[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in response to metabolic activity and environmental factors. Increased oxidative stress is associated with the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases. Cellular response to excess ROS involves the induction of antioxidant response element (ARE) genes under control of the transcriptional activator Nrf2 and the transcriptional repressor Bach1. The development of synthetic small molecules that activate the protective anti-oxidant response network is of major therapeutic interest. Traditional small molecules targeting ARE-regulated gene activation (e.g., bardoxolone, dimethyl fumarate) function by alkylating numerous proteins including Keap1, the controlling protein of Nrf2. An alternative is to target the repressor Bach1. Bach1 has an endogenous ligand, heme, that inhibits Bach1 binding to ARE, thus allowing Nrf2-mediated gene expression including that of heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), a well described target of Bach1 repression. In this report, normal human lung fibroblasts were used to screen a collection of synthetic small molecules for their ability to induce HMOX1. A class of HMOX1-inducing compounds, represented by HPP-4382, was discovered. These compounds are not reactive electrophiles, are not suppressed by N-acetyl cysteine, and do not perturb either ROS or cellular glutathione. Using RNAi, we further demonstrate that HPP-4382 induces HMOX1 in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that HPP-4382 treatment of NHLF cells reciprocally coordinated a decrease in binding of Bach1 and an increase of Nrf2 binding to the HMOX1 E2 enhancer. Finally we show that HPP-4382 can inhibit Bach1 activity in a reporter assay that measures transcription driven by the human HMOX1 E2 enhancer. Our results suggest that HPP-4382 is a novel activator of the antioxidant response through the modulation of Bach1 binding to the ARE binding site of target genes.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e101044. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gbx2 encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that plays pivotal roles during embryogenesis. Gain-and loss-of-function studies in several vertebrate species have demonstrated a requirement for Gbx2 in development of the anterior hindbrain, spinal cord, inner ear, heart, and neural crest cells. However, the target genes through which GBX2 exerts its effects remain obscure. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with direct sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis in a human prostate cancer cell line, we identified cis-regulatory elements bound by GBX2 to provide insight into its direct downstream targets. The analysis revealed more than 286 highly significant candidate target genes, falling into various functional groups, of which 51% are expressed in the nervous system. Several of the top candidate genes include EEF1A1, ROBO1, PLXNA4, SLIT3, NRP1, and NOTCH2, as well as genes associated with the Usher syndrome, PCDH15 and USH2A, and are plausible candidates contributing to the developmental defects in Gbx2(-/-) mice. We show through gel shift analyses that sequences within the promoter or introns of EEF1A1, ROBO1, PCDH15, USH2A and NOTCH2, are directly bound by GBX2. Consistent with these in vitro results, analyses of Gbx2(-/-) embryos indicate that Gbx2 function is required for migration of Robo1-expressing neural crest cells out of the hindbrain. Furthermore, we show that GBX2 activates transcriptional activity through the promoter of EEF1A1, suggesting that GBX2 could also regulate gene expression indirectly via EEF1A. Taken together, our studies show that GBX2 plays a dynamic role in development and diseases.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e47366. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation are major pathophysiological factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that a compromised anti-oxidant system can lead to excessive oxidative stress in cardiovascular related organs, resulting in cell damage and death. In addition, increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, are closely related to morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular complications. Emerging evidence suggests that interventions including nutrition, pharmacology and exercise may activate expression of cellular anti-oxidant systems via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 signaling pathway and play a role in preventing inflammatory processes in CVD. The focus of the present review is to summarize recent evidence showing the role of these anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory interventions in cardiovascular disease. We believe that these findings may prompt new effective pathogenesis-oriented interventions, based on the exercise-induced protection from disease in the cardiovascular system, aimed at targeting oxidant stress and inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that activates transcription of a battery of cytoprotective genes by binding to the ARE (antioxidant response element). Nrf2 is repressed by the cysteine-rich Keap1 (kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) protein, which targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a Cul3 (cullin 3)-mediated ubiquitination complex. We find that modification of Cys(151) of human Keap1, by mutation to a tryptophan, relieves the repression by Keap1 and allows activation of the ARE by Nrf2. The Keap1 C151W substitution has a decreased affinity for Cul3, and can no longer serve to target Nrf2 for ubiquitination, though it retains its affinity for Nrf2. A series of 12 mutant Keap1 proteins, each containing a different residue at position 151, was constructed to explore the chemistry required for this effect. The series reveals that the extent to which Keap1 loses the ability to target Nrf2 for degradation, and hence the ability to repress ARE activation, correlates well with the partial molar volume of the residue. Other physico-chemical properties do not appear to contribute significantly to the effect. Based on this finding, a structural model is proposed whereby large residues at position 151 cause steric clashes that lead to alteration of the Keap1-Cul3 interaction. This model has significant implications for how electrophiles which modify Cys(151), disrupt the repressive function of Keap1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting Nrf2 signaling appears to be an attractive approach for the treatment of maladaptive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction; however, pharmacological modulation of the Nrf2 pathway in the cardiovascular system remains to be established. Herein, we report that a novel synthetic triterpenoid derivative, dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404), activates Nrf2 and suppresses oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Dh404 interrupted the Keap1-Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and subsequent degradation saturating the binding capacity of Keap1 to Nrf2, thereby rendering more Nrf2 to be translocated into the nuclei to activate Nrf2-driven gene transcription. A mutant Keap1 protein containing a single cysteine-to-serine substitution at residue 151 within the BTB domain of Keap1 was resistant to dh404-induced stabilization of Nrf2 protein. In addition, dh404 did not dissociate the interaction of Nrf2 with the Keap1-Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex. Thus, it is likely that dh404 inhibits the ability of Keap1-Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex to target Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation via modifying Cys-151 of Keap1 to change the conformation of the complex. Moreover, dh404 was able to stabilize Nrf2 protein, to enhance Nrf2 nuclear translocation, to activate Nrf2-driven transcription, and to suppress angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of Nrf2 almost blocked the anti-oxidative effect of dh404. Dh404 activated Nrf2 signaling in the heart. Taken together, dh404 appears to be a novel Nrf2 activator with a therapeutic potential for cardiac diseases via suppressing oxidative stress.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8391. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repression of cancer-protective phase II enzymes may help explain why estrogen exposure leads to the development of cancer. In an earlier report we described the ability of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to repress phase II enzyme activity in vivo. Phase II enzymes are coordinately regulated via the presence of the antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoter. We wanted to determine if estrogen receptors (ER) repress ARE-dependent gene expression through a mechanism that requires interaction with Nrf2, the transcription factor that regulates ARE-mediated gene transcription. E(2)-bound ERalpha, but not ERbeta, represses ARE-regulated gene expression in the presence of exogenously expressed Nrf2 as well as when the transactivation domain of Nrf2 was fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. Deletion of the activation function-2 (AF-2) and the ligand-binding domain of ERalpha result in a constitutive repression of Nrf2-mediated transcription. Finally, E(2)-bound ERalpha co-immunoprecipitates with Nrf2. Repression of Nrf2-mediated transcription by E(2)-bound ERalpha expands our knowledge of E(2)-regulated genes and provides a potential drug-screening target for the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators with a lower risk of causing cancer.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2005; 243(1-2):27-34. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding estrogen's regulation of phase II detoxification enzymes is important in explaining how estrogen exposure increases the risk of developing certain cancers. Phase II enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and quinone reductase protect against developing chemically induced cancers by metabolizing reactive oxygen species. Phase II enzyme expression is regulated by a cis-acting DNA sequence, the antioxidant response element (ARE). It has previously been reported that several antiestrogens, but not 17beta-estradiol, could regulate ARE-mediated gene transcription. Our goal was to determine whether additional estrogenic compounds could regulate ARE-mediated gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. We discovered that physiological concentrations (10 nm) of 17beta-estradiol repressed GST Ya ARE-dependent gene expression in vitro. Treatment with other endogenous and anti-, xeno-, and phytoestrogens showed that estrogen receptor/ARE signaling is ligand, receptor subtype, and cell type specific. Additionally, GST and quinone reductase activities were significantly lowered in a dose-dependent manner after 17beta-estradiol exposure in the uteri of mice. In conclusion, we have shown that 17beta-estradiol, and other estrogens, down-regulate phase II enzyme activities. We propose estrogen-mediated repression of phase II enzyme activities may increase cellular oxidative DNA damage that ultimately can result in the formation of cancer in some estrogen-responsive tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear export of IkappaBalpha is mediated by the CRM1 nuclear export receptor. However, the identity of the nuclear export sequences NES(s) in IkappaBalpha that are responsible for binding of IkappaBalpha to CRM1 is controversial. Both a N-terminal NES-like region (amino acids 45-54) and a C-terminal NES-like region (amino acids 265-280) have, in a number of reports from different laboratories, been implicated in CRM1-dependent nuclear export of IkappaBalpha. We now demonstrate that the N-terminal NES-like region, but not the C-terminal NES-like region, is required for RanGTP-dependent binding of IkappaBalpha to CRM1. IkappaBalpha is a relatively weak substrate for CRM1, with an affinity for CRM1 that is 100-fold less than the minute virus of mice NS2 protein, a high affinity cargo protein for CRM1. We also demonstrate that IkappaBalpha functions as a physical adaptor between CRM1 and NFkappaB/Rel proteins. Both free IkappaBalpha and Rel-associated IkappaBalpha have comparable affinities for CRM1, suggesting that CRM1 does not discriminate between free IkappaBalpha and Rel-associated IkappaBalpha. Nuclear export of c-Rel by IkappaBalpha requires the N-terminal NES-like sequence of IkappaBalpha but is not affected by alanine substitutions within the C-terminal NES-like sequence of IkappaBalpha. In contrast, nuclear export of the v-Rel oncoprotein by IkappaBalpha is disrupted by alanine substitutions within either the N-terminal or the C-terminal NES-like sequences. However, alanine substitutions within the C-terminal NES-like sequence significantly reduce the affinity of IkappaBalpha for v-Rel, suggesting that loss of export function for this mutant is secondary to reduced association between IkappaBalpha and v-Rel. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the N-terminal NES-like sequence in IkappaBalpha is required for RanGTP-dependent binding of both free IkappaBalpha and NFkappaB/Rel-associated IkappaBalpha proteins to CRM1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2001; 276(26):23599-606. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxin and other xenobiotics. In the absence of exogenous ligand, AhR is cytosolic. We investigated how AhR is retained in the cytosol and how dioxin induces AhR to move to the nucleus. Disruption of nuclear export of AhR by the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) or by mutation of the AhR nuclear export signal resulted in nuclear accumulation of AhR in the absence of exogenous ligand. Mutation of the AhR nuclear localization signal resulted in defects in nuclear import of AhR in both the presence and the absence of exogenous ligand. Dioxin treatment caused a more rapid accumulation of AhR in the nucleus than LMB treatment. In the presence of both dioxin and LMB, nuclear accumulation of AhR was more rapid than in the presence of dioxin alone. Our results show that AhR shuttles between the nucleus and the cytosol in the absence of exogenous ligand. Binding of ligand induces an increase in the rate of nuclear import of AhR but does not eliminate nuclear export of AhR.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 06/2001; 389(2):207-17. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IkappaBalpha) protein is able to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We have utilized a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to provide mechanistic insight into nucleocytoplasmic shuttling by IkappaBalpha. IkappaBalpha contains multiple functional domains that contribute to shuttling of IkappaBalpha between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Nuclear import of IkappaBalpha is mediated by the central ankyrin repeat domain. Similar to previously described nuclear import pathways, nuclear import of IkappaBalpha is temperature and ATP dependent and is blocked by a dominant-negative mutant of importin beta. However, in contrast to classical nuclear import pathways, nuclear import of IkappaBalpha is independent of soluble cytosolic factors and is not blocked by the dominant-negative RanQ69L protein. Nuclear export of IkappaBalpha is mediated by an N-terminal nuclear export sequence. Nuclear export of IkappaBalpha requires the CRM1 nuclear export receptor and is blocked by the dominant-negative RanQ69L protein. Our results are consistent with a model in which nuclear import of IkappaBalpha is mediated through direct interactions with components of the nuclear pore complex, while nuclear export of IkappaBalpha is mediated via a CRM1-dependent pathway.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2000; 20(5):1571-82. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The net distribution of eukaryotic transcription factors between the cytoplasm and the nucleus provides an effective mechanism for controlling gene expression. We have utilized cis-acting signals for both nuclear import and nuclear export to experimentally manipulate the distribution of the v-Rel oncoprotein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The respective abilities of the v-Rel oncoprotein to localize to the nucleus in chicken embryo fibroblasts, to activate kappaB-dependent transcription in yeast, and to transform avian lymphoid cells were each markedly reduced by the fusion of a cis-acting nuclear export signal onto v-Rel. Our results demonstrate that a threshold nuclear function of v-Rel is required for manifestation of its oncogenic properties. In contrast, while increased expression of the avian IkappaB-alpha protein was able to prevent nuclear localization of v-Rel in chicken embryo fibroblasts, coexpression of IkappaB-alpha with v-Rel in the target cell for v-Rel mediated transformation did not reduce the ability of v-Rel to transform avian lymphoid cells or alter the distribution of v-Rel between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in v-Rel-transformed cells. Our results suggest that the ability of IkappaB-alpha to inhibit nuclear localization of v-Rel is affected by cell-type specific differences between fibroblasts and lymphoid cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast two-hybrid system is a powerful experimental approach for the characterization of protein/ protein interactions. A unique strength of the yeast two-hybrid system is the provision for genetic selection techniques that enable the identification of specific protein/protein interactions. We now report the development of a modified yeast two-hybrid system which enables genetic selection against a specific protein/protein interaction. This reverse two-hybrid system utilizes a yeast strain which is resistant to cycloheximide due to the presence of a mutant cyh2 gene. This strain also contains the wild-type CYH2 allele under the transcriptional control of the Gal1 promoter. Expression of the wild-type Gal4 protein is sufficient to restore growth sensitivity to cycloheximide. Growth sensitivity towards cycloheximide is also restored by the coexpression of the avian c-Rel protein and its I kappa B alpha counterpart, p40, as Gal4 fusion proteins. Restoration of growth sensitivity towards cycloheximide requires the association of c-Rel and p40 at the Gal1 promoter and correlates with the ability of the c-Rel/p40 interaction to activate expression from the Gal1 promoter. A genetic selection scheme against specific protein/protein interactions may be a valuable tool for the analysis of protein/protein interactions.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/1996; 24(17):3341-7. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association of c-Rel with the inhibitor of kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) protein regulates both cellular localization and DNA binding. The ability of v-Rel, the oncogenic viral counterpart of avian c-Rel, to evade regulation by p40, the avian IkappaB-alpha protein, contributes to v-Rel-mediated oncogenesis. The yeast two-hybrid system was utilized to dissect Rel:IkappaB-alpha interactions in vivo. We find that distinct domains in c-Rel and v-Rel are required for association with p40. Furthermore, while the ankyrin repeat domain of p40 is sufficient for association with c-Rel, both the ankyrin repeat domain and the PEST domain are required for association with v-Rel. Two amino acid differences between c-Rel and v-Rel that are principally responsible for PEST-dependent association of v-Rel with p40 were identified. These same amino acids were principally responsible for PEST-dependent cytoplasmic retention of v-Rel by p40. The presence of mutations in c-Rel that were sufficient to confer PEST-dependent association of the mutant c-Rel protein with p40 did not increase the weak oncogenicity of c-Rel. However, the introduction of these two c-Rel-derived amino acids into v-Rel markedly reduced the oncogenicity of v-Rel. Deletion of the NLS of either c-Rel or v-Rel did not abolish association with p40, but did confer PEST-dependent association of c-Rel with p40. Surprisingly, deletion of the nuclear localization signal in v-Rel did not affect oncogenicity by v-Rel. Analysis of several mutant c-Rel and v-Rel proteins demonstrated that association of Rel proteins with p40 is necessary but not sufficient for cytoplasmic retention. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that p40 regulates cellular localization of v-Rel and c-Rel by the same mechanism. Rather, these results support the hypothesis that p40 regulates cellular localization of v-Rel and c-Rel by distinct mechanisms.
Journal of Virology 06/1996; 70(5):3176-88. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: I kappa B-alpha inhibits both DNA-binding and nuclear translocation of dimeric Rel complexes that contain either the RelA or c-Rel proteins. These inhibitory functions of I kappa B-alpha proteins are regulated by both constitutive and inducible phosphorylation. We have mapped the constitutive phosphorylation sites of p40, the avian I kappa B-alpha protein, to a C-terminal acidic serine-rich region that contains four serine residues. Deletions or point mutations that significantly alter the overall negatively charged character of this region abolish association of p40 with Rel proteins in vitro. Serine-to-alanine amino acid substitutions in this region modulate the association of p40 with Rel proteins in vitro and abolish p40-mediated inhibition of DNA-binding by c-Rel. Substitution of aspartic acid residues for the phosphorylated serine residues has no effect on p40-mediated inhibition of DNA-binding. In contrast, the C-terminal acidic serine-rich region is not required for p40-mediated inhibition of nuclear translocation of Rel proteins. Our results demonstrate that p40-mediated inhibition of nuclear translocation and inhibition of DNA-binding by Rel proteins are separable functions. Our results suggest that the phosphorylation status of C-terminal serine residues of I kappa B-alpha proteins will be an important aspect of the autoregulatory feedback loop that enforces temporal control of Rel-regulated gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The promoter region of the rabbit serum amyloid A (SAA) gene contains two adjacent C/EBP and one NF-kappa B binding element. Involvement of these elements in SAA gene induction, following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of the liver, has been studied by investigating LPS-activated transcription factors and their interaction with the promoter elements of the SAA gene. Appearance of complexes in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay has indicated that DNA-binding proteins that interact with the NF-kappa B element of the SAA promoter are induced in the LPS-treated rabbit liver. Presence of RelA (p65 subunit of NF-kappa B) in these complexes was demonstrated by the ability of RelA-specific antisera to supershift the DNA-protein complexes. LPS also induced several members of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, which interacted with the C/EBP motifs of the SAA promoter. Activated C/EBP and RelA form a RelA-C/EBP heteromeric complex that associates with varying affinity to NF-kappa B and C/EBP elements of the SAA gene. Transfection assays using both transcription factor genes have demonstrated that the heteromeric complex of NF-kappa B and C/EBP is a much more potent transactivator of SAA expression than each transcription factor alone. The heteromeric complex efficiently promotes transcription from both NF-kappa B and C/EBP sites.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/1995; 270(13):7365-74. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interactions between the CCAAT box enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) and the Rel family of transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of cytokine gene expression. We have used sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography to purify a complex from avian T cells that binds to a consensus C/EBP motif. Our results provide evidence that Rel-related proteins are components of the C/EBP-DNA complex as a result of protein-protein interactions with the C/EBP proteins. A polyclonal antiserum raised against the Rel homology domain of v-Rel and antisera raised against two human RelA-derived peptides specifically induced a supershift of the C/EBP-DNA complex in mobility shift assays using the affinity-purified C/EBP. In addition, several kappa B-binding proteins copurified with the avian C/EBP complex through two rounds of sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography. The kappa B-binding proteins are distinct from the C/EBP proteins that directly contact DNA containing the C/EBP binding site. The identification of a protein complex that binds specifically to a consensus C/EBP site and contains both C/EBP and Rel family members suggests a novel mechanism for regulation of gene expression by Rel family proteins.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 11/1994; 14(10):6635-46. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the NF-kappa B/rel family of transcription factors are regulated through a trans association with members of a family of inhibitor proteins, collectively known as I kappa B proteins, that contain five to eight copies of a 33-amino-acid repeat sequence (ankyrin repeat). Certain NF-kappa B/rel proteins are also regulated by cis-acting ankyrin repeat-containing domains. The C terminus of p105NF-kappa B, the precursor of the 50-kDa subunit of NF-kappa B, contains a series of ankyrin repeats; proteolytic removal of this ankyrin domain is necessary for the manifestation of sequence-specific DNA binding and nuclear translocation of the N-terminal product. To investigate the structural requirements important for regulation of different NF-kappa B/rel family members by polypeptides containing ankyrin repeat domains, we have constructed a p59v-rel:p105NF-kappa B chimeric protein (p110v-rel-ank). The presence of C-terminal p105NF-kappa B-derived sequences in p110v-rel-ank inhibited nuclear translocation, sequence-specific DNA binding, pp40I kappa B-alpha association, and oncogenic transformation. Sequential truncation of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of p110v-rel-ank resulted in the restoration of nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and pp40I kappa B-alpha association but did not restore the oncogenic properties of p59v-rel. The presence of 67 C-terminal p105NF-kappa B-derived amino acids was sufficient to inhibit both transcriptional activation and oncogenic transformation by p59v-rel. These results support a model in which activation of gene expression by p59v-rel is required for its ability to induce oncogenic transformation.
Journal of Virology 01/1994; 67(12):7161-71. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of gene expression by members of the NF-kappa B/rel transcription factor family is a central component of signal transduction pathways utilized by many cellular processes, including lymphocyte activation, embryonic development, and oncogenesis. The members of the NF-kappa B/rel transcription factor family are regulated by association with a family of inhibitor (I kappa B) proteins (I kappa B) proteins. To address the importance of the association between rel and I kappa B proteins for oncogenesis by rel proteins, we characterized rel-I kappa B interactions in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with retroviral vectors encoding the avian c-rel (p68c-rel), v-rel (p59v-rel), and I kappa B-beta (pp40I kappa B-beta) proteins. In these experiments, the p59v-rel:pp40I kappa B-beta ratio in coinfected CEF was nearly identical to the p59v-rel:pp40I kappa B-beta ratio in v-rel-transformed cells. The avian I kappa B-beta protein, pp40I kappa B-beta, was able to associate with both the nononcogenic p68c-rel and the oncogenic p59v-rel. Association of p68c-rel with pp40I kappa B-beta in coinfected CEF resulted in inhibition of the DNA-binding activity of p68c-rel. Anti-pp40I kappa B-beta serum was able to restore DNA binding to p68c-rel in the presence of high levels of pp40I kappa B-beta, indicating that pp40I kappa B-beta functions in a trans-acting manner to inhibit DNA binding by p68c-rel. In contrast, sequence-specific DNA binding by the oncogenic v-rel protein, p59v-rel, was not abolished by pp40I kappa B-beta in coinfected CEF. Anti-pp40I kappa B-beta serum did not immunoprecipitate the p59v-rel-DNA adduct or alter the electrophoretic mobility of the p59v-rel-DNA adduct, consistent with the idea that pp40I kappa B-beta and DNA are competitive inhibitors for the same or overlapping domains on rel proteins. Internal v-rel-derived sequences were identified that are responsible for loss of pp40I kappa B-beta-mediated inhibition of DNA binding by p59v-rel. Loss of pp40I kappa B-beta-mediated inhibition of DNA binding by recombinant v/c-rel proteins was not sufficient for oncogenic activation of c-rel. Instead, removal of C-terminal c-rel-derived sequences in addition to loss of pp40I kappa B-beta-mediated inhibition of DNA binding was required for oncogenic activation of c-rel. These results demonstrate the presence of an interaction between internal and C-terminal regions of the c-rel protein that is important for the ability of c-rel to regulate the proliferation of lymphoid cells.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/1993; 13(3):1769-78. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The v-rel oncogene product from the avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T corresponds to a member of the Rel-related family of enhancer-binding proteins that includes both the mammalian 50- and 65-kDa subunits of the NF-kappa B transcription factor complex. However, in contrast to NF-kappa B, v-Rel has been shown to function as a dominant-negative repressor of kappa B-dependent transcription in many mature cell types. We now demonstrate that a highly conserved motif within the Rel homology domain of v-Rel containing a consensus protein kinase A phosphorylation site is required for DNA binding, transcriptional repression, and cellular transformation mediated by this oncoprotein. However, replacement of the serine phosphate acceptor within the protein kinase A site with an alanine did not alter any of these functions of v-Rel, suggesting that phosphorylation at this site is not central to the regulation of this oncogene product. Rather, the inactive mutations appear to identify a functional domain within v-Rel required for these various biological activities. It is notable that these same mutations do not impair the ability of v-Rel to heterodimerize with the 50-kDa subunit of NF-kappa B, suggesting that v-Rel-mediated transcriptional repression likely involves direct nuclear blockade of the kappa B enhancer rather than indirect alterations in the composition of preformed cytoplasmic NF-kappa B complexes. Paradoxically, when introduced into undifferentiated F9 cells, v-Rel functions as a kappa B-specific transcriptional activator rather than as a dominant-negative repressor. These stimulatory effects of v-Rel require both the conserved protein kinase A phosphorylation site and additional unique C-terminal sequences not needed for v-Rel-mediated repression in mature cells. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of these F9 cells restores the repressor function of v-Rel. These opposing biological actions of v-Rel occurring in cells at distinct stages of differentiation may have important implications for the mechanism of v-Rel-mediated transformation occurring in avian splenocytes.
Journal of Virology 09/1992; 66(8):5018-29. · 5.08 Impact Factor