[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are fundamental cells of the innate immune system, which, through phagocytosis and nitric oxide production, eliminate pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine if macrophages from chicken families divergently selected to high and low antibodies response differ in nitric oxide production and phagocytic capacity. Blood monocytes derived macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide and supernatant from chicken spleen lymphocytes cultured with Concanavalin A (containing chicken interferon). Nitric oxide production was evaluated in culture supernatants. Phagocytic capacity of activated and non-activated macrophages was assayed using yeasts and IgY opsonized sheep red blood cells. Activated and non-activated macrophages from the high antibodies response family produced higher nitric oxide levels, internalized more yeast and significantly more opsonized sheep red blood cells than macrophages from the low antibodies response family. Moreover, activated macrophages became more elongated and widely spread. These findings indicate that macrophages from the high antibodies response family were more active suggesting that the differences in antibody response also depend on macrophage function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to evaluate the ability of egg yolk antibody (IgY) in blocking Staphylococcus aureus growth in vitro.
Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus (ATCC 33593). Specific IgY against S. aureus was obtained from the yolks of their eggs with a carrageenan solution. IgY was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and its activity against S. aureus was tested by ELISA. A growth inhibition assay and protein concentration determination were also conducted.
ELISA indicated that the IgY was specific to the antigen; this activity was confirmed by Western blotting. The growth of S. aureus was inhibited by the specific IgY at concentrations of 1-5 microg/ml The bacteriostatic function of IgY appeared to result possibly from the interaction of IgY with surface components of S. aureus. In vitro experiments showed that the immunoglobulin from egg yolk interfered with the culture growth of the S. aureus.
These findings indicate that eggs from hens immunized with appropriate antigens are a potentially useful source of passive immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine parvovirus (CPV), cause an intestinal disease characterized by bloody diarrhea, is often fatal in puppies. The virus is
transmitted by contact with infected dogs or their feces. The virus is very stable in the environment and may survive for several
months in contaminated areas. The CPV attacks the rapidly diving cells of the bone marrow and the small intestine. Several
laboratory tests have been developed and are available for specific viral diagnosis. Where facilities are available, rapid diagnosis
can be made by electron microscopy (EM) of fecal material from cases with typical signs of disease. The virus also can be isolated
in several feline and canine cell lines such as canine and feline kidney cells, but isolation is seldom used in practice since cell
cultures are required and at least 1 week for results is required. Fecal hemagglutination-hemagglutination (HA-HI) tests have
provided a simple and rapid method for detecting virus in fecal and tissue samples and are employed by several diagnostic
laboratories, however the HA test is less sensitive than EM or enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). In this work, the laying
chickens are immunized with the canine parvovirus strain Cornell 780916-80 and the egg yolk antibody (IgY) isolated and characterized by indirect ELISA to detect canine parvovirus in feces.