[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative cognitive decline is a clinical syndrome. Volatile anesthetics are commonly used during surgery. It is conceivable that volatile anesthetics may contribute to postoperative cognitive decline. Isoflurane can impair cognitive functions of animals under certain conditions. However, the mechanisms for this impairment are not clear. Here, male 18-month old Fisher 344 rats or 10-week old mice were exposed to 1.2 or 1.4% isoflurane for 2 h. Our studies showed that isoflurane impaired the cognitive functions of the rats in Barnes maze. Isoflurane-exposed rats had reduced freezing behavior during the training sessions in the fear conditioning test. This isoflurane effect was attenuated by lidocaine, a local anesthetic with anti-inflammatory property. Rats that had training sessions and were exposed to isoflurane 30 min later had freezing behavior similar to that of control animals. Isoflurane increased the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 and activated caspase 3 in the hippocampus of the 18-month old rats. IL-1β positive staining was co-localized with that of NeuN, a neuronal marker. The increase of IL-1β and activated caspase 3 but not interleukin-6 was attenuated by lidocaine. Isoflurane also impaired the cognitive functions of 10-week old C57BL/6J mice and increased IL-1β in their hippocampi. However, isoflurane did not affect the cognitive functions of IL-1β deficient mice. Our results suggest that isoflurane impairs the learning but may not affect the recall of the aged rats. IL-1β may play an important role in this isoflurane effect.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51431. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051431 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prior exposure to isoflurane, a common volatile anesthetic, provides neuroprotection (isoflurane preconditioning). To determine the role of microRNAs in this protection, we performed microRNA array assay on cerebral cortex harvested from rats exposed to isoflurane or isoflurane-exposed rat B35 neuron-like cells. We showed that isoflurane significantly increased microRNA-203 expression in B35 neuron-like cells. The microRNA-203 expression in rat cerebral cortex also trended to increase after isoflurane exposure. Over-expression of microRNA-203 increased the tolerance of B35 cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation and the expression of phospho-Akt, a protein kinase that promotes cell survival. Isoflurane preconditioning also reduced the injury of these cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation. These results suggest that isoflurane preconditioning-induced neuroprotection may involve increased expression of microRNA-203. This finding provides the initial evidence that micoRNA-203 is a target for isoflurane in the brain.
Brain research bulletin 05/2012; 88(5):525-8. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.05.009 · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical phenomenon that has drawn significant attention from the public and scientific community. Age is a risk factor for POCD. However, the contribution of general anesthesia/anesthetics to POCD and the underlying neuropathology are not clear. Here, we showed that 18-month-old male Fisher 344 rats exposed to 1.2% isoflurane, a general anesthetic, for 2h had significant learning and memory impairments assessed at 2-4 weeks after isoflurane exposure. These isoflurane effects were attenuated by intravenous lidocaine (1.5mg/kg as a bolus and then 2mg/kg/h during isoflurane exposure), a local anesthetic that has neuroprotective effect. Exposure to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine did not change the neuronal and synaptic density as well as the expression of NeuN (a neuronal protein), drebrin (a dendritic spine protein), synaptophysin (a synaptic protein), activated caspase 3 and caspase-activated DNase in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure when cognitive impairment was present. Isoflurane and lidocaine did not affect the amount of β-amyloid peptide, total tau and phospho-tau in the cerebral cortex as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure. Thus, isoflurane induces learning and memory impairment in old rats. Lidocaine attenuates these isoflurane effects. Isoflurane may not cause long-lasting neuropathological changes.
Behavioural brain research 12/2011; 228(2):319-27. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.12.010 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vector-mediated delivery of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) to regulate gene expression holds a great therapeutic promise. We hypothesize that gene expression can be autoregulated with RNA interference. We used inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as a gene model to test this hypothesis. Lipopolysaccharide dose-dependently increased iNOS in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and the nitrite production from these cells. These increases were attenuated in cells transfected with plasmids containing code for iNOS shRNA whose expression was controlled by an iNOS promoter. The production of shRNA was lipopolysaccharide dose-dependent. The lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in rat C6 glioma cells also was attenuated by transfection with plasmids containing the iNOS shRNA code. These results provide proof-of-concept evidence for using RNA interference technique to achieve autoregulation of gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A brief exposure to isoflurane prior to brain ischemia reduces ischemic brain injury in rodents. Here we showed that exposure of rat cerebral cortical neuronal cultures to 2% isoflurane for 30 min at 24 h before a 2-h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) reduced the OGD-induced cell injury. This effect was abolished by HA14-1, a selective inhibitor of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein. Bcl-2 is well-known for its anti-apoptotic property. HA14-1 alone did not change OGD-induced cell injury. OGD reduced the expression of Bcl-2 in these neurons. This reduction was attenuated by isoflurane preconditioning. These results suggest that isoflurane preconditioning-induced neuroprotection is mediated by Bcl-2.