[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In fungi, success of mating requires that both cells agglutinate, modify their extracellular envelopes, and fuse their plasma membranes and nuclei to produce a zygote. Here we studied the role of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dni1 protein in the cell fusion step of mating. Dni1p is a tetraspan protein bearing a conserved cystein motif similar to that present in fungal claudin-related proteins. Dni1p expression is induced during mating and Dni1p concentrates as discrete patches at the cell-cell contact area and along the mating bridge. Proper Dni1p localization depends on Fus1p, actin and integrity of lipid rafts. In dni1Delta mutants, cell differentiation and agglutination are as efficient as in the wild-type strain, but cell fusion is significantly reduced at temperatures above 25 degrees C. We found that the defect in cell fusion was not associated with an altered cytoskeleton, with an abnormal distribution of Fus1p, or with a defect in calcium accumulation, but with a severe disorganization of the plasma membrane and cell wall at the area of cell-cell contact. These results show that Dni1p plays a relevant role in co-ordinating membrane organization and cell wall remodelling during mating, a function that has not been described for other proteins in the fission yeast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokinesis is a crucial event in the cell cycle of all living cells. In fungal cells, it requires co-ordinated contraction of an actomyosin ring and synthesis of both plasmatic membrane and a septum structure that will constitute the new cell wall end. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains four essential putative (1,3)beta-d-glucan synthase catalytic subunits, Bgs1p to Bgs4p. Here we examined the function of Bgs1p in septation by studying the lethal phenotypes of bgs1(+) shut-off and bgs1Delta cells and demonstrated that Bgs1p is responsible and essential for linear (1,3)beta-d-glucan and primary septum formation. bgs1(+) shut-off generates a more than 300-fold Bgs1p reduction, but the septa still present large amounts of disorganized linear (1,3)beta-d-glucan and partial primary septa. Conversely, both structures are absent in bgs1Delta cells, where there is no Bgs1p. The septum analysis of bgs1(+)-repressed cells indicates that linear (1,3)beta-d-glucan is necessary but not sufficient for primary septum formation. Linear (1,3)beta-d-glucan is the polysaccharide that specifically interacts with the fluorochrome Calcofluor white in fission yeast. We also show that in the absence of Bgs1p abnormal septa are formed, but the cells cannot separate and eventually die.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin D (CYCD) plays an important role in cell cycle progression and reentry in response to external signals. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana CYCD4 is associated with specific cell divisions in the hypocotyl. We observed that cycd4 T-DNA insertion mutants had a reduced number of nonprotruding cells and stomata in the hypocotyl epidermis. Conversely, CYCD4 overexpression enhanced cell division in nonprotruding cell files in the upper region of the hypocotyls, where stomata are usually formed in wild-type plants. The overproliferative cells were of stomatal lineage, which is marked by the expression of the TOO MANY MOUTHS gene, but unlike the meristemoids, most of them were not triangular. Although the phytohormone gibberellin promoted stomatal differentiation in the hypocotyl, inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis did not prevent CYCD4 from inducing cell division. These results suggested that CYCD4 has a specialized function in the proliferation of stomatal lineage progenitors rather than in stomatal differentiation. We propose that CYCD4 controls cell division in the initial step of stomata formation in the hypocotyl.
The Plant Cell 05/2007; 19(4):1265-77. DOI:10.1105/tpc.106.046763 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a conserved bulk protein degradation process that is proposed to play a role in events that arise when organisms are forced to radically change their fate, including nutritional starvation, differentiation and development. In our present study, we have identified fission yeast autophagy as a bulk protein degradation process induced by the deprivation of environmental nitrogen, the effects of which are known to trigger sexual differentiation as an adaptive response. Autophagy-defective mutants were found to be sterile in the absence of environmental nitrogen, but could complete sexual differentiation when nitrogen was supplied, suggesting that the major function of autophagy is to provide a nitrogen source. In addition, the environmental nitrogen levels act as an autophagy "on/off" switch, whereas components essential for sexual differentiation were dispensable for this regulation. We propose that fission yeast autophagy functions to supply nitrogen and is activated when cells cannot access exogenous nitrogen, thus ensuring that they can adapt and subsequently propagate.
Genes to Cells 03/2007; 12(2):155-70. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2007.01041.x · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR1/ABCP) plays a critical role in cellular protection against xenobiotics as well as pharmacokinetics of drugs in our body. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) latently residing in ABCG2-drug interactions. We first established standard methods for expression of human ABCG2 in insect cells, quality control of plasma membrane samples by using electron microscopy techniques, and high-speed screening of ABCG2 inhibition with test compounds. Plasma membrane vesicles prepared from ABCG2-expressing Sf9 cells were used as a model system to measure the ATP-dependent transport of [3H]methotrexate (MTX). Forty-nine different therapeutic drugs and natural compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit ABCG2-mediated MTX transport. Based on their inhibition profiles, we performed QSAR analysis using chemical fragmentation codes deduced from the structures of test compounds. Multiple linear regression analysis delineated a relationship between the structural components and the extent of ABCG2 inhibition, allowing us to identify one set of structure-specific chemical fragmentation codes that are closely correlated with the inhibition of ABCG2 transport activity. Based on the QSAR analysis data, we predicted the potency of gefitinib to inhibit ABCG2. The validity of our QSAR-based prediction for gefitinib was examined by actual experiments. Our kinetic analysis experiments suggest that the ABCG2-ATP complex binds gefitinib. The present study provides a new strategy for analyzing ABCG2-drug interactions. This strategy is considered to be practical and useful for the molecular designing of new ABCG2 modulators.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2006; 317(3):1114-24. DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.099036 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast cells have a thick cell wall composed of an inner network of glucans and an outer layer of mannoproteins, which is difficult to penetrate with osmium tetroxide. We previously developed the sandwich technique to overcome this problem. Although the freeze-etching method allows the fracturing of cryofixed yeast cells, it has been difficult to fracture cryofixed yeast cells for examination by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The development of an alternative method of cryofixation, namely, high-pressure freezing, began in the 1960s and is now available for the electron microscopic analysis of yeast. We show here that when high-pressure freezing is combined with ultra-low temperature and low-voltage SEM using the new cryo-system, the Gatan Alto 2500 Cryo Transfer System, fractured and coated yeast samples could be quickly prepared. These samples yielded a fine fracture plane and revealed the ultrastructure of both external and internal cell components. We used this method to analyze the process of septum formation, one of the final and most important events of mitosis, and cell separation. The images we obtained provide a three-dimensional view of these processes for the first time. We also showed that high-pressure freezing in combination with immunoelectron microscopy made it possible to preserve the antigenicity, in situ localization, and behavior of the cell wall component alpha-1,3-glucan and its synthase during septum formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Journal of Electron Microscopy 05/2006; 55(2):75-88. DOI:10.1093/jmicro/dfl014 · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AtHKT1 is a sodium (Na+) transporter that functions in mediating tolerance to salt stress. To investigate the membrane targeting of AtHKT1 and its expression at the translational level, antibodies were generated against peptides corresponding to the first pore of AtHKT1. Immunoelectron microscopy studies using anti-AtHKT1 antibodies demonstrate that AtHKT1 is targeted to the plasma membrane in xylem parenchyma cells in leaves. AtHKT1 expression in xylem parenchyma cells was also confirmed by AtHKT1 promoter-GUS reporter gene analyses. Interestingly, AtHKT1 disruption alleles caused large increases in the Na+ content of the xylem sap and conversely reduced the Na+ content of the phloem sap. The athkt1 mutant alleles had a smaller and inverse influence on the potassium (K+) content compared with the Na+ content of the xylem, suggesting that K+ transport may be indirectly affected. The expression of AtHKT1 was modulated not only by the concentrations of Na+ and K+ but also by the osmolality of non-ionic compounds. These findings show that AtHKT1 selectively unloads sodium directly from xylem vessels to xylem parenchyma cells. AtHKT1 mediates osmolality balance between xylem vessels and xylem parenchyma cells under saline conditions. Thus AtHKT1 reduces the sodium content in xylem vessels and leaves, thereby playing a central role in protecting plant leaves from salinity stress.
The Plant Journal 01/2006; 44(6):928-38. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02595.x · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell separation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is achieved by the concerted action of the Eng1 endo-beta-1,3-glucanase and the Agn1 endo-alpha-1,3-glucanase, which are transported to the septum and localize to a ringlike structure that surrounds the septum. The requirements for the correct localization of both hydrolases as a ring were analyzed using green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. Targeting to the septum required a functional exocyst, because both proteins failed to localize correctly in sec8-1 or exo70delta mutants, suggesting that Agn1 and Eng1 might be two of the cargo proteins present in the vesicles that accumulate in exocyst mutants. Septins and Mid2 were also required for correct formation of a ring. In their absence, Eng1 and Agn1 were found in a disk-like structure that spanned the septum, rather than in a ring. Even though septin and mid2delta mutants have a cell separation defect, the septum and the distribution of linear beta-1,3-glucans were normal in these cells, suggesting that mislocalization of Eng1 and Agn1 might be the reason underlying the failure to separate efficiently. Thus, one of the functions of the septin ring would be to act as a positional marker for the localization of hydrolytic proteins to the medial region.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 11/2005; 16(10):4867-81. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E04-12-1114 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of tebipenem (TBM), a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates (n = 202) was compared with those of 15 reference agents. The isolates were classified into five genotypic classes after PCR
identification of abnormal pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes: (i) penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) isolates with no abnormal pbp genes (n = 34; 16.8%), (ii) genotypic penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) isolates with only an abnormal pbp2x gene [gPISP (2x)] (n = 48; 23.8%), (iii) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp1a and pbp2x genes (n = 32; 15.8%), (iv) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp2x and pbp2b genes (n = 16; 7.9%), and (v) genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP) isolates with three abnormal pbp genes (n = 72; 35.6%). The majority of the strains tested had mefA (n = 59; 29.2%) or ermB (n = 91; 45%) gene-mediating macrolide resistance. For these isolates the MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited was significantly
lower for TBM than for the reference oral antibiotics, as follows: 0.002 μg/ml for PSSP, 0.004 μg/ml for gPISP (2x), 0.016 μg/ml for gPISP (isolates with abnormal pbp1a and pbp2x genes and isolates with abnormal pbp2x and pbp2b genes), and 0.063 μg/ml for gPRSP. In addition, TBM showed excellent bactericidal activity against gPRSP isolates, which
exhibited a 3-log10 decrease within 2 h when they were incubated with a concentration greater than or equal to the MIC. Inhibition of cell wall
synthesis toward the long axis and subsequent cell lysis were observed by scanning electron microscopy after a short-term
exposure to TBM, unlike the effects seen with cephalosporins. These data suggest that TBM has potent activity against multidrug-resistant
S. pneumoniae, the causative pathogen of community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-1,3-Glucan is a cell wall component in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and is exclusive to budding yeast. We analysed the ultrastructure of the cell wall in the alpha-glucan synthase mutant mok1 and determined the role of alpha-1,3-glucan in cell wall formation of Sz. pombe. The mok1 mutant cell has an abnormal shape, with swelling at the tip or at the site of the septum. The cell wall is thicker and looser than that of wild-type cells, and the layered structure of the cell wall is broken. The glucan fibrils forming the protoplast retain a fine fibril structure, although their development into bundles is abnormal. We also report the localization of Mok1p by immunoelectron microscopy using high-pressure freeze substitution and SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labelling methods. The Mok1p is localized on the cell membrane and moves from the cell tip to the medial region during the cell cycle. These results confirm that Mok1p plays an important role in the normal construction of the cell wall and in the primary step of glucan bundle formation, and that it is required for new cell wall synthesis during vegetative growth. These findings suggest that alpha-1,3-glucan is an essential component for cell wall formation in fission yeast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the carbohydrate components of the cell wall consist of galactomannan, unlike in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We previously found that the disruption of gms1+, a gene encoding the UDP-galactose transporter required for the synthesis of galactomannan, led to the complete defect of cell surface galactosylation in Sz. pombe. The Deltagms1 strain is therefore useful for the analysis of physiological properties of galactose residues in Sz. pombe. The deletion strain of gms1+ was viable; however, itshowed an aberrant cell morphology and increased sensitivities to digestion with beta-glucanase and to various drugs, such as hygromycin B, sodium orthovanadate and Calcofluor white. A reduction of galactomannan layers of the cell wall in the Deltagms1 strain was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopic analyses. The addition of osmotic stabilizer suppressed the morphologic defect of the Deltagms1 cells, while other phenotypes were weakly suppressed. The Deltagms1 (h90) strain was incapable of sexual conjugation during nutritional starvation. These results suggest that the cell surface galactosylation is required not only for non-sexual flocculation but also for sexual conjugation in Sz. pombe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of the cell wall of Sz. pombe is known as beta-1,3-glucan, beta-1,6-glucan, alpha-1,3-glucan and alpha-galactomannan; however, the three-dimensional interactions of those macromolecules have not yet been clarified. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a three-layered structure: the outer layer is electron-dense, the adjacent layer is less dense, and the third layer bordering the cell membrane is dense. In intact cells of Sz. pombe, the high-resolution scanning electron microscope reveals a surface completely filled with alpha-galactomannan particles. To better understand the organization of the cell wall and to complement our previous studies, we set out to locate the three different types of beta-glucan by immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest that the less dense layer of the cell wall contains mainly beta-1,6-branched beta-1,3-glucan. Occasionally a line of gold particles can be seen, labelling fine filaments radiating from the cell membrane to the alpha-galactomannan layer, suggesting that some of the radial filaments contain beta-1,6-branched beta-1,3-glucan. beta-1,6-glucan is preferentially located underneath the alpha-galactomannan layer. Linear beta-1,3-glucan is exclusively located in the primary septum of dividing cells. beta-1,6-glucan only labels the secondary septum and does not co-localize with linear beta-1,3-glucan, while beta-1,6-branched beta-1,3-glucan is present in both septa. Linear beta-1,3-glucan is present from early stages of septum formation and persists until the septum is completely formed; then just before cell division the label disappears. From these results we suggest that linear beta-1,3-glucan is involved in septum formation and perhaps the separation of the two daughter cells. In addition, we frequently found beta-1,6-glucan label on the Golgi apparatus, on small vesicles and underneath the cell membrane. These results give fresh evidence for the hypothesis that beta-1,6-glucan is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system and exported to the cell membrane.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of the cell wall of Sz. pombe is known as b-1,3-glucan, b-1,6-glucan, a-1,3-glucan and a-galactomannan; however, the three-dimensional interactions of those macromolecules have not yet been clarified. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a three-layered structure: the outer layer is electron-dense, the adjacent layer is less dense, and the third layer bordering the cell membrane is dense. In intact cells of Sz. pombe, the high-resolution scanning electron microscope reveals a surface
completely filled with a-galactomannan particles. To better understand the organization of the cell wall and to complement our previous studies, we set out to locate the three different types of b-glucan by immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest that the less dense layer of the cell wall contains mainly b-1,6-branched b-1,3-glucan. Occasionally a line of gold particles can be seen, labelling fine filaments radiating from the cell membrane to the a-galactomannan layer, suggesting that some of the radial filaments contain b-1,6-branched b-1,3-glucan. b-1,6-glucan is preferentially located underneath the a-galactomannan layer. Linear b-1,3-glucan is exclusively located in the primary septum of dividing cells. b-1,6-glucan only labels the secondary septum and does not co-localize with linear b-1,3-glucan, while b-1,6-branched b-1,3-glucan is present in both septa. Linear b-1,3-glucan is present from early stages of septum formation and persists until the septum is completely formed; then just before cell division the label disappears. From these results we suggest that linear b-1,3-glucan is involved in septum formation and perhaps the separation of the two daughter cells. In addition, we frequently found b-1,6-glucan label on the Golgi apparatus, on small vesicles and underneath the cell membrane. These results give fresh evidence for the hypothesis that b-1,6-glucan is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi system and exported to the cell membrane.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the close relationship between the actin cytoskeleton and cell wall formation, the process of cell wall formation in reverting protoplasts of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cps8 actin point mutant was investigated by ultra-high-resolution low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (UHR-LVSEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The protoplast of the cps8 mutant began to form a glucan network in a unipolar manner and to secrete alpha-galactomannan. The site of cell wall formation grew in a cylindrical shape in the wild-type protoplast. The alpha-galactomannan did not fill in the intrafibrillar spaces completely, however, and the fibrils were exposed on the cell surface. UHR-LVSEM images indicated that the glucan fibrils were thin and rope-shaped, forming a looser network than the wild-type. TEM images indicated the finest fibrils were approximately 1.5 nm in diameter, the same diameter as the wild-type. These results suggest that the cps8 mutant was insufficient in developing cross-linkage with the glucan fibrils up to the wide ribbon shape as found in the wild-type [Osumi M et al. (1989) J. Electron Microsc. 38: 457-468; Osumi M (1998) Micron 29: 207-233]. These findings appear to indicate that the actin cytoskeleton controls formation of the glucan network and secretion of beta-1,6-glucan, and confirm the close relationship of the actin cytoskeleton and glucan formation.
Journal of Electron Microscopy 02/2000; 49(4):569-78. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jmicro.a023845 · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Schizosaccharomyces pombe cps8 mutant, of which the gene encodes a mutant actin with an amino acid substitution of Asp for Gly(273) [J. Ishiguro and W. Kobayashi (1996) FEBS Lett. 392, 237-241], was used to determine the role of the actin cytoskeleton in cell wall formation. In the cps8 mutant cells, atomic force microscopic and scanning electron microscopic images showed abnormal depolarized and branched morphology. Fibrous material covered a part of the surface of growing cps8 cells. Transmission electron microscopic images showed variable thickness of the cell wall due to multilayering of cell wall materials, and aberrant multisepta due to diagonal growth of the primary septum, whereas the normal primary septum grows at a right angle from the cortex. This abnormal septum formation may induce abnormality of the cell with multinuclei and/or multisepta, caused by non-separation of daughter cells. These results indicate that actin plays an important role in cell wall and septum formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on the dynamics of surface and intracellular structures during cell wall formation from the reverting protoplast of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were reviewed, and the correlation between cell wall formation and actin cytoskeleton, which is the most important conductor of the mechanism, is described in this paper. A close spatial and temporal relationship between actin cytoskeleton and cell wall formation was found by using wild type and actin point-mutant cps8 of S. pombe. Concomitant with the cell wall formation, dynamic behavior of the intracellular secretion machinery, especially the Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles, was analyzed by three-dimensional reconstruction of 40 to 80 serial sections at five reverting stages. Total reverting protoplast volume increased by 3.8 and 4.3 times at 3 and 5 h, respectively, and the volume of the Golgi apparatus in the corresponding stages increased 2.3- and 2. 5-fold over the same periods. The number of secretory vesicles also markedly increased by 3.4 and 5.8 times over that of the corresponding reverting protoplasts. Actin point-mutant cps8 cells have abnormal structure in the cell wall and septum, and the distribution pattern of the actin cytoskeleton during the reversion process was different from wild-type protoplasts. The profiles of actin showed one or two thick cables and patches in the cytoplasm which remained throughout reversion. The development of crosslinkage of the glucan fibrils which are beta-1,3-glucan in nature on the reverting protoplast surface was defective; the glucan networks consisted of thin, rope-shaped fibrils up to 30 nm in width which formed a ribbon-shape 200 nm wide in wild-type reverting protoplasts. The intrafibrillar space is not filled with amorphous particles of alpha-galactomannan in nature. The secretion machinery was seen to have a similar profile as the wild type. The above results suggest that actin cytoskeleton may control secretion of beta-1,6-glucan and other cell wall substances such as alpha-glucan and alpha-galactomannan rather than beta-1,3-glucan. Study of the role of actin cytoskeleton in the cell wall formation is contributing to the development of antifungal agents together with basic cell biology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed at investigating the continuity of the Golgi apparatus into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) irs cultured tobacco protoplasts by zinc iodide-osmium (ZTO) staining. The density of the membranes of both Golgi cisternae and the ER was, at first analysed by measuring their peak contrast on software:NIH Image 1.60. Membranes of the Golgi cisternae were differen tially densely stained when the protoplasts were immersed in the ZTO mixture for 16 h. These Golgi membranes were more dearly identified than those stained with uranyl acetate alone. After treatment with 10 μg ml−1 brefeldin A (BFA) for 3 h, the distorted Golgi cistemae became wider and longer than those in control protoplasts. The expanded cisternae were loosely organized and their tips appeared to extend into the ER. In ZIO stained sections, the density (the mean value of peak contrast) of the membranes of the Golgi cisternae elongated to the ER were the same as those of the ER after treatment of the drug for 4 h. These results indicate that the extended cistemae of the Golgi apparatus continued into the ER after 3 h treatment of BFA.
Journal of Electron Microscopy 01/1998; 47(1):93-97. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jmicro.a023565 · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An electron microscope is a powerful tool for the morphological and analytical study of materials, especially, an FE-SEM is very useful for enhancement various types of signals such as SE, BSE, X-ray and so on . In the field of material science, some characteristic features of materials are determined by fine structures of constitutes, so the demand of electron microscopically approaching is increasing. A FE-SEM, model SU8000 series shown in fig.1 has some types of detector and enables us to gain various types of signals from specimens, in which the observation under the ultra low landing voltage is useful for the outermost-surface of specimens. The SU8000 is offering the low energy and high energy filtering capability even at ultra low voltage condition as shown in Fig.2. The top detector detects low energy electron signals while the upper detector detects high energy electron signals. Furthermore, some advantages of sample preparation technique is also important and we applied a broad Ion beam milling method to some materials[2,3]. In this study, we observed the fine structure of some kinds of green materials prepared by a broad Ion beam milling method. Fig.3 shows SEM images of an anode of Li ion battery (LIB) gained by the upper and the top detectors at the landing voltage of 100V. The anode of LIB is composed of cobalt metal oxide, carbon black particles and some plastics binder. In the upper detector image (Fig.3(a)), topographic images of cobalt metal oxides(*) are clearly observed. On the other hand, in the image by the top detector (Fig.3(b)) , some further structures of cobalt metal oxide surface are observed, in which brighter area on the metal particle(→) might be the crop of metals. Fig.4 shows the images of the cathode of LIB prepared with broad Ion beam milling method. The low magnified image (Fig.4(a)) shows the wider field of cathode, in which the layer stack of the carbon graphite and void distribution are observed. The fine structures of the cathode are observed in the high magnification image (Fig.4(b)). Here, the adhesion between the graphite and the cupper electrode(←)and distribution of carbon black particles can be clearly seen. These observations emphasize that the fine structural information of the LIB is useful for the design and inspection of the products.