[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
This randomized, controlled clinical trial compared the effect of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) to that of specialist supportive care (SSC) on depressive outcomes (primary), social functioning, and mania outcomes over 26–78 weeks in young people with bipolar disorder receiving psychopharmacological treatment.Methods
Subjects were aged 15–36 years, recruited from a range of sources, and the patient groups included bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Exclusion criteria were minimal. Outcome measures were the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation and the Social Adjustment Scale. Paired-sample t-tests were used to determine the significance of change from baseline to outcome period. Analyses of covariance were used to determine the impact of therapy, impact of lifetime and current comorbidity, interaction between comorbidity and therapy, and impact of age at study entry on depression.ResultsA group of 100 participants were randomized to IPSRT (n = 49) or SSC (n = 51). The majority had bipolar I disorder (78%) and were female (76%), with high levels of comorbidity. After treatment, both groups had improved depressive symptoms, social functioning, and manic symptoms. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between therapies. There was no impact of lifetime or current Axis I comorbidity or age at study entry. There was a relative impact of SSC for patients with current substance use disorder.ConclusionsIPSRT and SSC used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy appear to be effective in reducing depressive and manic symptoms and improving social functioning in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder and high rates of comorbidity. Identifying effective treatments that particularly address depressive symptoms is important in reducing the burden of bipolar disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:Binocular rivalry refers to a situation where contradictory information is presented simultaneously to the same location of each eye. This leads to the alternation of images every few seconds. The rate of alternation between images has been shown to be slower in euthymic participants with bipolar disorder than in healthy controls. The alternation rate is not uniformly slowed in bipolar disorder patients and may be influenced by clinical variables. The present study examined whether bipolar disorder patients have slower alternation rates, examined the influence of depression and explored the role of clinical variables and cognitive functions on alternation rate.Method:Ninety-six patients with bipolar disorder and 24 control participants took part in the study. Current mood status and binocular rivalry performance were analysed with nonparametric tests. A slow and a normal alternation group were created by median split. We subsequently explored the distribution of several clinical variables across these groups. Further, we investigated associations between alternation rate and various cognitive functions, such as visual processing, memory, attention and general motor speed.Results:The median alternation rate was significantly slower for participants with bipolar disorder type I (0.39 Hz) and for participants with bipolar spectrum disorder (0.43 Hz) than for control participants (0.47 Hz). Depression had no effect on alternation rate. There were no differences between participants with bipolar disorder type I and type II and in regard to medication regime and predominance of one rivalry image. There were also no differences in regard to the clinical variables and no significant associations between alternation rate and the cognitive functions explored.Conclusion:We replicated a slowing in alternation rate in some bipolar disorder participants. The alternation rate was not affected by depressed mood or any of the other factors explored, which supports views of binocular rivalry rates as a trait marker in bipolar disorder.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 01/2013; 47(4). DOI:10.1177/0004867412474105 · 3.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify interventions that improve medication adherence in bipolar disorder.
A review of the literature from 2004 to 2011 was conducted using Medline and manual searching.
Eleven studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Five studies demonstrated improved medication adherence. No characteristics of the interventions, clinical characteristics of the groups or methodological factors distinguished those psychosocial interventions that demonstrated improvement from those that did not.
While only a few interventions improved adherence, most improved clinical outcomes. Issues were also identified about the way in which adherence is defined. It is proposed that incorporating patient preferences into measures of adherence within the context of a disorder-specific psychosocial intervention may provide an approach that demonstrates both improved adherence and improved clinical outcomes. However this requires further research.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 04/2012; 46(4):317-26. DOI:10.1177/0004867411428101 · 3.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: inder m, crowe m, moor s, carter j, luty s & joyce p (2011) Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness 3, 427–435 ‘It wouldn’t be me if I didn’t have bipolar disorder’: managing the shift in self-identity with bipolar disorder
Aims and objectives. To explore how bipolar disorder is integrated into one’s sense of self and identity.
Method. Two case studies are drawn from a larger randomised controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bipolar disorder. Data were collected during 18 months of psychotherapy from 2006 to 2009. The study used a purposive sampling process by selecting two cases from different developmental stages and age of onset of mood disorder. The case studies address the questions: How does bipolar disorder impact on one’s sense of self? and how do two people from different age groups integrate bipolar disorder into their identity? The material was drawn from therapy sessions that were taped, transcribed and analysed.
Results. Bipolar disorder created confusing contradictory experiences of self, compounded by the external consequences on relationships, how others viewed them, and disruptions in areas such as education and work. Self-acceptance encompassed a process reflecting ambivalence, experiencing grief and loss and acknowledging limitations. Shift in self-identity was reflected in seeing illness as a part of self, having a self grounded in reality and actively reengaging in life. Different emphasises in the cases reflected different developmental perspectives and age of onset of illness.
Conclusions. Attention to the impact of chronic illness such as bipolar on self and identity is important to help people make sense of and integrate their experiences of the illness, facilitate increased acceptance and enabling a shift in self-identity that incorporates the illness as outlined in the facilitating shift in identity framework.
Relevance to clinical practice. Managing the shift in identity is an important component of successful self-management of chronic illness. Finding ways to help facilitate a positive shift in identity that incorporates the illness is necessary. The facilitating shift in identity framework may be useful in clinical practice to guide this process.
Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness 12/2011; 3(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01117.x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is (1) to assess the feasibility of delivering nurse-led specialist supportive care as an adjunct to usual care in the clinical setting; (2) to examine the relationship between the delivery of specialist supportive care and improved self-efficacy and functioning and reduced depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of specialist supportive care as an adjunct to usual care was conducted in community mental health services at one site. Participants were randomized to either usual care or usual care and the adjunctive intervention. Self-report measures of depression, general functioning and self-efficacy were completed by participants in both groups at baseline and 9 months. The intervention was delivered parallel to usual treatment arrangements. While recruitment numbers were sufficient, a low rate of engagement meant we were unable to show significant differences in depressive symptoms or self-efficacy between the usual care group and the specialist supportive care plus usual care group. This study demonstrated that it was difficult to engage patients with bipolar disorder in specialist supportive care when they were currently in a mood episode and under the care of community mental health services.
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 09/2011; 19(5):446-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2011.01822.x · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent disorder with fluctuating symptoms. Few patients with bipolar disorder experience a simple trajectory of clear-cut episodes, with recovery typically occurring slowly over time. The chronic and disabling course of the disorder has a marked impact on the person's functioning and relationships with others. The objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of bipolar disorder on the lives of people diagnosed with this disorder. The method used was a general inductive qualitative approach. Twenty-one participants were interviewed between 2008 and 2009 about how they had experienced the impact of bipolar disorder. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. The core theme that emerged was the participants were feeling out of control. Their own reactions and the reactions of others to the symptoms of bipolar disorder contributed to this core theme. The core theme was constituted by feeling overwhelmed, a loss of autonomy and felling flawed. Mental health nurses can help facilitate a sense of personal control for people with bipolar disorder by exploring what the symptoms mean for that person and implementing strategies to manage the symptoms, address social stigma and facilitate active involvement in treatment.
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 09/2011; 19(4):294-302. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2011.01786.x · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to examine parental views on the onset of symptoms, impact on functioning and meanings attributed to their child's bipolar disorder. Early onset bipolar disorder impacts on development and functioning across multiple domains. Psychosocial disability fluctuates in parallel with changes in affective symptoms and may significantly affect family members. This study utilized descriptive statistical data and qualitative data from parental self-reports of 85 participants in a trial of psychotherapy for young people (15-34 years) with bipolar disorder. A content analysis was conducted on the written self-reports. Most parents identified the onset of depressive symptoms in their child by early adolescence, but it was not until late adolescence, or later, that parents noted symptoms of mania. The onset of symptoms during a crucial period of development had a considerable impact on social and occupational functioning. Without prompting, the parents took the opportunity to attempt to make sense of the diagnosis by attributing its onset to childhood adversity, parenting or substance misuse. Parents often blame themselves for the development of bipolar disorder in their child. Nursing care for clients with bipolar disorder could include interventions for the family to help them understand and manage the disorder. Such interventions could include: psycho-education, communication enhancement and problem-solving skills training.
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 05/2011; 18(4):342-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2010.01673.x · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As with other long-term conditions patients with bipolar disorder are rarely totally adherent or non-adherent. Rates of non-adherence have not changed since the first introduction of psychotropic medications in the 1950s despite vast numbers of new compounds being marketed. Non-adherence with medication in bipolar disorder is associated with affective relapse and consequently poor quality of life. The reasons that patients are non-adherent with medication are not well understood by clinicians who often assume it is related to the illness itself.
To identify patients' perceptions of medication adherence in bipolar disorder.
An integrated review of the literature published between 1999 and 2010.
Ovid (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO) and manual searching.
An integrative review of the literature was conducted which included: (a) problem formation, (b) literature search and initial screening, (c) gathering data from studies, (d) evaluating study quality, (e) data analysis and integration, (f) data interpretation, and (g) presentation of the findings.
Thirteen articles met criteria for inclusion in the review. These articles identified how patients reported their perceptions on medication and were integrated into four categories: illness factors, personal attitudes and beliefs, medication factors and environmental factors.
These findings suggest a need to address adherence from the full range of influencing factors (patient, illness, medication and environmental). Clinicians need to utilise a collaborative approach to working together with patients in order to identify the meaning that patients attribute to the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and medication. Understanding patients' perceptions and accepting these may facilitate greater medication adherence and the consequent improved clinical outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder.
International journal of nursing studies 04/2011; 48(7):894-903. DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.03.008 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To systematically review the evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder and examine the implications for mental health nursing practice.
Bipolar disorder is associated with significant psychosocial impairment and high use of mental health services. Generally medication is effective in the treatment of acute episodes but there is increasing evidence that while a large majority of patients recover from these episodes of mania and/or depression, many do not achieve a functional recovery. In response a range of psychotherapies have either been adapted or developed.
An extensive review of the literature was performed using Medline, Cinahl and PsycINFO databases and 35 relevant research studies were chosen that met inclusion criteria.
All the identified psychosocial interventions were structured, adhered to manualized protocols and had solid evidence demonstrating their effectiveness when used as an adjunct to psychopharmacology. The identified psychosocial interventions all incorporated some features of a psycho-education including developing an acceptance of the disorder, awareness of its prodromes and signs of relapse, and communication with others; and several emphasise regular sleep and activity habits.
Mental health nurses have an important role to play in integrating psychosocial interventions into their clinical practice settings and in conducting high quality trials of their clinical effectiveness. Nurses are well-positioned to lead pragmatic trials of the clinical effectiveness of these psychosocial interventions in mental health services because of their experience and expertise in working with patients with bipolar disorder.
International journal of nursing studies 03/2010; 47(7):896-908. DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.02.012 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Questioning a diagnosis of bipolar disorder is not surprising given the chronic and fluctuating nature of the illness. Qualitative research using thematic analysis was used to derive an understanding of the process patients used to make sense of their diagnosis of bipolar disorder. The findings suggested that receiving a diagnosis was an active process. Factors such as fluctuating moods, changing diagnoses or misdiagnosis, difficulties patients have differentiating self from illness, mistrust in mental health services, and experiences of negative side effects of medication can contribute to ambivalence about the diagnosis and lead to relapse. These findings highlight the need for clinicians to focus on patients' perceptions of bipolar disorder and work with the ambivalence in the process of facilitating greater acceptance. This has the potential for reducing relapses through increased adherence with treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case study explains how a psychotherapy previously used with adults can be used with adolescents by focusing on the specific developmental issues associated with adolescence.
Bipolar disorder is a damaging disorder to experience during the developmental phase of adolescence. Interpersonal social rhythm psychotherapy has been developed as an adjunct to medication for managing bipolar disorder and shows some promising outcomes in adults.
This is a single case study design drawn from a larger randomised control trial of two psychotherapies for bipolar disorder. The case study addressed the question: How can Interpersonal social rhythm therapy be applied with adolescents who have bipolar disorder?
This study used a purposeful sampling process by selecting the youngest adolescent participating in the randomised control trial. All the subject's sessions of Interpersonal social rhythm therapy were taped, transcribed and analysed. The analysis involved describing the process of psychotherapy as it occurred over time, mapping the process as a trajectory across the three phases of psychotherapy experience and focusing the analysis around the impact of bipolar disorder and IPSRT on adolescent developmental issues, specifically the issue of identity development.
Interpersonal social rhythm therapy allowed the therapist to address developmental issues within its framework. As a result of participation in the psychotherapy the adolescent was able to manage her mood symptoms and develop a sense of identity that was age-appropriate.
Interpersonal social rhythm therapy provided the adolescent in the case study the opportunity to consider what it meant to have bipolar disorder and to integrate this meaning into her sense of self.
Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurring disorder that can have a serious impact on development and functioning. Interpersonal social rhythm therapy provides an approach to nursing care that enables adolescents to improve social functioning.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of patients with bipolar disorder have onset prior to twenty years with early onset associated with increased impairment. Despite this, little attention has been given to the psychosocial developmental impact of this disorder. This qualitative study explored the impact of having bipolar disorder on the development of a sense of self and identity. Key findings from this qualitative study identified that for these participants, bipolar disorder had a significant impact in the area of self and identity development. Bipolar disorder created experiences of confusion, contradiction, and self doubt which made it difficult for these participants to establish continuity in their sense of self. Their lives were characterized by disruption and discontinuity and by external definitions of self based on their illness. Developing a more integrated self and identity was deemed possible through self-acceptance and incorporating different aspects of themselves. These findings would suggest that it is critical to view bipolar disorder within a psychosocial developmental framework and consider the impact on the development of self and identity. A focus on the specific areas of impact and targeting interventions that facilitate acceptance and integration thus promoting self and identity development would be recommended.