[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by systemic inflammation of synovial joints leading to erosion and cartilage destruction. Although efficacious anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) biologic therapies exist, there is an unmet medical need for safe and more efficient treatment regimens for disease remission. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. The siRNA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles mediated a dose-dependent TNF-α silencing in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. The severity of collagen antibody-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice was assessed by paw scoring and compared to the degree of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-quantified joint effusion and bone marrow edema. Two intra-articular treatments per joint with nanoparticles loaded with TNF-α siRNA (1 μg) resulted in a reduction in disease activity, evident by a significant decrease of the paw scores and joint effusions, as compared to treatment with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with non-specific control siRNA, whereas the degree of bone marrow edema in the tibial and femoral head remained unchanged. When the siRNA dose was 5 or 10 μg, there was no difference between the specific and the non-specific siRNA treatment groups. These findings suggest that MRI is a promising method for evaluation of early disease progression and treatment in murine arthritis models. In addition, proper siRNA dosing seems to be important for a positive therapeutic outcome in vivo. However, further studies are needed to fully clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the observed anti-inflammatory effects of the siRNA-loaded nanoparticles.
Journal of Controlled Release 05/2012; 161(3):772-80. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a key role in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and is an important target for anti-rheumatic therapies. TNF-α expression can be silenced with small interfering RNA (siRNA), but efficacy is dependent on efficient and safe siRNA delivery vehicles. We aimed to identify polymeric nanocarriers for anti-TNF-α siRNA with optimal efficacy and minimal off-target effects in vitro.
TNF-α silencing with polymeric siRNA nanocarriers was compared in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Expression of non-target genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression was determined by RT-PCR, toxicity evaluated by propidium iodide and annexin V staining.
PAMAM dendrimers (G4 and G7) and dextran nanogels mediated remarkably high concentration-dependent gene silencing and low toxicity; dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane-modified poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide acid) nanoparticles, thiolated, trimethylated chitosan and poly[(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide 1-methyl-2-piperidine methanol] polyplexes were less efficient transfectants. There were minor changes in the regulation of off-target genes, mainly dependent on nanocarrier and siRNA concentration.
Dextran nanogels and PAMAM dendrimers mediated high gene silencing with minor toxicity and off-target transcriptional changes and are therefore expected to be suitable siRNA delivery systems in vivo.
Pharmaceutical Research 03/2012; 29(3):669-82. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix systems based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers like the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved polymer poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) are promising for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) due to favorable safety profiles, sustained release properties and improved colloidal stability, as compared to polyplexes. The purpose of this study was to design a dry powder formulation based on cationic lipid-modified PLGA nanoparticles intended for treatment of severe lung diseases by pulmonary delivery of siRNA. The cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) was incorporated into the PLGA matrix to potentiate the gene silencing efficiency. The gene knock-down level in vitro was positively correlated to the weight ratio of DOTAP in the particles, and 73% silencing was achieved in the presence of 10% (v/v) serum at 25% (w/w) DOTAP. Optimal properties were found for nanoparticles modified with 15% (w/w) DOTAP, which reduced the gene expression with 54%. This formulation was spray-dried with mannitol into nanocomposite microparticles of an aerodynamic size appropriate for lung deposition. The spray-drying process did not affect the physicochemical properties of the readily re-dispersible nanoparticles, and most importantly, the in vitro gene silencing activity was preserved during spray-drying. The siRNA content in the powder was similar to the theoretical loading and the siRNA was intact, suggesting that the siRNA is preserved during the spray-drying process. Finally, X-ray powder diffraction analysis demonstrated that mannitol remained in a crystalline state upon spray-drying with PLGA nanoparticles suggesting that the sugar excipient might exert its stabilizing effect by sterical inhibition of the interactions between adjacent nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that spray-drying is an excellent technique for engineering dry powder formulations of siRNA nanoparticles, which might enable the local delivery of biologically active siRNA directly to the lung tissue.
Journal of Controlled Release 08/2011; 157(1):141-8. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendrimers are attractive vehicles for nucleic acid delivery due to monodispersity and ease of chemical design. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the self-assembly process between small interfering RNA (siRNA) and different generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and to characterize the resulting structures. The generation 4 (G4) and G7 displayed equal efficiencies for dendriplex aggregate formation, whereas G1 lacked this ability. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and dynamic light scattering showed reduced average size and increased polydispersity at higher dendrimer concentration. The nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated that electrostatic complexation results in an equilibrium between differently sized complex aggregates, where the centre of mass depends on the siRNA:dendrimer ratio. Isothermal titration calorimetric data suggested a simple binding for G1, whereas a biphasic binding was evident for G4 and G7 with an initial exothermic binding and a secondary endothermic formation of larger dendriplex aggregates, followed by agglomeration. The initial binding became increasingly exothermic as the generation increased, and the values were closely predicted by molecular dynamics simulations, which also demonstrated a generation dependent differences in the entropy of binding. The flexible G1 displayed the highest entropic penalty followed by the rigid G7, making the intermediate G4 the most suitable for dendriplex formation, showing favorable charge density for siRNA binding.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2011; 416(2):410-8. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prerequisite for the use of dendrimers as drug delivery vehicles is the detailed molecular understanding of the drug interaction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the self-assembly process between siRNA and generation 7 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and the resulting dendriplexes in aqueous solution using structural and calorimetric methods combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Complexes with a length scale of 150 nm showed a decreasing size with increasing amine-to-phosphate ratio by dynamic light scattering. At the molecular level, individual dendrimers studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) showed no change in size upon siRNA binding, suggesting a rigid sphere behavior. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) demonstrated exothermic binding with a concentration-dependent collapse of complexes. Both the experimentally determined ΔH(bind) and size were in close accordance with molecular dynamics simulations. This study demonstrates the unique complementarity of SAXS, ITC, and modeling for the detailed description of the molecular interactions between dendrimers and siRNA during dendriplex formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of RNA interference in higher eukaryotes a decade ago, small interfering RNAs have been suggested to possess a large therapeutic potential. Small interfering RNAs can knock down expression of specific target genes by initiating mRNA degradation upon Watson-Crick base pairing with the target transcript in the cell cytoplasm. This sequence-specific regulation is promising for treatment of serious pathological conditions such as cancer, infections and inflammatory diseases. However, poor cellular uptake and lack of intracellular delivery represents major barriers for the widespread use of RNA interference, along with the instability of RNA at physiological conditions. This is due to unfavourable biopharmaceutical characteristics of the relatively large and polyanionic small interfering RNA duplexes. Therefore, successful clinical application depends on effective delivery systems to circumvent drug degradation and excretion, as well as to direct the small interfering RNAs towards the diseased tissue to reach the cytoplasm of the target cells. Non-viral, polymeric carriers are widely used delivery vehicles for nucleic acids in general. This review gives an overview of currently applied polymer-based nanoparticulate delivery systems for small interfering RNAs, with focus on the physico-chemical properties of the carriers and on reported in vivo applications. In addition, the safety of polymeric siRNA delivery system is discussed, and possible ways to overcome problems of toxicity and immune activation are highlighted.
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 08/2008; 4(3):258-275. · 7.58 Impact Factor