[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of new genes that are mutated in osteosarcomas is critical to developing a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and discovering new targets for therapeutic development.
The authors identified somatic nonsynonymous coding mutations in oncogenes associated with human cancers and hotspot mutations from tumor suppressor genes that were either well described in the literature or observed multiple times in human cancer sequencing efforts. Then, 961 mutations in 89 genes were systematically characterized across 98 osteosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. All identified mutations were replicated on an independent platform using homogeneous mass extend matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
In total, 14 mutations were identified in at least 1 osteosarcoma tumor sample or cell line. Some of the genetic changes identified were in tumor suppressor genes previously identified as altered in osteosarcoma: p53 (arginine→histidine at codon 273 [R273H], R→cysteine at codon 723 [R273C], and tyrosine→C at codon 163 [Y163C]) and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) (glutamic acid→* at codon 137 [E137*]). Notably, multiple mutations were identified in phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) (H1047R, E→lysine at codon 545 [E545K], and H→proline at codon 701 [H701P]) that were not observed previously in osteosarcoma. In addition, mutations in v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (glycine→serine at codon 12 [G12S]); cubilin (CUBN) (isolucine→valine at codon 3189 [I3189V]; observed in 2 separate tumor samples); cadherin 1, type 1, epithelial (CDH1) (alanine→threonine at codon 617 [A617T]; observed in 2 separate tumor samples); catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88 kDa (CTNNB1) (asparagine→S at codon 287 [N287S]); and fibrous sheath CABYR binding protein (FSCB) (S→leucine at codon 775 [S775L]) were observed.
In this largest mutational profiling of osteosarcoma to date, the authors identified for the first time several mutations involving the PI3K pathway, adding osteosarcoma to the growing list of malignancies with PI3K mutations. In addition, they initiated a mutational map detailing DNA sequence changes across a variety of osteosarcoma subtypes and offered new candidates for therapeutic targeting.
Cancer 10/2011; 118(11):2905-14. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies, and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of point somatic mutations in HGSC using a mutation detection protocol called OncoMap that employs mass spectrometric-based genotyping technology.
The Center for Cancer Genome Discovery (CCGD) Program at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. The mutation detection protocol, termed OncoMap has been expanded to detect more than 1000 mutations in 112 oncogenes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. We performed OncoMap on a set of 203 FFPE advanced staged HGSC specimens. We isolated genomic DNA from these samples, and after a battery of quality assurance tests, ran each of these samples on the OncoMap v3 platform. 56% (113/203) tumor samples harbored candidate mutations. Sixty-five samples had single mutations (32%) while the remaining samples had ≥ 2 mutations (24%). 196 candidate mutation calls were made in 50 genes. The most common somatic oncogene mutations were found in EGFR, KRAS, PDGRFα, KIT, and PIK3CA. Other mutations found in additional genes were found at lower frequencies (<3%).
Sequenom analysis using OncoMap on DNA extracted from FFPE ovarian cancer samples is feasible and leads to the detection of potentially druggable mutations. Screening HGSC for somatic mutations in oncogenes may lead to additional therapies for this patient population.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24433. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal angiomyolipoma are part of the PEComa family of neoplasms, and occur both in association with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and independent of that disorder. Previous studies on the molecular genetic alterations that occur in angiomyolipoma are very limited. We evaluated 9 angiomyolipoma for which frozen tissue was available from a consecutive surgical series. Seven of 8 samples subjected to RT-PCR-cDNA sequencing showed mutations in TSC2; none showed mutations in TSC1 or RHEB. Six of the seven mutations were deletions. We searched for 983 activating and inactivating mutations in 115 genes, and found none in these tumors. Similarly analysis for genomic regions of loss or gain, assessed by Affymetrix SNP6.0 analysis, showed no abnormalities. Loss of heterozygosity in the TSC2 region was commonly seen, except in patients with low frequency TSC2 mutations. We conclude that sporadic renal angiomyolipoma usually have mutations in TSC2, but not TSC1 or RHEB, and have no other common genomic events, among those we searched for. However, chromosomal translocations and gene fusion events were not assessed here. TSC2 inactivation by mutation is a consistent and likely necessary genetic event in the pathogenesis of most angiomyolipoma.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24919. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PIK3 signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most important and most frequently mutated pathways in breast cancer. Somatic mutations in the catalytic subunit of PIK3CA have been found in a significant fraction of breast carcinomas, and it has been proposed that mutant PIK3CA plays a role in tumor initiation. However, the majority of primary human tumors analyzed for genetic alterations in PIK3CA have been invasive breast carcinomas and the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in preinvasive lesions has not been explored. To investigate this, we sequenced exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA in pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), DCIS adjacent to invasive carcinoma, and invasive ductal breast carcinomas. In a subset of cases, both in situ and invasive areas were analyzed from the same tumor. We found that the frequency of PIK3CA mutations was essentially the same ( approximately 30%) in all three histologic groups. In some cases, in situ and invasive areas of the same tumor were discordant for PIK3CA status, and in two cases in which multiple invasive and adjacent in situ areas within the same tumor were analyzed independently, we detected intratumor heterogeneity for PIK3CA mutations. Our results suggest that mutation of PIK3CA is an early event in breast cancer that is more likely to play a role in breast tumor initiation than in invasive progression, although a potential role for exon 9 mutations in the progression of a subset of DCIS cases cannot be excluded.
Cancer Research 07/2010; 70(14):5674-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 8q24 gene desert contains risk loci for multiple epithelial cancers, including colon, breast, and prostate. Recent evidence suggests these risk loci contain enhancers. In this study, data are presented showing that each risk locus bears epigenetic marks consistent with enhancer elements and forms a long-range chromatin loop with the MYC proto-oncogene located several hundred kilobases telomeric and that these interactions are tissue-specific. We therefore propose that the 8q24 risk loci operate through a common mechanism-as tissue-specific enhancers of MYC.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2010; 107(21):9742-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two studies report the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to discover infectious agents associated with diseased human tissues. These findings herald a breakthrough in the field of pathogen discovery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systematic efforts are underway to decipher the genetic changes associated with tumor initiation and progression. However, widespread clinical application of this information is hampered by an inability to identify critical genetic events across the spectrum of human tumors with adequate sensitivity and scalability. Here, we have adapted high-throughput genotyping to query 238 known oncogene mutations across 1,000 human tumor samples. This approach established robust mutation distributions spanning 17 cancer types. Of 17 oncogenes analyzed, we found 14 to be mutated at least once, and 298 (30%) samples carried at least one mutation. Moreover, we identified previously unrecognized oncogene mutations in several tumor types and observed an unexpectedly high number of co-occurring mutations. These results offer a new dimension in tumor genetics, where mutations involving multiple cancer genes may be interrogated simultaneously and in 'real time' to guide cancer classification and rational therapeutic intervention.