[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short transport peptides with a well-established ability for delivery of bioactive cargoes inside the cells both, in vitro and in vivo. CPPs enter unselectively in a wide variety of cell lines, this is a desirable property for most in vitro applications, however, in vivo e.g. in tumor models, specific targeted accumulation is required. In order to achieve tumor targeting, a known CPP, YTA4, was modified by prolonging it C-terminally with mainly negatively charged amino acids. Additionally, a matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleavage site was introduced between the CPP and the inactivating sequence. This new peptide, named NoPe, is an inactive pro-form of YTA4. It can be selectively cleaved and thereby activated by MMPs. We have conjugated an imaging agent, fluoresceinyl carboxylic acid, and a cytostatic agent methotrexate, to this activable pro-form. NoPe activation was demonstrated in vitro by recombinant MMP-2 cleavage and the cleavage of the attenuating sequence was abolished with MMP-2 specific inhibitor. Furthermore, the fluoresceinyl-NoPe is selectively accumulated in the tumor tissue in MDA-MB-231 tumor bearing mice after intravenous injection. Thus, this strategy proves to be successful for in vivo tumor imaging.
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 12/2012; 18(4). DOI:10.1007/s10989-012-9312-1 · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Finding suitable nonviral delivery vehicles for nucleic acid-based therapeutics is a landmark goal in gene therapy. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are one class of delivery vectors that has been exploited for this purpose. However, since CPPs use endocytosis to enter cells, a large fraction of peptides remain trapped in endosomes. We have previously reported that stearylation of amphipathic CPPs, such as transportan 10 (TP10), dramatically increases transfection of oligonucleotides in vitro partially by promoting endosomal escape. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether stearyl-TP10 could be used for the delivery of plasmids as well. Our results demonstrate that stearyl-TP10 forms stable nanoparticles with plasmids that efficiently enter different cell-types in a ubiquitous manner, including primary cells, resulting in significantly higher gene expression levels than when using stearyl-Arg9 or unmodified CPPs. In fact, the transfection efficacy of stearyl-TP10 almost reached the levels of Lipofectamine 2000 (LF2000), however, without any of the observed lipofection-associated toxicities. Most importantly, stearyl-TP10/plasmid nanoparticles are nonimmunogenic, mediate efficient gene delivery in vivo, when administrated intramuscularly (i.m.) or intradermally (i.d.) without any associated toxicity in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a promising group of delivery vectors for various therapeutic agents but their application is often hampered by poor stability in the presence of serum. Different strategies to improve peptide stability have been exploited, one of them being "retro-inversion" (RI) of natural peptides. With this approach the stability of CPPs has been increased, thereby making them more efficient transporters. Several RI-CPPs were here assessed and compared to the corresponding parent peptides in different cell-lines. Surprisingly, treatment of cells with these peptides induced trypsin insensitivity and rapid severe toxicity in contrast to L-peptides. This was measured as reduced metabolic activity and condensed cell nuclei, in parity with the apoptosis inducing agent staurosporine. Furthermore, effects on mitochondrial network, focal adhesions, actin cytoskeleton and caspase-3 activation were analyzed and adverse effects were evident at 20 μM peptide concentration within 4 h while parent L-peptides had negligible effects. To our knowledge this is the first time RI peptides are reported to cause cellular toxicity, displayed by decreased metabolic activity, morphological changes and induction of apoptosis. Considering the wide range of research areas that involves the use of RI-peptides, this finding is of major importance and needs to be taken under consideration in applications of RI-peptides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short nucleic acids targeting biologically important RNAs and plasmids have been shown to be promising future therapeutics; however, their hydrophilic nature greatly limits their utility in clinics and therefore efficient delivery vectors are greatly needed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are relatively short amphipathic and/or cationic peptides that are able to transport various biologically active molecules inside mammalian cells, both in vitro and in vivo, in a seemingly non-toxic fashion. Although CPPs have proved to be appealing drug delivery vehicles, their major limitation in nucleic acid delivery is that most of the internalized peptide-cargo is entrapped in endosomal compartments following endocytosis and the bioavailability is therefore severely reduced. Several groups are working towards overcoming this obstacle and this review highlights the evidence that by introducing chemical modification in CPPs, the bioavailability of delivered nucleic acids increases significantly.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 11/2009; 6(11):1195-205. DOI:10.1517/17425240903213688 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrations in splicing patterns play a significant role in several diseases, and splice correction, together with other forms of gene regulation, is consequently an emerging therapeutic target. In order to achieve successful oligonucleotide transfection, efficient delivery vectors are generally necessary. In this study we present one such vector, the chemically modified cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) TP10, for efficient delivery of a splice-correcting 2'-OMe RNA oligonucleotide. Utilizing a functional splice correction assay, we assessed the transfection efficiency of non-covalent complexes of oligonucleotides and stearylated or cysteamidated CPPs. Stearylation of the CPPs Arg9 and penetratin, as well as cysteamidation of MPG and TP10, did not improve transfection, whereas the presence of an N-terminal stearyl group on TP10 improved delivery efficiency remarkably compared to the unmodified peptide. The splice correction levels observed with stearyl-TP10 are in fact in parity with the effects seen with the commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000. However, the inherent toxicity associated with cationic lipid-based transfections can be completely eliminated when using the stearylated TP10, making this vector highly promising for non-covalent delivery of negatively charged oligonucleotides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major drawbacks with conventional cancer chemotherapy are the lack of satisfactory specificity towards tumor cells and
poor antitumor activity. In order to improve these characteristics, chemotherapeutic drugs can be conjugated to targeting
moieties e.g. to peptides with the ability to recognize cancer cells. We have previously reported that combining a tumor homing
peptide with a cell-penetrating peptide yields a chimeric peptide with tumor cell specificity that can carry cargo molecules
inside the cells. In the present study, we have used a linear breast tumor homing peptide, CREKA, in conjunction with a cell-penetrating
peptide, pVEC. This new chimeric peptide, CREKA–pVEC, is more convenient to synthesize and moreover it is better in translocating cargo molecules inside cancer cells as compared
to previously published PEGA–pVEC peptide. This study demonstrates that CREKA–pVEC is a suitable vehicle for targeted intracellular delivery of a DNA alkylating agent, chlorambucil, as the chlorambucil–peptide
conjugate was substantially better at killing cancer cells invitro than the anticancer drug alone.
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 02/2009; 15(1):11-15. DOI:10.1007/s10989-008-9156-x · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p14ARF is widely deregulated in many types of cancers and is believed to function as a failsafe mechanism, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis as cellular response to a high oncogene load. We have found that a 22-amino-acid-long peptide derived from the N-terminal part of p14ARF, denoted ARF(1-22), which has previously been shown to mimic the function of p14ARF, has cell-penetrating properties. This peptide is internalized to the same extent as the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) TP10 and dose-dependently decreases proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells. Uptake of the ARF(1-22) peptide is associated with low membrane disturbance, measured by deoxyglucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, as compared to its scrambled peptide. Also, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) binding and Hoechst staining of nuclei suggest that ARF(1-22) induces apoptosis, whereas scrambled or inverted peptide sequences have no effect. The ARF(1-22) peptide mainly translocates cells through endocytosis, and is found intact inside cells for at least 3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first time a CPP having pro-apoptopic activity has been designed from a protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is often limited by toxicity to normal cells. Therefore, an ideal anticancer drug should discriminate between normal tissue and tumors. This would require a target receptor molecule mostly present in tumors. The cyclic peptide cCPGPEGAGC (PEGA) is a homing peptide that has previously been shown to accumulate in breast tumor tissue in mice. PEGA peptide does not cross the plasma membrane per se; however, when attached to the cell-penetrating peptide pVEC, the conjugate is taken up by different breast cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, the homing capacity of the PEGA- pVEC is conserved in vivo, where the conjugate mainly accumulates in blood vessels in breast tumor tissue and, consequently is taken up. Furthermore, we show that the efficacy of the anticancer drug, chlorambucil, is increased more than 4 times when the drug is conjugated to the PEGA- pVEC chimeric peptide. These data demonstrate that combining a homing sequence with a cell-penetrating sequence yields a peptide that combines the desirable properties of the parent peptides. Such peptides may be useful in diagnostics and delivery of therapeutic agents to an intracellular location in a specific tumor target tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High molecular weight biomolecules are becoming more and more important in the development of new therapeutic drugs. However, the hydrophilic nature of such molecules creates a major limitation for their application--poor penetration through biological membranes. In 1994, a new class of peptides--cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs)--was discovered. CPPs seem to greatly facilitate the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules over the plasma membrane, both in vitro and in vivo, and show promise for therapeutic purposes. One such example--suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 protein--was shown to act as an effective inhibitor of acute inflammation in vivo owing to its successful delivery by CPPs.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology 11/2006; 6(5):509-14. DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2006.04.004 · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells are protected from the surrounding environment by plasma membrane which is impenetrable for most hydrophilic molecules. In the last 10 years cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been discovered and developed. CPPs enter mammalian cells and carry cargo molecules over the plasma membrane with a molecular weight several times their own. Known transformation methods for plant cells have relatively low efficiency and require improvement. The possibility to use CPPs as potential delivery vectors for internalisation in plant cells has been studied in the present work. We analyse and compare the uptake of the fluorescein-labeled CPPs, transportan, TP10, penetratin and pVEC in Bowes human melanoma cells and Nicotiana tabacum cultivar (cv.) SR-1 protoplasts (plant cells without cell wall). We study the internalisation efficiency of CPPs with fluorescence microscopy, spectrofluorometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). All methods indicate, for the first time, that these CPPs can internalise into N. tabacum cv. SR-1 protoplasts. Transportan has the highest uptake efficacy among the studied peptides, both in mammalian cells and plant protoplast. The internalisation of CPPs by plant protoplasts may open up a new effective method for transfection in plants.