Loïc Lang-Lazdunski

King's College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (69)283.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of thoracotomy and decortication (T/D) in achieving lung re-expansion in patients with Stage III empyema and assess the impact of culture-positive empyema on the outcome of decortication. This is a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients treated with T/D over a 6-year period. A total of 107 consecutive patients were identified. The median age was 55 (range 16-86) years; of which, 86% were male. The median length of hospital stay was 9 (range 2-45) days. Full lung re-expansion was achieved in 86% of cases. There were no postoperative deaths. Pleural cultures were positive in 56 (52%) cases. Patients with culture-positive empyema had a longer duration of pleural drainage (median of 11 days, range 3-112 versus median of 5 days, range 3-29 days for negative culture; P = 0.0004), longer length of hospital stay (median of 11 days, range 4-45 versus median of 7 days, range 2-34 days; P = 0.0002) and more complications (P = 0.0008), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcome of surgery, i.e. lung re-expansion versus trapped lung (P = 0.08) between the two groups. T/D is safe and achieved lung re-expansion in the majority of patients. Culture-positive empyema was associated with worse outcomes.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 03/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Loic Lang-Lazdunski
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a fatal cancer developing in the pleural cavity, linked to asbestos exposure. Various therapies have been tried in the past 50 years including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and more recently, targeted therapy. Radical surgery remains controversial in malignant pleural mesothelioma and two procedures have been offered in the past to obtain maximal cytoreduction: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Despite growing evidence that EPP might be detrimental, many believe that radical surgery should still be part of multimodality therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Recent evidence suggests that P/D is well tolerated and produces low mortality and morbidity. The role of adjuvant intrapleural therapies remains to be determined and evaluated in large prospective trials. Pleurectomy/decortication does not jeopardize the chance of having chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy either. Many now believe that it should be the default procedure in multimodality regimens. However, this remains to be proven in a large randomized trial. Palliative surgery still has an important role to play in mesothelioma, in establishing or refining diagnosis and in controlling symptoms and improving quality of life in many patients whose life expectancy is limited. Recent progress in molecular analyses and biomarkers should help with patient selection for surgery, immunotherapy and systemic therapies in the near future.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 02/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Loic Lang-Lazdunski
    Lung Cancer. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives to evaluate the long-term results of pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine, prophylactic chest wall radiotherapy (21 Gy) and systemic chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods Retrospective cohort study of patients having surgery between January 2004 and December 2013. All patients received prophylactic radiotherapy postoperatively and all were supposed to receive systemic chemotherapy, either preoperatively or as adjuvant therapy. Patients were reviewed at 30 days, then followed up 6-monthly. 18-FDG-PET-CT was used routinely to diagnose disease recurrence. Second-line therapies were administered when appropriate. Survival and prognostic factors were analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results One hundred and two patients had P/D followed by prophylactic radiotherapy and were referred for adjuvant chemotherapy. Median age at operation was 64 years. Eighty one patients (79.4%) were male. Fifty seven patients (55.9 %) had complete macroscopic resection. 30-day mortality was nil and 30 patients (29.4%) experienced postoperative complications. Seventy-three patients had epithelioid mesothelioma (71.5 %). Sixty eight patients (66.6%) had N0 disease. Ninety-six patients (94.1 %) received the planned 4-6 chemotherapy cycles. At last follow-up, 49 patients were alive. Univariate analysis showed no significant difference when sex, age > 70, nodal status, or prior chemotherapy were considered. The overall median survival was 32 months and 5-year survival was 23.1%. Median survival and 5-years survival rates were 35.0 months and 30.7% for epithelioid mesothelioma and 15. months and 7 % for non-epitheliod mesothelioma, respectively (p=0.0001). Median survival was 45.0 months for R0-R1 resection versus 17.4 months for R2 resection (p=0.0001). Conclusion Pleurectomy/decortication, hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine, prophylactic chest wall radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy is a safe and well tolerated multi-modality therapy.
    The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is the recommended treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC), except in stage I disease where clinical guidelines state there may be a role for surgery based on favourable outcomes in case series. Evidence supporting adjuvant chemotherapy in resected SCLC is limited but this is widely offered. Data on 359 873 patients who were diagnosed with a first primary lung cancer in England between 1998 and 2009 were grouped according to histology (SCLC or non-SCLC (NSCLC)) and whether they underwent a surgical resection. We explored their survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity and socioeconomic status. The survival of 465 patients with resected SCLC was lower than patients with resected NSCLC (5-year survival 31% and 45%, respectively), but much higher than patients of either group who were not resected (3%). The difference between resected SCLC and NSCLC diminished with time after surgery. Survival was superior for the subgroup of 198 'elective' SCLC cases where the diagnosis was most likely known before resection than for the subgroup of 267 'incidental' cases where the SCLC diagnosis was likely to have been made after resection. These data serve as a natural experiment testing the survival after surgical management of SCLC according to NSCLC principles. Patients with SCLC treated surgically for early stage disease may have survival outcomes that approach those of NSCLC, supporting the emerging clinical practice of offering surgical resection to selected patients with SCLC.
    Thorax 10/2013; · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a disease with poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy but there is variation in survival between patients. Prognostic information is therefore potentially valuable in managing patients, particularly in the context of clinical trials where patients could be stratified according to risk. Therefore we have evaluated the prognostic ability of parameters derived from baseline 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT). In order to determine the relationships between metabolic activity and prognosis we reviewed all (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans used for pretreatment staging of MPM patients in our institution between January 2005 and December 2011 (n = 60) and measured standardised uptake values (SUV) including mean, maximum and peak values, metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Overall survival (OS) or time to last censor was recorded, as well as histological subtypes. Median follow-up was 12.7 months (1.9-60.9) and median OS was 14.1 months (1.9-54.9). By univariable analysis histological subtype (p = 0.013), TLG (p = 0.024) and MTV (p = 0.038) were significantly associated with OS and SUVmax was borderline (p = 0.051). On multivariable analysis histological subtype and TLG were associated with OS but at borderline statistical significance (p = 0.060 and 0.058, respectively). No statistically significant differences in any PET parameters were found between the epithelioid and non-epithelioid histological subtypes. (18)F-FDG PET/CT parameters that take into account functional volume (MTV, TLG) show significant associations with survival in patients with MPM before adjusting for histological subtype and are worthy of further evaluation to determine their ability to stratify patients in clinical trials.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 09/2013; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of disease progression in patients treated with pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine, prophylactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, using F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). This was a retrospective study of 65 patients treated with a multimodality therapy including P/D between October 2004 and March 2012. Thirty-two patients underwent F-FDG PET/CT within 6 weeks of completion of adjuvant chemotherapy and 6-monthly thereafter at our institution. The first site of relapse on F-FDG PET/CT was recorded, and all scans were reviewed by an independent observer. Thirty-two patients (27 male, median age 61 years, range 45-73) underwent their F-FDG PET/CT scans at our institution. Eighteen of the 32 patients were alive at last follow-up (median follow-up 42 months, range 16-76). Nine patients were alive with disease recurrence. Fourteen patients died of disease progression (median survival 24.7 months, range 15-38). The median maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in relapsing mesothelioma was 10.9 (range 4.9-27.3). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SUVmax and tumour lesion glycolysis of recurrent mesothelioma and overall survival (P=0.05). The site of disease recurrence was the pleura in the majority of the alive patients and was extrapleural in the dead patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between disease-free survival and complete macroscopic resection (P=0.02). After P/D with hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine, prophylactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, the most frequent site of recurrence is the pleural cavity. Peritoneal seeding is rare. The tumour SUVmax and tumour lesion glycolysis correlate significantly with overall survival.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 08/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: The incidence of mesothelioma is rising. First-line cisplatin and pemetrexed confers a survival benefit, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 5.7 months. Sorafenib inhibits tyrosine kinases, including receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor, which are implicated in mesothelioma pathogenesis by preclinical and clinical data. METHODS:: Sorafenib, at 400 mg twice daily, was assessed in a single-arm multicenter phase 2 study, using Simon's two-stage design. Eligible patients had received platinum combination chemotherapy earlier. The primary endpoint was PFS at 6 months, with secondary endpoints, including response rate and metabolic response, assessed using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Published reference values for PFS in mesothelioma provide a benchmark for the null hypothesis of 28% progression-free at 6 months, and for moderate or significant clinical activity of 35% or 43% progression-free at 6 months, respectively. RESULTS:: Fifty-three patients (72%) were treated. Most had epithelioid histology. Ninety-three percent of patients had a performance status 0 or 1. Treatment was well tolerated with few grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Median PFS was 5.1 months, with 36% of patients being progression-free at 6 months. Nine percent of patients remained on study beyond 1 year. Changes in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography parameters did not predict clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS:: Sorafenib is well tolerated in patients with mesothelioma after completion of platinum-containing chemotherapy. PFS of sorafenib compares favorably with that reported for other targeted agents, and suggests moderate activity in this disease.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 04/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 02/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Catamenial pneumothorax is a cause of recurrent pneumothorax in women of child-bearing age. Surgical treatment has been associated with high recurrence rates. We report our experience with a totally videothoracoscopic approach involving diaphragmatic repair, pleurectomy / abrasion and hormonal treatment in patients with proven catamenial pneumothorax. METHODS: Retrospective study of all patients with proven catamenial pneumothorax operated on by a single surgeon using videothoracoscopic approach, diaphragmatic repair, pleurectomy / pleural abrasion. A PTFE mesh was used to cover the diaphragm in patients with pores or fenestrations. All patients received hormone therapy for 6-12 months postoperatively and were followed up to assess complications and recurrence. RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified having catamenial pneumothorax, all patients, except one, had suffered right-sided pneumothorax only. One patient also had a history of left sided pneumothorax managed conservatively at another institution. All cases, except one, underwent primary operation. One patient had previously had videothoracoscopic pleurodesis without diaphragm repair at another centre.In all cases, findings typical of catamenial pneumothorax were identified within the pleural cavity, mainly on the diaphragm. In three patients, no diaphragmatic pores or fenestrations were noted. There were no postoperative complications and no mortality. Median follow-up was 45.8 ± 28.6 months. One patient suffered a single episode of recurrence before starting hormonal therapy, treated conservatively. CONCLUSION: A totally videothoracoscopic approach to catamenial pneumothorax including diaphragmatic cover with a mesh, pleurectomy / pleural abrasion is feasible, safe and highly effective. Routine hormonal treatment (GnRH analogue) may help reduce recurrences as well.
    Chest 11/2012; · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • Loïc Lang-Lazdunski, Andrea Bille, Paul Cane, Jo Congleton
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    ABSTRACT: Tracheo-bronchial glomus tumours are rare, usually benign tumours of modified smooth muscle cells. They commonly present as non-specific respiratory symptoms of cough, dyspnoea or haemoptysis. Generally, glomus tumours are benign, but extension beyond the bronchial wall into surrounding soft tissues has been described. Surgical treatment remains the treatment of choice for tracheo-bronchial glomus tumours. Endobronchial therapy should be considered in patients unfit for surgical excision. We describe a patient with a glomus tumour of the left main bronchus, who presented with mediastinal shift and lung atelectasis, treated by left upper sleeve lobectomy. The resection was complete and the patient was discharged home after 8 days from surgery.
    General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 05/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains controversial. We present a prospective study of patients treated at our institution with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), and radical radiotherapy. Patients with MPM who were eligible for EPP and multimodality therapy were included in this study. Staging was through computed tomography and positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and mediastinoscopy. Our protocol involved three cycles of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy (54 Gy). All patients were followed up every 3-6 months until death. From March 2004 through October 2008, 25 patients were referred for EPP following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. EPP was performed in all but three patients, who were found to have T4 disease at surgery. Surgical complications included arrhythmias (28%), bronchopleural fistulas (12 %), reoperations for bleeding (8%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (4%), pneumonia (4%), septicemia (4%), vocal cord palsy (4%), and Horner's syndrome (4%). The 30-day mortality was 4%. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 81% of patients after EPP. Radiotherapy toxicities included thrombocytopenia, radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary embolus, radiation hepatitis, herpes zoster, transverse myelitis, and late constrictive pericarditis. Median survival from diagnosis was 12.8 months (95% confidence interval 7.8-17.7 months). One-year survival was 54.5%; 2-year survival was 18.2%. Disease progression occurred in 77.3% of patients. Nodal status (N0 disease versus N1-N2) or histology (epithelioid versus biphasic) had no significant impact on survival. Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, survival rates remain low for patients with MPM completing multimodality therapy including EPP.
    General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 05/2012; 60(5):289-96.
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) increases the risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. This risk is higher following extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) as part of trimodality therapy, where VTE can be catastrophic. In our series, the impact of warfarin in preventing a pulmonary embolus (PE) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and EPP for MPM was analysed. A retrospective analysis of 21 consecutive patients undergoing EPP for MPM was conducted. The first 10 patients (Group A) had VTE prophylaxis by subcutaneous enoxaparin and compression stockings commenced a day prior to surgery, intraoperative pneumatic calf compression and early post-operative mobilization. Enoxaparin was continued for 30 days postoperatively. The following 11 patients (Group B) had the same VTE prophylaxis, together with warfarin, started prior to hospital discharge and continued for 6 months postoperatively. All patients had a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram within 8 weeks after surgery and a full examination at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Both groups were comparable for characteristics. Three patients in Group A suffered a PE at 4, 6 and 16 weeks postoperatively. One PE was fatal. No patient in Group B suffered VTE (P = 0.05, χ(2) test) or haemorrhagic complications. Warfarin anticoagulation following EPP is feasible and safe, and is associated with a significant reduction in VTE complications.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 04/2012; 15(2):201-3. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the outcomes of two different multimodality regimens involving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and adjuvant radiotherapy versus pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine, and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Nonrandomized prospective study of patients treated by multimodality therapy and operated on between January 2004 and June 2011. Second-line treatments were administered when appropriate. Survival and prognostic factors were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method, log rank test, and Cox regression analysis. Twenty-five consecutive patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 22 underwent EPP, and 17 received adjuvant radiotherapy. Over the same period, 54 consecutive patients underwent P/D and hyperthermic pleural lavage and received prophylactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.5%in the EPP group and nil in the P/D group. Fifteen patients (68%) in the EPP group and 15 (27.7%) in the P/D group experienced complications. There were no differences between the EPP and P/D groups for age, sex, histology, pathologic stage, and nodal status. Trimodality therapy was completed by 68%of the patients in the EPP group and 100%in the P/D group. Survival was significantly better in the P/D group: median survival was 23 months versus 12.8 months, 2-year survival was 49%versus 18.2 %, and 5-year survival was 30.1%versus 9%, respectively (p = 0.004). At multivariate analysis, epithelioid histology, P/D, and completeness of resection were independent prognostic factors. In our experience, P/D, hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine, and adjuvant chemotherapy were superior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, EPP, and adjuvant radiotherapy.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 04/2012; 7(4):737-43. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of malignant pleural mesothelioma with focal relapse in the Azygos arch region after radical pleurectomy/decortication and adjuvant chemotherapy. Tumour recurrence was successfully treated by Cyberknife radiosurgery (70 Gy in five fractions). Patient remains disease-free at 40 months without any other treatment.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2012; 41(6):1393-4. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Oncology 11/2011; 12(12):1094-5. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a fatal neoplasm related to asbestos exposure. We investigated the effects of pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Observational prospective study of patients referred for multimodality therapy and operated on at our institution between October 2004 and May 2010. Thirty-six selected patients underwent P/D and hyperthermic pleural lavage, prophylactic radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. All patients were reviewed at 4 weeks and then 6 monthly in the outpatient clinic, with positron-emission tomography-computed tomography. Second-line treatments were administered when appropriate. Thirty-day mortality was nil. Nine patients experienced postoperative complications: persistent air leak (n = 5, 13.9%), chylothorax requiring surgical intervention (n = 4, 11%), and adult respiratory distress syndrome (n = 1, 3.9%). Fourteen of 36 patients were alive at last follow-up (median follow-up: 33 months, range: 12-63 months). Ten patients were alive with no evidence of disease recurrence, four patients were alive with disease recurrence, and 22 patients had died of disease progression. Overall median survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 24 months (95% confidence interval: 18.5-29.4 months). One-year survival was 91.7%, and 2-year survival was 61%. Patients undergoing complete macroscopical resection (R0-R1) had a significantly better survival than those undergoing an incomplete macroscopical resection (R2) (median overall survival: 32 months versus 18.9 months, p = 0.012). In our experience, P/D combined with hyperthermic pleural lavage with povidone-iodine and adjuvant chemotherapy is a well-tolerated multimodality treatment associated with low morbidity and mortality. This multimodality treatment compares favorably with classical trimodality regimens involving chemotherapy, extrapleural pneumonectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy, in our experience. Study limitations include small sample size, nonrandomization, and patient selection bias.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2011; 6(10):1746-52. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 07/2011; 142(1):e2-3. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of extra-pleural pneumonectomy (EPP) on survival and quality of life in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma have, to our knowledge, not been assessed in a randomised trial. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients who were randomly assigned to EPP or no EPP in the context of trimodal therapy in the Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery (MARS) feasibility study. MARS was a multicentre randomised controlled trial in 12 UK hospitals. Patients aged 18 years or older who had pathologically confirmed mesothelioma and were deemed fit enough to undergo trimodal therapy were included. In a prerandomisation registration phase, all patients underwent induction platinum-based chemotherapy followed by clinical review. After further consent, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to EPP followed by postoperative hemithorax irradiation or to no EPP. Randomisation was done centrally with computer-generated permuted blocks stratified by surgical centre. The main endpoints were feasibility of randomly assigning 50 patients in 1 year (results detailed in another report), proportion randomised who received treatment, proportion eligible (registered) who proceeded to randomisation, perioperative mortality, and quality of life. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. This is the principal report of the MARS study; all patients have been recruited. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN95583524. Between Oct 1, 2005, and Nov 3, 2008, 112 patients were registered and 50 were subsequently randomly assigned: 24 to EPP and 26 to no EPP. The main reasons for not proceeding to randomisation were disease progression (33 patients), inoperability (five patients), and patient choice (19 patients). EPP was completed satisfactorily in 16 of 24 patients assigned to EPP; in five patients EPP was not started and in three patients it was abandoned. Two patients in the EPP group died within 30 days and a further patient died without leaving hospital. One patient in the no EPP group died perioperatively after receiving EPP off trial in a non-MARS centre. The hazard ratio [HR] for overall survival between the EPP and no EPP groups was 1·90 (95% CI 0·92-3·93; exact p=0·082), and after adjustment for sex, histological subtype, stage, and age at randomisation the HR was 2·75 (1·21-6·26; p=0·016). Median survival was 14·4 months (5·3-18·7) for the EPP group and 19·5 months (13·4 to time not yet reached) for the no EPP group. Of the 49 randomly assigned patients who consented to quality of life assessment (EPP n=23; no EPP n=26), 12 patients in the EPP group and 19 in the no EPP group completed the quality of life questionnaires. Although median quality of life scores were lower in the EPP group than the no EPP group, no significant differences between groups were reported in the quality of life analyses. There were ten serious adverse events reported in the EPP group and two in the no EPP group. In view of the high morbidity associated with EPP in this trial and in other non-randomised studies a larger study is not feasible. These data, although limited, suggest that radical surgery in the form of EPP within trimodal therapy offers no benefit and possibly harms patients. Cancer Research UK (CRUK/04/003), the June Hancock Mesothelioma Research Fund, and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust.
    The Lancet Oncology 06/2011; 12(8):763-72. · 25.12 Impact Factor
  • Lung Cancer. 01/2011; 71.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
283.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • King's College London
      • Division of Cancer Studies
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • SickKids
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • ICL
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2012
    • Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Thoracic Surgery
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2012
    • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IPMC)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Percy Army Training Hospital
      Clamart, Île-de-France, France
  • 2000
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States