ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific combinations of polymorphisms in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism-related genes were associated with outcome in 5-FU-based adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer.
We analyzed two cohorts of 302 and 290 patients, respectively, one cohort for exploratory analyses and another cohort for validating the exploratory analyses. A total of ten polymorphisms in genes involved in 5-FU pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics were studied. End points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. Multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to identify genetic interaction profiles associated with outcome.
Low-expression alleles in thymidylate synthase (TYMS) were associated with decreased DFS and overall survival (DFS:hazard ratio [HR] exploration 2.65 [1.40-4.65]; p = 0.004, HR validation 1.69 [1.03-2.66]; p = 0.03). A specific multifactor dimensionality reduction derived combination of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and TYMS polymorphisms was associated with increased DFS (HR exploration 0.69 [0.49-0.98]; p = 0.04, HR validation 0.66 [0.45-0.95]; p = 0.03). Specific combinations of functional polymorphisms in DPYD and TYMS were demonstrated to be associated with DFS and overall survival in patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU-based treatment. Specifically high TYMS expression alleles seem to be associated with decreased DFS.
Pharmacogenomics 09/2011; 12(9):1257-67. · 3.97 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Uridine monophosphate synthase (UMPS) is a fundamental enzyme in pyrimidine synthesis. A single-nucleotide polymorphism, a G-C transversion at the 638th nucleotide, was demonstrated to increase UMPS activity and suggested to have clinical effects. The aims of this study were to set up simple genotyping methods and investigate the UMPS 638G>C polymorphism in the Caucasian population.
Two hundred forty-one patients with gastrointestinal cancers and 189 healthy subjects were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was implemented using a forward primer incorporating a mismatched base to produce an artificial restriction site and BsrI restriction enzyme digestion; a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method was developed to further speed up UMPS genotyping. A 153 bp UMPS gene fragment was successfully amplified and analyzed in all samples. RFLP and DHPLC results showed a 100% match and where confirmed by direct sequencing. UMPS genotype distribution was similar in patients with cancer and control subjects.
Although no association was detected between UMPS variants and gastrointestinal cancer risk in Caucasians, polymerase chain reaction-RFLP with BsrI digestion and DHPLC set up at 59°C are reliable and cost-effective methods to genotype UMPS.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 06/2011; 15(10):691-5. · 1.11 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific combinations of polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are associated with increased risk of treatment-induced toxicity.
We analyzed two cohorts of 161 and 340 patients, the exploration and validation cohort, respectively. All patients were treated similarly with 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy. We analyzed 13 functional polymorphisms and applied a four-fold analysis strategy using individual polymorphisms, haplotypes, and phenotypic enzyme activity or expression classifications based on combinations of functional polymorphisms in specific genes. Furthermore, multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis was used to identify a genetic interaction profile indicating an increased risk of toxicity.
Alleles associated with low activity of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were associated with decreased risk of toxicity [OR(Exploration) 0.39 (95% CI: 0.21-0.71, P = 0.003), OR(Validation) 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95, P = 0.03)]. A specific combination of the MTHFR 1298A>C and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 3'-UTR (untranslated region) ins/del polymorphisms was significantly associated with increased toxicity in both cohorts [OR(Exploration) 2.40 (95% CI: 1.33-4.29, P = 0.003), OR(Validation) 1.81 (95% CI: 1.18-2.79, P = 0.007)]. The specific combination was also associated with increased cumulative incidence and earlier occurrence of severe toxicity during treatment.
Our results indicate that MTHFR activity and a specific combination of the MTHFR 1298A>C and TYMS 3'-UTR ins/del polymorphisms are possible predictors of 5-FU treatment-related toxicity.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2011; 17(11):3822-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor