[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of a 60-day bed rest with or without countermeasures on muscular phenotype and post-translational modifications of the regulatory Myosin Light Chain 2 (MLC2) protein. Soleus biopsies were obtained from female subjects before and after bed rest. Control subjects were assigned only to bed rest (BR), BR+Ex subjects were submitted to combined aerobic and resistive exercises, and BR+Nut to nutritional leucine and valine diet. We determined Myosin heavy Chains (MHC) and MLC2 composition of muscles using 1D SDS-PAGE. MLC2 phosphorylation was measured on 2D gels and O-N-Acetyl Glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAc) level of MLC2 was determined. Our results showed a slow-to-fast shift of MHC and MLC2 isoforms in BR and BR+Nut while BR+Ex combinations prevented these phenotype changes. After BR, the MLC2 phosphorylation state was increased while the global MLC2 glycosylation level was decreased. Exercises prevented the variations of phosphorylation and glycosylation observed after BR whereas nutrition had no effects. These results suggested an interplay between phosphorylation and glycosylation of MLC2, which might be involved in the development of muscle atrophy and associated changes. These findings of differential responses to exercises and nutrition protocols were discussed with implications for future prescription models to preserve muscle against long-term unloading.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2013; 540(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2013.10.016 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU) in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity in adult rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the time-course of ERK1/2 activation by immunoblot and of cortical reorganization by electrophysiological recordings, on rats submitted to hindlimb unloading over four weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis provided evidence that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in layer III neurons of the somatosensory cortex. This increase was transient, and parallel to the changes in hindpaw cortical map area (layer IV). By contrast, receptive fields were progressively enlarged from 7 to 28 days of hindlimb unloading. To determine whether ERK1/2 was involved in cortical remapping, we administered a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD-98059) through osmotic mini-pump in rats hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Results demonstrate that focal inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway prevents cortical reorganization, but had no effect on receptive fields. These results suggest that ERK1/2 plays a role in the induction of cortical plasticity during hindlimb unloading.
PLoS ONE 03/2011; 6(3):e17564. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0017564 · 3.23 Impact Factor