[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Objectives: To test the hypotheses that brain oxygen partial pressure (PtO2) in response to obstructive apneas changes with age and that it might lead to different levels of cerebral tissue oxidative stress. Design: Prospective controlled animal study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Sixty-four male Wistar rats: 32 young (3 mo old) and 32 aged (18 mo). Interventions: Protocol 1: Twenty-four animals were subjected to obstructive apneas (50 apneas/h, lasting 15 sec each) or to sham procedure for 50 min. Protocol 2: Forty rats were subjected to obstructive apneas or sham procedure for 4 h. Measurements and Results: Protocol 1: Real-time PtO2 measurements were performed using a fast-response oxygen microelectrode. During successive apneas cerebral cortex PtO2 presented a different pattern in the two age groups; there was a fast increase in young rats, whereas it remained without significant changes between the beginning and the end of the protocol in the aged group. Protocol 2: Brain oxidative stress assessed by lipid peroxidation increased after apneas in young rats (1.34 +/- 0.17 nmol/mg of protein) compared to old ones (0.63 +/- 0.03 nmol/mg), where a higher expression of antioxidant enzymes was observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that brain oxidative stress in aged rats is lower than in young rats in response to recurrent apneas, mimicking obstructive sleep apnea. This could be due to the different PtO2 response observed between age groups and the increased antioxidant expression in aged rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke induces inflammation that can aggravate brain damage. This work examines whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficiency exacerbates inflammation and worsens the outcome of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Expression of IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) increased after ischemia. From day 4, reactive astrocytes showed strong IL-10R immunoreactivity. Interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mice kept in conventional housing showed more mortality after pMCAO than the wild type (WT). This effect was associated with the presence of signs of colitis in the IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that ongoing systemic inflammation was a confounding factor. In a pathogen-free environment, IL-10 deficiency slightly increased infarct volume and neurologic deficits. Induction of proinflammatory molecules in the IL-10 KO brain was similar to that in the WT 6 hours after ischemia, but was higher at day 4, while differences decreased at day 7. Deficiency of IL-10 promoted the presence of more mature phagocytic cells in the ischemic tissue, and enhanced the expression of M2 markers and the T-cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4. These findings agree with a role of IL-10 in attenuating local inflammatory reactions, but do not support an essential function of IL-10 in lesion resolution. Upregulation of alternative immunosuppressive molecules after brain ischemia can compensate, at least in part, the absence of IL-10.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 11 September 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.155.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 09/2013; 33(12). DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.155 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathological conditions and pro-inflammatory stimuli in the brain induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolism mediating the production of prostanoids that, among other actions, have strong vasoactive properties. Although low basal cerebral COX-2 expression has been reported, COX-2 is strongly induced by pro-inflammatory challenges, whereas COX-1 is constitutively expressed. However, the contribution of these enzymes in prostanoid formation varies depending on the stimuli and cell type. Astrocyte feet surround cerebral microvessels and release molecules that can trigger vascular responses. Here, we investigate the regulation of COX-2 induction and its role in prostanoid generation after a pro-inflammatory challenge with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in astroglia. Intracerebral administration of LPS in rodents induced strong COX-2 expression mainly in astroglia and microglia, whereas COX-1 expression was predominant in microglia and did not increase. In cultured astrocytes, LPS strongly induced COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) synthase-1, mediated by the MyD88-dependent NFκB pathway and influenced by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Studies in COX-deficient cells and using COX inhibitors demonstrated that COX-2 mediated the high production of PGE(2) and, to a lesser extent, other prostanoids after LPS. In contrast, LPS down-regulated COX-1 in an MyD88-dependent fashion, and COX-1 deficiency increased PGE(2) production after LPS. The results show that astrocytes respond to LPS by a COX-2-dependent production of prostanoids, mainly vasoactive PGE(2), and suggest that the coordinated down-regulation of COX-1 facilitates PGE(2) production after TLR-4 activation. These effects might induce cerebral blood flow responses to brain inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that astrocytes play important roles in immune regulation in the brain. Astrocytes express toll-like receptors (TLR) and build up responses to innate immune triggers by releasing proinflammatory molecules. We investigate signaling pathways and released molecules after astrocyte TLR4 activation. Purified rodent brain astrocyte cultures were treated with the TLR4 activator bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tools used to interfere with this system include small interference RNA, inhibitory drugs, and MyD88 or Stat1 deficient mice. LPS induced early activation of the transcription factor NFκB, through the MyD88 adaptor, and expression of TNF-α, VCAM-1, IL-15, and IL-27. LPS also induced delayed Jak1/Stat1 activation, which was MyD88-independent but was not mediated by IFN-β. Jak1/Stat1 activation induced the expression of negative cytokine regulator SOCS-1 and CXCL10 chemokine (IP-10). Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were also involved in TLR4 signaling in a MyD88-independent fashion. p38 exerted a strong influence on LPS-induced gene expression by regulating the phosphorylation of Stat1 and the transcriptional activity of NFκB, while JNK regulated the Jak1/Stat1 pathway, and ERK1/2 controlled the expression of Egr-1 and influenced MyD88-dependent MMP-9 expression. Interplay between these signals was evidenced by the increased induction of MMP-9 in Stat1-deficient cells challenged with LPS, suggesting that Stat1 negatively regulates the expression of MMP-9 induced by LPS. Therefore, astrocytes are responsive to TLR4 activation by inducing a complex set of cell-dependent molecular reactions mediated by NFκB, MAPK and Jak1/Stat1 signaling pathways. Here we identified cross-talking signals generating a proinflammatory environment that will modulate the response of surrounding cells.