[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In acute organophosphate poisoning the issue of special concern is the appearance of muscle fasciculations and convulsions that cannot be adequately antagonised by the use of atropine and oxime therapy. The aim of this study was to examine atidotal effect of obidoxime or HI-6 combinations with memantine in mice poisoned with soman, dichlorvos or heptenophos.
Male Albino mice were pretreated intravenously (iv) with increasing doses of oximes and/or memantine (10 mg/kg) at various times before poisoning with 1.3 LD-50 of soman, dichlorvos or heptenophos, in order to determine the median effective dose and the efficacy half-time. In a separate experiment, cerebral extravasation of Evans blue dye (40 mg/kg iv) was examined after application of memantine (10 mg/kg iv), midazolam (2.5 mg/kg intraperitonealy--ip) and ketamine (20 mg/kg ip) 5 minutes before soman (1 LD-50 subcutaneously--sc).
Coadministration of memantine induced a significant decrease in median effective dose in null time of both HI-6 (7.96 vs 1.79 gmoL/kg in soman poisoning) and obidoxime (16.80 vs 2.75 micromoL/kg in dichlorvos poisoning; 21.56 vs 6.63 micromoL/kg in heptenophos poisoning). Memantine and midazolam succeded to counteract the soman-induced proconvulsive activity.
Memantine potentiated the antidotal effect of HI-6 against a lethal dose of soman, as well as the ability of obidoxime to antagonize the toxic effects of dichlorvos and heptenophos probably partly due to its anticonvulsive properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins, such as simvastatin, lower circulating cholesterol levels and are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Several studies have shown unexpected effects of statins on inflammation. We studied the anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin using a standard model of an acute local inflammation, the carrageenan-induced footpad oedema. Experimental groups (n = 6-8) were given simvastatin in a dose range 5-30 mg/kg, indomethacin 1-8 mg/kg and methylcellulose (control) per os. Footpad volume was measured with a plethysmograph and compared with the pre-injection volume of the same paw. Swelling (in microlitres) was then calculated, and in drug-treated animals, per cent inhibition was derived through comparison with the control group. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies was performed to examine severity of paw skin lesions and to confirm the simvastatin-induced inhibition of acute inflammation. Both simvastatin and indomethacin administered orally, 1 hr before carrageenan injection, significantly reduced the extent of footpad oedema. Indomethacin dose-dependently blocked the swelling; the maximal effect was obtained with 8 mg/kg by 48.3% (P < 0.05). Simvastatin produced a comparable anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 5 mg/kg (32%), while 10 and 30 mg/kg caused a 47.6% and 51.7% reduction, respectively, with the maximal effect observed at 20 mg/kg by 57.2% (P < 0.05). The comparison of the ED(50) of these agents on molar basis showed equipotent anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological examination of the footpad skin biopsies revealed that simvastatin, dose-dependently and comparablly to indomethacin, reduced polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration. These data support the hypothesis that simvastatin has an acute anti-inflammatory activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of simvastatin applied in a short-term pretreatment on proinflammatory cytokines production in acute systemic inflammation induced by endotoxin - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats was investigated. Both LPS and simvastatin doses were established in separate experiments in which increasing doses of both compounds were given to obtain the LD(50) LPS and the maximally protective dose of simvastatin against LD(50) LPS. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect, simvastatin was given orally for 5 days, followed by a single intraperitoneal non-lethal dose of LPS (0.25 LD(50)). Plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The acute i.p. LD(50) LPS amounted to 22.15 mg/kg. Simvastatin of 20 mg/kg p.o. was maximally protective against LD(50) LPS, and this dose was used for studying its effects on LPS-induced cytokines production. Cytokines concentrations were significantly increased upon challenge of non-lethal dose of LPS. The peak levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were significantly suppressed by simvastatin, compared to control rats only treated with dimethylsulfoxide before LPS. In contrast, simvastatin did not affect IL-6 levels at all timepoints. Simvastatin pretreatment given orally produced acute anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, but no IL-6 production.
General Physiology and Biophysics 01/2009; 28 Spec No:119-26. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of organophosphorus pesticides results in toxicity risk to non-target organisms. Organophosphorus compounds share a common mode of action, exerting their toxic effects primarily via acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Consequently, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic clefts of muscles and nerves, leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Acute cholinergic crisis immediately follows exposure to organophosphate and includes signs and symptoms resulting from hyperstimulation of central and peripheral muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. The current view of the treatment of organophosphate poisoning includes three strategies, i.e. the use of an anticholinergic drug (e.g., atropine), cholinesterase-reactivating agents (e.g., oximes) and anticonvulsant drugs (e.g., benzodiazepines). Oximes, as a part of antidotal therapy, ensure the recovery of phosphylated enzymes via a process denoted as reactivation of inhibited AChE. However, both experimental results and clinical findings have demonstrated that different oximes are not equally effective against poisonings caused by structurally different organophosphorus compounds. Therefore, antidotal characteristics of conventionally used oximes can be evaluated regarding how close the certain substance is to the theoretical concept of the universal oxime. Pralidoxime (PAM-2), trimedoxime (TMB-4), obidoxime (LüH-6), HI-6 and HLö-7 have all been demonstrated to be very effective in experimental poisonings with sarin and VX. TMB-4 and LüH-6 may reactivate tabun-inhibited AChE, whereas HI-6 possesses the ability to reactivate the soman-inhibited enzyme. An oxime HLö-7 seems to be an efficient reactivator of AChE inhibited by any of the four organophosphorus warfare agents. According to the available literature, the oximes LüH-6 and TMB-4, although relatively toxic, are the most potent to induce reactivation of AChE inhibited by the majority of organophosphorus pesticides. Since there are no reports of controlled clinical trials on the use of TMB-4 in human organophosphate pesticide poisoning, LüH-6 may be a better option.
Clinical Medicine & Research 04/2007; 5(1):71-82. DOI:10.3121/cmr.2007.701
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the mechanisms of interaction of organophosphorus compounds with cholinesterases and clinical signs of acute poisoning. Further, we describe the current understanding of the mechanisms of action of pyridinium oximes pralidoxime (PAM-2), trimedoxime (TMB-4), obidoxime (LüH-6, Toxogonin), HI-6 and HLö-7 which are used as cholinesterase reactivators in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus compounds. We also review the most important literature data related to the efficacy of these oximes in the treatment of poisoning with warfare nerve agents soman, sarin, tabun, VX and cyclosarin and organophosphorus insecticides. Finally, we discuss the criteria for selection of oximes intended for further development as antidotes in poisoning with organophosphorus compounds and auto-injectors for their application in urgent situations.
European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2007; 553(1-3):10-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.09.054 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wistar rats were treated with T-2 toxin (1 LD50; 0.23 mg/kg sc) and the surviving animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after treatment. At each time, control animals were sacrificed, too. Cardiac mast cells, previously stained by Giemsa method, were analyzed in whole visual fields, magnification x40. In the present study the following quantitative morphometric parameters of cardiac mast cells were evaluated: perimeter (P), area (A) and roundness (R). In the control groups of rats the majority of mast cells were small (P = 6.86 - 7.99 mm), hypogranular (A = 11.60 -14.30 mm2) and ovoid (R = 0.60 - 0.65 mm). Mast cells, with discrete granules, hypergranular, had significantly different quantitative parameters (P = 12.80 -14.90 mm; A = 16.70 -20.00 mm2; R = 0.35 -0.38 mm). The minority of mast cells, classified as degranulated, had a large (P=20.70-23.30 mm), irregular shape (A = 24.40 -30.90 mm2) and showed degranulation (R = 0.15 - 0.21 mm). In the heart of T-2 toxin-treated rats the quantitative parametar values of hypogranular mast cells and hypergranular mast cells were similar to the control group during the whole study. However, degranulated mast cells showed a significant increase in perimeter and area values (p<0.05), while their roundness was decreased (p<0.05) in comparison to the control groups of animals. It could be concluded that the chosen quantitative morphometric parameters of cardiac degranular mast cells are useful for the evaluation of the functional status of the rats' heart during acute T-2 poisoning. .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last five decades, five pyridinium oximes were found to be worthy of use as antidotes against nerve agents in humans: pralidoxime, in a form of chloride or PAM-2 Cl and mesylate or P2S (against sarin, cyclosarin and VX), trimedoxime or TMB-4 and obidoxime or LüH-6 (both against tabun, sarin and VX), HI-6 (against sarin, soman, cyclosarin and VX) and HLö-7 (against all the five nerve agents). In order to provide the auto-injector with the best and most potent acetylcholinesterase reactivator, the Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) received in the 1990s a core funding from the federal government's CBRN research and Technology Initiative (CRTI). Its ultimate result should be three products: (1) 3-in-1 auto-injector (atropine, HI-6 dimethanesulphonate and avizafone, as anticonvulsant), (2) 2-in-1 auto-injector (atropine and HI-6 dimethanesulphonate) and (3) HI-6 dimethanesulphonate in a vial for administration by the medically trained personnel. Previous experimental and clinical experience suggests that, among the oximes mentioned, only trimedoxime and obidoxime can be used for acetylcholinesterase reactivation and antidotal protection against most of the organophosphorus insecticides. The search for an "omnipotent" oxime, effective in reactivation of AChE inhibited with both nerve agents and organophosphorus insecticides, is still ongoing.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 01/2007; 57(4):435-43. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of effective antidotes against organophosphates such as dichlorvos has been a persistent challenge over the past decades. Therapy of organophosphate poisoning is based on the administration of atropine and oxime as standard antidotes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of sodium bicarbonate to improve protective effects of standard antidotes in rats poisoned with dichlorvos. The aim of this experiment was to establish the correlation between protective effects and biochemical parameters relevant for acid-base status. In order to examine the protective effect of both standard antidotes and their combinations, groups of experimental animals were poisoned subcutaneously with increasing doses of dichlorvos. Immediately thereafter, rats were treated with atropine 10 mg/kg intramuscularly, oximes 10 mg/kg intramuscularly and sodium bicarbonate 3 mmol/kg intraperitoneally. These antidotes were administered either as single doses or in combinations. In the biochemical part of the experiments, rats were poisoned with dichlorvos 1.3 LD(50) (10.64 mg/kg) subcutaneously and immediately thereafter treated with atropine 10 mg/kg intramuscularly, oximes (trimedoxime or obidoxime) 10 mg/kg intramuscularly and sodium bicarbonate 3 mmol/kg intraperitoneally either as single doses or in combinations. Parameters relevant for acid-base status were measured 10 minutes after the administration of antidotes. The results of our study indicate that addition of sodium bicarbonate to standard antidotes significantly improves protective effects of atropine, obidoxime and trimedoxime. Correlation between protection and biochemical outcome is clearly evident when sodium bicarbonate is being added to atropine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the protective effect of methylprednisolone (soluble form Lemod-solu® and depot form, Lemod-depo®) (40 mg/kg im) on pathohistological changes in hearts of Wistar rats poisoned with T-2 toxin (0.23 mg/kg sc) was examined. Pathohistological, quantitative and morphometric analysis was based on the haematoxylin and eosin (HE) method. Animals were sacrificed after the end of day 1, 3, 5 and 7 of the study. In the hearts of poisoned animals T-2 toxin caused massive, diffuse degenerative and vascular changes associated with gross necrotic areas. The described changes could be found only sporadically in poisoned rats protected with tested methylprednisolone formulation. The best protective effect was produced by the soluble form of methylprednisolone and the least one with a combination of both tested formulations of the drug. The pathohistological alterations in the methylprednisolone protected animals varied from parenchymatous dystrophy to hyaloid degeneration, hyperaemia and haemorrhages with mononuclear cell infiltration. These histological deformations of the myocardial architecture were focal. Based on these results, it could be concluded that methylprednisolone formulations, both short and long-acting ones, exert a significant protection of rat hearts from T-2 toxin- induced pathohistological changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine antidotal potency of trimedoxime in mice poisoned with three direct dimethoxy-substituted organophosphorus inhibitors. In order to assess the protective efficacy of trimedoxime against dichlorvos, heptenophos or monocrotophos, median effective doses and efficacy half-times were calculated. Trimedoxime (24 mg/kg intravenously) was injected 5 min. before 1.3 LD50 intravenously of poisons. Activities of brain, diaphragmal and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase, as well as of plasma carboxylesterases were determined at different time intervals (10, 40 and 60 min.) after administration of the antidotes. Protective effect of trimedoxime decreased according to the following order: monocrotophos > heptenophos > dichlorvos. Administration of the oxime produced a significant reactivation of central and peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibited with dichlorvos and heptenophos, with the exception of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibited by heptenophos. Surprisingly, trimedoxime did not induce reactivation of monocrotophos-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in any of the tissues tested. These organophosphorus compounds produced a significant inhibition of plasma carboxylesterase activity, while administration of trimedoxime led to regeneration of the enzyme activity. The same dose of trimedoxime assured survival of experimental animals poisoned by all three organophosphorus compounds, although the biochemical findings were quite different.