated mutant mice with a targeted deletion of Wdr36. In parallel experiments, we used RNA interference to deplete WDR36 mRNA in mouse embryos and cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM-N) cells. Deletion of Wdr36 in the mouse caused preimplantation embryonic lethality, and essentially similar effects were observed when WDR36 mRNA was depleted in mouse embryos by RNA interference. Depletion of WDR36 mRNA in HTM-N cells caused apoptotic cell death and upregulation of mRNA for BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A. By immunocytochemistry, staining for WDR36 was observed in the nucleolus of cells, which co-localized with that of nucleolar proteins such as nucleophosmin and PWP2. In addition, recombinant and epitope-tagged WDR36 localized to the nucleolus of HTM-N cells. By northern blot analysis, a substantial decrease in 21S rRNA, the precursor of 18S rRNA, was observed following knockdown of WDR36. In addition, metabolic-labeling experiments consistently showed a delay of 18S rRNA maturation in WDR36-depleted cells. Our results provide evidence that WDR36 is an essential protein in mammalian cells which is involved in the nucleolar processing of SSU 18S rRNA.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2010; 20(3):422-35. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ignicoccus hospitalis is an anaerobic, autotrophic, hyperthermophilic Archaeum that serves as a host for the symbiotic/parasitic Archaeum Nanoarchaeum equitans. It uses a yet unsolved autotrophic CO(2) fixation pathway that starts from acetyl-CoA (CoA), which is reductively carboxylated to pyruvate. Pyruvate is converted to phosphoenol-pyruvate (PEP), from which glucogenesis as well as oxaloacetate formation branch off. Here, we present the complete metabolic cycle by which the primary CO(2) acceptor molecule acetyl-CoA is regenerated. Oxaloacetate is reduced to succinyl-CoA by an incomplete reductive citric acid cycle lacking 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase or synthase. Succinyl-CoA is reduced to 4-hydroxybutyrate, which is then activated to the CoA thioester. By using the radical enzyme 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase, 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA is dehydrated to crotonyl-CoA. Finally, beta-oxidation of crotonyl-CoA leads to two molecules of acetyl-CoA. Thus, the cyclic pathway forms an extra molecule of acetyl-CoA, with pyruvate synthase and PEP carboxylase as the carboxylating enzymes. The proposal is based on in vitro transformation of 4-hydroxybutyrate, detection of all enzyme activities, and in vivo-labeling experiments using [1-(14)C]4-hydroxybutyrate, [1,4-(13)C(2)], [U-(13)C(4)]succinate, or [1-(13)C]pyruvate as tracers. The pathway is termed the dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle. It combines anaerobic metabolic modules to a straightforward and efficient CO(2) fixation mechanism.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2008; 105(22):7851-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoarchaeum equitans and Ignicoccus hospitalis represent a unique, intimate association of two archaea. Both form a stable coculture which is mandatory for N. equitans but not for the host I. hospitalis. Here, we investigated interactions and mutual influence between these microorganisms. Fermentation studies revealed that during exponential growth only about 25% of I. hospitalis cells are occupied by N. equitans cells (one to three cells). The latter strongly proliferate in the stationary phase of I. hospitalis, until 80 to 90% of the I. hospitalis cells carry around 10 N. equitans cells. Furthermore, the expulsion of H2S, the major metabolic end product of I. hospitalis, by strong gas stripping yields huge amounts of free N. equitans cells. N. equitans had no influence on the doubling times, final cell concentrations, and growth temperature, pH, or salt concentration ranges or optima of I. hospitalis. However, isolation studies using optical tweezers revealed that infection with N. equitans inhibited the proliferation of individual I. hospitalis cells. This inhibition might be caused by deprivation of the host of cell components like amino acids, as demonstrated by 13C-labeling studies. The strong dependence of N. equitans on I. hospitalis was affirmed by live-dead staining and electron microscopic analyses, which indicated a tight physiological and structural connection between the two microorganisms. No alternative hosts, including other Ignicoccus species, were accepted by N. equitans. In summary, the data show a highly specialized association of N. equitans and I. hospitalis which so far cannot be assigned to a classical symbiosis, commensalism, or parasitism.
    Journal of bacteriology 04/2008; 190(5):1743-50. · 3.94 Impact Factor