[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder with distinct facies, growth failure, intellectual disability, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal and neurological disease. Mutations in NIPBL, encoding a cohesin regulatory protein, account for more than 80% of cases with typical facies. Mutations in the core cohesin complex proteins, encoded by the SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21 genes, together account for ∼5% of subjects, often with atypical CdLS features. Recently, we identified mutations in the X-linked gene HDAC8 as the cause of a small number of CdLS cases. Here we report a cohort of 35 individuals with an emerging spectrum of features caused by HDAC8 mutations. For several individuals, the diagnosis of CdLS was not considered prior to genomic testing. Most mutations identified are missense and de novo. Many cases are heterozygous females, each with marked skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood DNA. We also identified eight hemizygous males who are more severely affected. The craniofacial appearance caused by HDAC8 mutations overlaps that of typical CdLS but often displays delayed anterior fontanelle closure, ocular hypertelorism, hooding of the eyelids, a broader nose and dental anomalies, which may be useful discriminating features. HDAC8 encodes the lysine deacetylase for the cohesin subunit SMC3 and analysis of the functional consequences of the missense mutations indicates that all cause a loss of enzymatic function. These data demonstrate that loss of function mutations in HDAC8 cause a range of overlapping human developmental phenotypes, including a phenotypically distinct subgroup of CdLS.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myopia is by far the most common human eye disorder that is known to have a clear, albeit poorly defined, heritable component. In this study, we describe an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by high myopia and sensorineural deafness. Our molecular investigation in 3 families led to the identification of 3 homozygous nonsense mutations (p.R181X, p.S297X, and p.Q414X) in SLIT and NTRK-like family, member 6 (SLITRK6), a leucine-rich repeat domain transmembrane protein. All 3 mutant SLITRK6 proteins displayed defective cell surface localization. High-resolution MRI of WT and Slitrk6-deficient mouse eyes revealed axial length increase in the mutant (the endophenotype of myopia). Additionally, mutant mice exhibited auditory function deficits that mirrored the human phenotype. Histological investigation of WT and Slitrk6-deficient mouse retinas in postnatal development indicated a delay in synaptogenesis in Slitrk6-deficient animals. Taken together, our results showed that SLITRK6 plays a crucial role in the development of normal hearing as well as vision in humans and in mice and that its disruption leads to a syndrome characterized by severe myopia and deafness.
The Journal of clinical investigation 04/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present three consecutive cases of skeletal dysplasias of a non-consanguineous couple with five pregnancies. The diagnosis of short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) was feasible by ultrasound during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. SRPS represents a heterogeneous group of lethal skeletal dysplasias. It is characterised by short limb dwarfism complicated by thoracic hypoplasia, polydactyly and different anomalies of major organs such as congenital heart defects and renal dysplasia. Four major types of the SRPS have been described: type I (Saldino-Noonan); type II (Majewski); type III (Verma-Naumoff) and type IV (Beemar-Langer). However, there is phenotypic overlapping between four types and with those of non-lethal skeletal dysplasias (i.e. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and Jeune syndrome). Our cases show the importance of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan that offers the opportunity to examine fetal anatomy in the 1st trimester and diagnose rare skeletal abnormalities early in pregnancy.
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology: the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 01/2013; 33(1):14-6. · 0.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Greek population of Epirus, exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occur at a high prevalence. In this study, we validate a novel lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) genotyping method, investigate the previously reported association of LOXL1 with XFS/XFG, and evaluate apolipoprotein E (APOE) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms as genetic risk factors for both conditions in our population.
Blood samples were collected from 82 patients with XFG, 69 patients with XFS, 52 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and 107 controls. APOE and MTHFR 677C>T genotyping was performed from extracted genomic DNA with established methods. A novel methodology of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis was developed and validated to accurately genotype the LOXL1 G153D and R141L polymorphisms by using two different fluorescent channels of the LightCycler instrument (Roche) examining each SNP separately.
No significant differences were observed for the APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms between the patients with XFS, the patients with XFG, and the control subjects. The APOE ε2 allele appears to be associated with elevated risk of POAG in our population. Our novel LOXL1 genotyping method was easy to perform, fast, and accurate. A statistically significant association was found for the LOXL1 gene with XFS/XFG in this Greek population. The association of XFS and XFG with G153D appeared to be less powerful in this population (XFS: odds ratio [OR]=2.162, p=0.039, XFG: OR=2.794, p=0.002) compared to other populations, and for R141L, the association was proven only with XFG (OR=3.592, p<0.001). Neither of the two LOXL1 SNPs was significantly associated with POAG.
We confirmed the association between LOXL1 and XFS/XFG, but the APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms are not significant risk factors for the development of XFS/XFG in our population of patients from Epirus (Greece).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominantly inherited congenital malformation disorder, caused by mutations in the cohesin-loading protein NIPBL for nearly 60% of individuals with classical CdLS, and by mutations in the core cohesin components SMC1A (~5%) and SMC3 (<1%) for a smaller fraction of probands. In humans, the multisubunit complex cohesin is made up of SMC1, SMC3, RAD21 and a STAG protein. These form a ring structure that is proposed to encircle sister chromatids to mediate sister chromatid cohesion and also has key roles in gene regulation. SMC3 is acetylated during S-phase to establish cohesiveness of chromatin-loaded cohesin, and in yeast, the class I histone deacetylase Hos1 deacetylates SMC3 during anaphase. Here we identify HDAC8 as the vertebrate SMC3 deacetylase, as well as loss-of-function HDAC8 mutations in six CdLS probands. Loss of HDAC8 activity results in increased SMC3 acetylation and inefficient dissolution of the ‘used’ cohesin complex released from chromatin in both prophase and anaphase. SMC3 with retained acetylation is loaded onto chromatin, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis demonstrates decreased occupancy of cohesin localization sites that results in a consistent pattern of altered transcription seen in CdLS cell lines with either NIPBL or HDAC8 mutations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare (1/40,000) autosomal dominant disorder resulting from melanocyte defects, with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four clinical subtypes (WS1-S4). Six genes have been identified to be associated with the different subtypes of WS, among which SOX10, which is localized within the region 22q13.1. Lately it has been suggested that whole SOX10 gene deletions can be encountered when testing for WS. In this study we report a case of a 13-year-old boy with a unique de novo 725 kb deletion within the 22q13.1 chromosomal region, including the SOX10 gene and presenting clinical features of a neurologic variant of WS2.
European journal of medical genetics 07/2012; 55(11):641-5. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) probe set is presented, and its possible applications are highlighted in 25 clinical cases. The so-called heterochromatin-M-FISH (HCM-FISH) probe set enables a one-step characterization of the large heterochromatic regions within the human genome. HCM-FISH closes a gap in the now available mFISH probe sets, as those do not normally cover the acrocentric short arms; the large pericentric regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16; as well as the band Yq12. Still, these regions can be involved in different kinds of chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, insertions, inversions, amplifications, and marker chromosome formations. Here, examples are given for all these kinds of chromosomal aberrations, detected as constitutional rearrangements in clinical cases. Application perspectives of the probe set in tumors as well as in evolutionary cytogenetic studies are given.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 04/2012; 60(7):530-6. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetrasomy 9p is a rare chromosomal syndrome and about 30% of known cases exhibit mosaicism. Approximately 50 of the reported cases with tetrasomy 9p mosaicism show a characteristic facial appearance, growth failure, and developmental delay. However, 3 patients with mosaicism for isochromosome 9p and a normal phenotype have also been reported. We report 2 additional cases of clinically normal young females with tetrasomy 9p mosaicism, one of whom also exhibited X chromosome aneuploidy mosaicism leading to an overall of 6 different cell lines. STR analysis performed on this complex mosaic case indicated that the extra isochromosome was of maternal origin while the X chromosome aneuploidy was of paternal origin, indicating a postzygotic event.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 04/2012; 136(4):237-41. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 04/2012; 76(7):969-71. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Connexins (Cxs) are membrane-spanning proteins that co-assemble into intercellular gap junction channels. Gap junction channels mediate electrical and biochemical communication between adjacent cells and play vital roles as mediators of intercellular molecular signaling. Cx-linked deafness highlights the key role of gap junctions in the physiological processes of hearing. Co-localization of Cxs with the gap junction system in the inner ear suggests a role in cochlear electrolyte homeostasis. During auditory transduction, they are proposed to maintain membrane potentials by regulating the flow of potassium ions between the sensory epithelia of the inner ear.
Clinical and molecular genetic methods were employed in a Greek proband presenting with bilateral, postlingual, non-syndromic, sensorineural deafness.
We detected a novel c.292C>T (p.R98W) mutation in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene.
Although mutations in the GJB2 gene usually cause prelingual, severe to profound deafness, compound heterozygosity of the novel c.292C>T (p.R98W) and the c.35delG GJB2 mutations appears to be the cause of postlingual, moderate, sensorineural deafness in our proband.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 02/2012; 76(4):549-51. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional approaches for the classification of Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes (sSMC), mostly based on FISH techniques, are time-consuming and not always sufficient to fully understand the true complexity of this class of rearrangements. We describe four supernumerary marker chromosomes that, after array-CGH, were interpreted rather differently in respect to the early classification made by conventional cytogenetics and FISH investigations, reporting two types of complex markers which DNA content was overlooked by conventional approaches: 1. the sSMC contains non-contiguous regions of the same chromosome and, 2. the sSMC, initially interpreted as a supernumerary del(15), turns out to be a derivative 15 to which the portion of another chromosome was attached. All are likely derived from partial trisomy rescue events, bringing further demonstration that germline chromosomal imbalances are submitted to intense reshuffling during the embryogenesis, leading to unexpected complexity and changing the present ideas on the composition of supernumerary marker chromosomes.
European journal of medical genetics 01/2012; 55(3):185-90. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV) is characterized by migrating red patches resembling a geographical map, and by localized or generalized hyperkeratosis with scaling of the skin. The onset is usually at birth or during infancy, and the disease persists throughout life. EKV is mainly inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, although recessive transmission has occasionally been reported. Mutations associated with EKV have been identified in the connexin (Cx) genes GJB3 (Cx31) and GJB4 (Cx30.3), however, several cases of EKV have been tested negative for mutations in these two Cx genes. Here, we report our findings of the clinical, histological, and molecular examinations performed in two unrelated sporadic cases of EKV. The molecular screening involved bidirectional sequencing of the coding regions of the GJB3 and GJB4 genes and revealed the existence of a novel c.295G>A missense variant in the GJB4 gene found in homozygosity in one case. The substitution was found to result in a p.E99K change of the Cx30.3 protein, an alteration predicted to have a benign rather than a damaging effect on the protein function.
European journal of dermatology: EJD 01/2012; 22(2):182-6. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 13q-syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 with variable phenotypic presentation. Further sonographic features involve fetal growth restriction, bradycardia, encephalocele, facial dysmorphism and upper extremity deformity. We report a case of 13q-syndrome presenting as increased nuchal translucency diagnosed by chromosome studies and confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy was terminated at 14 weeks' gestation. The parents did not give consent for a postmortem examination. Furthermore we performed a systematic review of the international literature on previous cases of 13q-syndrome diagnosed prenatally. Our case emphasizes the importance of a detailed 11-14 week ultrasound assessment in diagnosing fetal chromosomal aberrations in combination with the modern aspects of array CGH, thus providing more precise and rapid prenatal diagnosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is currently defined as a disturbance of the structural or functional integrity of the optic nerve that causes characteristic atrophic changes in the optic nerve, which may lead to specific visual field defects over time. This disturbance usually can be arrested or diminished by adequate lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma can be divided roughly into two main categories, 'open angle' and 'closed angle' glaucoma. Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice loss of vision until the disease has progressed significantly. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is described distinctly as a multifactorial optic neuropathy that is chronic and progressive with a characteristic acquired loss of optic nerve fibers. Such loss develops in the presence of open anterior chamber angles, characteristic visual field abnormalities, and IOP that is too high for the healthy eye. It manifests by cupping and atrophy of the optic disc, in the absence of other known causes of glaucomatous disease. Several biological markers have been implicated with the disease. The purpose of this study was to summarize the current knowledge regarding the non-genetic molecular markers which have been predicted to have an association with POAG but have not yet been validated.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 01/2012; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on an intellectually disabled girl with a de novo satellited chromosome 10 (10qs) and performed a review of the literature of the non-acrocentric satellited chromosomes (NASC). Satellites and stalks normally occur on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes; however, the literature cites several reports of satellited non-acrocentric chromosomes, which presumably result from a translocation with an acrocentric chromosome. This is, to our knowledge, the third report of a 10qs chromosome. The phenotype observed in the proband prompted a search for a structural rearrangement of chromosome 10q. By microsatellite analysis we observed a 4 Mb deletion on the long arm of chromosome 10, approximately 145 kb from the telomere. FISH and array CGH analyses revealed a complex rearrangement involving in range from the centromere to the telomere: A 9.64 Mb 10q26.11-q26.2 duplication, a 1.3 Mb region with no copy number change, followed by a 5.62 Mb 10q26.2-q26.3 deletion and a translocation of satellite material. The homology between the repeat sequences at 10q subtelomere region and the sequences on the acrocentric short arms may explain the origin of the rearrangement and it is likely that the submicroscopic microdeletion and microduplication are responsible for the abnormal phenotype in our patient. The patient presented here, with a 15-year follow-up, manifests a distinct phenotype different from the 10q26 pure distal monosomy and trisomy syndromes.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2011; 155A(11):2841-54. · 2.30 Impact Factor