[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, aprotinin (Trasylol™) has been added to plasma
samples prior to glucagon analysis. However, the evidence for the
need of aprotinin is sparse and based on results obtained when
radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques were still in their infancy.
Using RIAs directed against both the C-terminus and a mid-region of
glucagon, we challenged the classical view that aprotinin is necessary.
Glucagon concentrations in pools of human, mouse and rat plasma
(n=30, 25 and 16 of each, respectively) with and without addition of
increasing amounts of exogenous glucagon (5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 pM)
were similar irrespective of whether or not aprotinin had been added.
To investigate whether individual variation occurs in human samples,
we measured plasma from 20 patients with gastrointestinal diseases
and 20 healthy subjects with or without addition of aprotinin. Again,
measured amounts of glucagon, endogenous or added, were not
affected by the presence of aprotinin. The effect of aprotinin, present
at blood sampling or added later (30 and 60 minutes), on endogenous
glucagon values was investigated in T2DM patients (n=5), before
and after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. There were no differences
between the four treatments. In conclusion, we found no support for
use of aprotinin for prevention of glucagon degradation.
Journal of endocrinology and diabetes. 01/2014; 1(1):5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest in studying the nutritional effects of complex diets. For such studies measurement of dietary compliance is a challenge since the currently available compliance markers only cover limited aspects of a diet. In the present study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to develop a compliance measure in urine to distinguish between two dietary patterns. A parallel intervention study was carried out in which 181 participants were randomized to follow either a New Nordic Diet (NND) or an Average Danish Diet (ADD) for six months. Dietary intakes were closely monitored over the whole study period and 24 h urine samples as well as weighed dietary records were collected several times during the study. The urine samples were analysed by UPLC-qTOF-MS and a partial least squares discriminant analysis with feature selection was applied to develop a compliance model based on data from 214 urine samples. The optimised model included fifty-two metabolites and had a misclassification rate of 19 % in a validation set containing 139 samples. The metabolites identified in the model were markers of individual foods such as citrus, cocoa containing products and fish as well as more general dietary traits such as high fruit and vegetable intake or high intake of heat-treated foods. It was easier to classify the ADD diet than the NND diet probably due to seasonal variation in the food composition of NND and indications of lower compliance among the NND subjects. Untargeted metabolomics is a promising approach to develop compliance measures that cover the most important discriminant metabolites of complex diets.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyse specificity and sensitivity of commercially available assays for glucagon and/or oxyntomodulin.
Ten different assays measuring either glucagon or oxyntomodulin were obtained. Solutions of synthetic glucagon (proglucagon 33-61), oxyntomodulin (proglucagon 33-69) and glicentin (proglucagon 1-69) were prepared and peptide concentrations verified by quantitative amino acid analysis and a processing independent in-house RIA. Peptides were added to the matrix (assay buffer) supplied with the kits (concentration range 1.25-300 pmol/l) and to human plasma, and recoveries determined. Assays giving meaningful results were analysed for precision and sensitivity by repeated analysis and ability to discriminate low concentrations.
Three assays were specific for glucagon (Millipore RIA, BioRad Luminex, Alpco = Yanaihara Inst.), but none was specific for oxyntomodulin. The Phoenix glucagon assay measured all three peptides (= total glucagon) equally. Sensitivity and precision were generally poor; Millipore RIA performed best with a sensitivity around 10 pmol/l. BlueGene, Life USCN (oxyntomodulin and glucagon), My BioSource and Phoenix Oxyntomodulin assays all gave inconsistent results.
European Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the food metabolome and identify new markers of food exposure, limited attention has been given to the validation of such markers. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) discover potential food exposure markers (PEMs) for a range of plant foods in a study setting with a mixed dietary background and (2) validate PEMs found in a previous meal study. Three-day weighed dietary records and 24-h urine samples were collected three times during a 6-month parallel intervention study from 107 subjects randomized to two distinct dietary patterns. An untargeted UPLC-qTOF-MS metabolomics analysis was performed on the urine samples, and all features detected underwent strict data analyses, including an iterative paired t test and sensitivity and specificity analyses for foods. A total of 22 unique PEMs were identified that covered 7 out of 40 investigated food groups (strawberry, cabbages, beetroot, walnut, citrus, green beans and chocolate). The PEMs reflected foods with a distinct composition rather than foods eaten more frequently or in larger amounts. We found that 23 % of the PEMs found in a previous meal study were also valid in the present intervention study. The study demonstrates that it is possible to discover and validate PEMs for several foods and food classes in an intervention study with a mixed dietary background, despite the large variability in such a dataset. Final validation of PEMs for intake of foods should be performed by quantitative analysis.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 01/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:Dietary pattern is central in the prevention of hypertension and blood pressure (BP)-related diseases. A diet based on healthy Nordic foods may have a favourable impact on BP. The objective was to clarify whether a Nordic alternative for a healthy food pattern would have beneficial effects on ambulatory BP in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).Subjects/methods:In total, 37 subjects were randomized to either a healthy Nordic diet or a control diet. A healthy Nordic diet embraced whole grains, rapeseed oil, berries, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and low-fat dairy products of Nordic origin. The mean nutrient intake in the Nordic countries formed the control diet, embracing wheat products, dairy fat-based spread and a lower intake of fruits, vegetables and fish. Diets were isoenergetic. Ambulatory BP was monitored and 24-h urine was collected before and after 12 weeks of intervention.Results:After 12 weeks, ambulatory diastolic BP (-4.4 mm Hg; P=0.001) and mean arterial pressure (-4.2 mm Hg; P=0.006) were lowered by the healthy Nordic diet compared with the control diet, whereas changes in ambulatory systolic BP did not differ significantly between diets (-3.5 mm Hg; P=0.122). Heart rate tended to be lower in those on the healthy Nordic diet (P=0.057). Urinary sodium and potassium excretions were unaffected by diets and consequently not associated with the healthy Nordic diet-induced lowering of BP.Conclusions:Consumption of Nordic varieties of health-enhancing foods for 12 weeks decreased diastolic ambulatory BP and mean arterial pressure in subjects with features of MetS during weight-stable condition, suggesting beneficial effects of a healthy Nordic dietary pattern on ambulatory BP.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 16 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.192.
European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
High heat cooking of food induces formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which are thought to impair glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients. High intake of fructose might additionally affect endogenous formation of AGEs. This parallel intervention study investigated whether addition of fructose or cooking methods influencing the AGE content of food affect insulin sensitivity in overweight individuals.Research design and methodsSeventy-four overweight women were randomized to follow either a high- or low-AGE diet for 4 weeks, together with either fructose or glucose drinks. Glucose and insulin concentrations - fasting and 2-h after an oral glucose tolerance test - were measured before and after the intervention. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) were calculated. Dietary and urinary AGE concentrations were measured (LC-MS/MS) to estimate AGE intake and excretion.ResultsWhen adjusted for changes in anthropometric measures during the intervention the low-AGE diet decreased urinary AGEs, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR, compared with the high-AGE diet. Addition of fructose did not affect any outcomes.Conclusions
Diets with high AGE content may increase development of insulin resistance. AGEs can be reduced by modulation of cooking methods but is unaffected by moderate fructose intake.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1→3) to (1→4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance for β-glucan functionality. This study investigates the effects of 3 different β-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat, barley, and barley mutant β-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g/d of oat β-glucans for 3 wk resulted in greater decreases in total (-0.29 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01), LDL (-0.23 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01), and HDL (-0.05 ± 0.0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) cholesterol compared with baseline. Changes in LDL in the β-glucan treatments were not related to β-glucan structure (cellotriosyl:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat β-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured oat and barley β-glucans. However, substantial differences compared with baseline suggest a potential for oat β-glucan, presumably due to its higher solubility and viscosity. This underlines the importance of elusive structural β-glucan features for beneficial physiologic effects.
Journal of Nutrition 08/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.
In total, 19 healthy overweight individuals completed a crossover meal test with two meals of identical ingredients prepared by roasting (H-AGE) or steaming (L-AGE), respectively. Postprandial blood samples were analysed for N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), appetite-regulating gut hormones, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Subjective appetite ratings and subsequent food intake were also assessed, and urine was analysed for CML, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), and F2-isoprostanes.
CML content of the H- and L-AGE meals was 5.0 and 2.8 mg, respectively. Plasma CML and urinary CML and MG-H1 tended to be higher after the H-AGE meal. There was no change in subsequent food intake, appetite sensations, or appetite hormone responses between meals, except for the overall ghrelin response, which was higher after the H-AGE meal compared with the L-AGE meal (p = 0.016). There was an increased glycaemic response to the H-AGE meal (p = 0.027) compared with the L-AGE meal. Inflammatory and endothelial activation markers did not differ between meals, but there was an overall effect on endothelial activation (p = 0.021) and on the oxidative marker, F2-isoprostanes, in urine (p = 0.013).
The present study did not show any pronounced effects of AGEs on appetite and markers of inflammation, but did indicate that AGEs may affect postprandial ghrelin, oxidative stress, and glucose responses.
European Journal of Nutrition 08/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) form by Maillard-reactions after initial binding of aldehydes with amines or amides in heated foods or in living organisms. The mechanisms of formation may include ionic as well as oxidative and radical pathways. The reactions may proceed within proteins to form high-molecular weight (HMW) AGEs or among small molecules to form low-molecular weight (LMW) AGEs. All free amino acids form AGEs, but lysine or arginine side chains dominate AGE formation within proteins. The analysis of AGEs in foods and body fluids is most often performed by ELISA or LC-MS; however, none of the methodologies cover all HMW and LMW AGEs. Most research is, therefore, carried out using 'representative' AGE compounds, most often Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML). Only LMW AGEs, including peptide-bound forms, and carbonyls may be absorbed from the gut and contribute to the body burden of AGEs. Some AGEs interact with specific pro- or anti-inflammatory receptors. Most studies on the biological effects of AGEs have been carried out by administering heated foods. The pro-inflammatory and deteriorating biological effects of AGEs in these studies, therefore, need further confirmation. The current review points out several research needs in order to address important questions on AGEs in foods and health.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typical clinical biomarker analyses on urine and plasma samples from human dietary interventions do not provide adequate information about diet-induced metabolic changes taking place in tissues. The aim of this study was to show how a large-scale non-targeted metabolomic approach can be used to reveal metabolite groups for generating new hypotheses of obesity-related metabolic disturbances produced in an animal model. A large spectrum of metabolites in the semi-polar region, including small water soluble molecules like betaine and dihydroxyindole, and a wide range of bile acids as well as various lipid species were detected. The high fat diet influenced metabolic homeostasis of Ossabaw pigs, especially the lipid metabolome, throughout all the analyzed sample types, including plasma, urine, bile, liver, pancreas, brain cortex, intestinal jejunum and proximal colon. However, even dramatic metabolic changes in tissues were not necessarily observed in plasma and urine. Metabolite profiling involving multiple sample types was shown to be a feasible method for the examination of a wide spectrum of metabolic species extending from small water soluble metabolites to an array of bile acids and lipids, thus pointing to the pathways of metabolism affected by the dietary treatment.
Journal of Proteome Research 06/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe data processing and metabolite identification approaches which lead to a rapid and semi-automated interpretation of metabolomics experiments. Data from metabolite fingerprinting using LC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS were processed with several open-source software packages, including XCMS and CAMERA to detect features and group features into compound spectra. Next, we describe the automatic scheduling of tandem mass spectrometry (MS) acquisitions to acquire a large number of MS/MS spectra, and the subsequent processing and computer-assisted annotation towards identification using the R packages MetShot, Rdisop, and the MetFusion application. We also implement a simple retention time prediction model using predicted lipophilicity logD, which predicts retention times within 42 s (6 min gradient) for most compounds in our setup. We putatively identified 44 common metabolites including several amino acids and phospholipids at metabolomics standards initiative (MSI) levels two and three and confirmed the majority of them by comparison with authentic standards at MSI level one. To aid both data integration within and data sharing between laboratories, we integrated data from two labs and mapped retention times between the chromatographic systems. Despite the different MS instrumentation and different chromatographic gradient programs, the mapped retention times agree within 26 s (20 min gradient) for 90 % of the mapped features.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 04/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to investigate the alterations of plasma metabolome profiles to identify exposure and effect markers of dietary fiber intake. Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a body mass index of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) were given a high fiber (HF) and a low fiber (LF) diet, in a 5-week randomized controlled crossover intervention. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products, whereas the LF diet was made of equivalent food products to the HF diet, but without adding fibers. Blood plasma samples were collected at the start and end of each intervention period and analyzed by LC-QTOF/MS. In total, 6 features in positive mode and 14 features in negative mode were significantly different between the HF and the LF diet (p < 0.01, q < 0.05). Two markers, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2-aminophenol sulfate, were increased after HF diet, along with a tentatively identified saponin derived from oat avenacosides. The untargeted metabolomics approach enabled the identification of two new markers of dietary fiber intake in human plasma. Further studies will be needed to verify if these markers could serve as compliance markers of fiber intake.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Micronutrients may protect against prostate cancer. However, few studies have had high-quality assessment of both dietary and supplemental consumption of micronutrients, rendering possible different source-specific effects difficult to discern. This study evaluates associations between intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. METHODS: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years with questionnaire-based information on diet, supplements, and lifestyle. Hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer associated with micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. RESULTS: During follow-up (1993-2010), 1,571 prostate cancer cases were identified. Supplemental folic acid was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, notably on a continuous scale [HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.98) per 100 μg increase/day]. The risk reduction was largely confined to non-aggressive tumors [HR 0.71 (0.55-0.93) per 100 μg increase/day]. No influence on prostate cancer risk was observed for dietary folate or for the other studied micronutrients, regardless of source. We found no significant effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI in relation to any micronutrient. CONCLUSION: Our study may indicate an inverse association between folic acid and prostate cancer; however, the inverse association was confined to supplemental folic acid and non-aggressive prostate cancer and may thus be a chance finding. Further studies are warranted to evaluate our findings.
Cancer Causes and Control 03/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clotting and anticoagulation of blood samples may give rise to different metabolic profiles of serum and plasma samples, respectively. The anticoagulant used for blood plasma preparation may affect the resulting metabolic profile due to different mechanisms involved in anticoagulation by various agents, e.g. heparin, EDTA and citrate. In the present study, we looked into metabolite and other differences in matched serum and plasma samples and different plasma preparations by using untargeted UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS profiling and multivariate data analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Metabolite differences between serum and plasma samples were mainly related to small peptides reflecting presence or absence of coagulation. Only subtle metabolite differences between the different plasma preparations were noticed, which were primarily related to ion suppression or enhancement caused by citrate and EDTA anticoagulants. For the first time, we also report that anticoagulant counter cation (Na+ or K+) in Na-citrate and K-EDTA plasma can make some metabolites more dominant in ESI-MS. Polymeric material residues originating from blood collection tubes for serum preparation were observed only in serum samples. Hypoxanthine and xanthine were found at higher levels in serum than in plasma samples, possibly due to release from the clot. Mass spectral features of sodium formate and potassium formate ion clusters were detected in citrate and EDTA plasma samples, respectively, originating from formate in mobile phase and Na (in Na-citrate tubes) and K (in K-EDTA tubes). Among the anticoagulants, heparin is recommended for plasma samples used for LC-ESI/MS-based metabolomics of hydrophilic compounds because no plasma interferences or matrix effects were noticed for this polarity range. Citrate and EDTA should be avoided since interferences and serious matrix effects were encountered on some co-eluting polar metabolites. Serum is recommended as a second choice and an alternative to plasma. In conclusion, heparin plasma or serum should be the order of best choice for LC-ESI/MS-based metabolomics research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake in a randomised crossover study with RB versus refined wheat bread (WB). METHODS AND RESULTS: UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolite profiling was applied to urine from a 2 × 4 wk crossover intervention with RB versus WB in 20 subjects. Sixteen metabolites were revealed as major contributing biomarkers. The most discriminative metabolite after the cereal intervention was identified as 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid sulphate, which was excreted to a higher extent after the RB versus WB intervention. Other alkylresorcinol metabolites were identified, as well as enterolactone glucuronide, azelaic acid, 2-aminophenol sulphate and its benzoxazinoid precursor 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one. Our study also suggests that nitrogen-containing metabolites are other major markers. However, other methodologies will be needed to elucidate their final structure. CONCLUSION: The present non-targeted metabolite profiling proved to be a useful approach to identify major urine metabolites discriminating RB intake from that of white wheat bread. Once validated these markers could help evaluate compliance to healthy Nordic diets.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 01/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of TFA intake on plasma metabolites.
In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, 52 overweight postmenopausal women received either partially hydrogenated soybean oil, providing 15.7 g/day of TFA (trans18:1) or control oil with mainly oleic acid for 16 weeks. Subsequent to the intervention period, the subjects participated in a 12-week dietary weight loss program. Before and after the TFA intervention and after the weight loss programme, volunteers participated in an oral glucose tolerance test. PLSDA revealed elevated lipid profiles with TFA intake. NMR indicated up-regulated LDL cholesterol levels and unsaturation. LC-MS profiles demonstrated elevated levels of specific polyunsaturated (PUFA) long-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and a sphingomyelin (SM) which were confirmed with a lipidomics based method. Plasma levels of these markers of TFA intake declined to their low baseline levels after the weight loss program for the TFA group and did not fluctuate for the control group. The marker levels were unaffected by OGTT.
This study demonstrates that intake of TFA affects phospholipid metabolism. The preferential integration of trans18:1 into the sn-1 position of PCs, all containing PUFA in the sn-2 position, could be explained by a general up-regulation in the formation of long-chain PUFAs after TFA intake and/or by specific mobilisation of these fats into PCs. NMR supported these findings by revealing increased unsaturation of plasma lipids in the TFA group. These specific changes in membrane lipid species may be related to the mechanisms of TFA-induced disease but need further validation as risk markers.
Registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00655902.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69589. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in women. Evidence suggests that genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes could influence BC risk, but to date the relationship between selenoproteins and BC risk remains unclear. In this report, a study population including 975 Danish cases and 975 controls matched for age and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use was genotyped for five functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SEPP1, GPX1, GPX4 and the antioxidant enzyme SOD2 genes. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk was assessed using conditional logistic regression. Additionally pre-diagnosis erythrocyte GPx (eGPx) activity was measured in a sub-group of the population. A 60% reduction in risk of developing overall BC and ductal BC was observed in women who were homozygous Thr carriers for SEPP1 rs3877899. Additionally, Leu carriers for GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism (rs1050450) were at ∼2 fold increased risk of developing a non-ductal BC. Pre-diagnosis eGPx activity was found to depend on genotype for rs713041 (GPX4), rs3877899 (SEPP1), and rs1050450 (GPX1) and on HRT use. Moreover, depending on genotype and HRT use, eGPx activity was significantly lower in women who developed BC later in life compared with controls. Furthermore, GPx1 protein levels increased in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells exposed to β-estradiol and sodium selenite.In conclusion, our data provide evidence that SNPs in SEPP1 and GPX1 modulate risk of BC and that eGPx activity is modified by SNPs in SEPP1, GPX4 and GPX1 and by estrogens. Our data thus suggest a role of selenoproteins in BC development.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73316. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7 %), pomace (7.9 %) and cloudy juice (2.2 %) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS: Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.
European Journal of Nutrition 12/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work describes an analytical platform based on a high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assay in combination with hyphenation of high-performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction, and tube-transfer nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR/high-resolution α-glucosidase assay. The platform enables fast screening for individual α-glucosidase inhibitory analytes in complex matrices, followed by structural identification targeted these α-glucosidase inhibitors, as demonstrated by a proof-of-concept study with extract of 'Pink Lady' apple peel. A scout-separation produced a high-resolution biochromatogram and a HPLC chromatogram, which were used for pinpointing HPLC peaks displaying α-glucosidase inhibition. Active analytes were cumulatively trapped on SPE cartridges and the structures identified by (1)H NMR experiments obtained in the HPLC-SPE-ttNMR mode. (-)-Epicatechin (1), reynoutrin (3) and avicularin (4) were identified as active compounds. IC(50) of the active compounds were determined along with six structurally related compounds. Quercetin was the most potent inhibitor with an IC(50) of 8.1±0.4μM. The platform proved to be an efficient method for the identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors.