[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) associated with MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI) in European hospitals. Between July 2007 and June 2008, a multicenter, prospective, parallel matched-cohort study was carried out in 13 tertiary care hospitals in as many European countries. Cohort I consisted of patients with MRSA BSI and cohort II of patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI. The patients in both cohorts were matched for LOS prior to the onset of BSI with patients free of the respective BSI. Cohort I consisted of 248 MRSA patients and 453 controls and cohort II of 618 MSSA patients and 1,170 controls. Compared to the controls, MRSA patients had higher 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.4) and higher hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.5). Their excess LOS was 9.2 days. MSSA patients also had higher 30-day (aOR = 2.4) and hospital (aHR = 3.1) mortality and an excess LOS of 8.6 days. When the outcomes from the two cohorts were compared, an effect attributable to methicillin resistance was found for 30-day mortality (OR = 1.8; P = 0.04), but not for hospital mortality (HR = 1.1; P = 0.63) or LOS (difference = 0.6 days; P = 0.96). Irrespective of methicillin susceptibility, S. aureus BSI has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. In addition, MRSA BSI leads to a fatal outcome more frequently than MSSA BSI. Infection control efforts in hospitals should aim to contain infections caused by both resistant and susceptible S. aureus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study determined excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) attributable to bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Europe.
A prospective parallel matched cohort design was used. Cohort I consisted of patients with third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli BSI (REC) and cohort II consisted of patients with third-generation-cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli BSI (SEC). Patients in both cohorts were matched for LOS before infection with patients free of the respective BSI. Thirteen European tertiary care centres participated between July 2007 and June 2008.
Cohort I consisted of 111 REC patients and 204 controls and cohort II consisted of 1110 SEC patients and 2084 controls. REC patients had a higher mortality at 30 days (adjusted odds ratio = 4.6) and a higher hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.7) than their controls. LOS was increased by 8 days. For SEC patients, these figures were adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, adjusted hazard ratio = 2.0 and excess LOS = 3 days. A 2.5 times [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9-6.8] increase in all-cause mortality at 30 days and a 2.9 times (95% CI 1.2-6.9) increase in mortality during entire hospital stay as well as an excess LOS of 5 days (95% CI 0.4-10.2) could be attributed to resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in E. coli BSI.
Morbidity and mortality attributable to third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli BSI is significant. If prevailing resistance trends continue, high societal and economic costs can be expected. Better management of infections caused by resistant E. coli is becoming essential.