L M Barat

Oakwood Hospital & Medical Center, Dearborn, Michigan, United States

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Publications (15)36.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from 906 Malawian children <5 years old visiting rural health clinics. Pneumococcal colonization was high, 84% among all children, and occurred early, 65% of it in children <3 months old. Among pneumococcal isolates 46% were nonsusceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 21% were nonsusceptible to penicillin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use in the previous month was a risk factor for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and penicillin nonsusceptibility. Forty-three percent of isolates were serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and 37% were vaccine-related serotypes, particularly 6A and 19A.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2003; 22(6):564-7. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2003; 22(6):564-567. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of an effort to assess antimalarial drug resistance in Peru, we carried out 14-day in vivo efficacy trials of chloroquine (CQ; 25 mg/kg) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; 25 mg/kg of the sulfadoxine component) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections at three sites on the northern coast of Peru. Mefloquine (MQ; 15 mg/kg) also was evaluated at one site. The results from all three sites were similar. Of the 53 patients treated with CQ, 58.5% had RII/RIII responses. No RIII failures were observed among the 112 patients who received SP, but 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively, had RII and RI responses. All 33 patients treated with MQ showed a sensitive response. Early treatment failures were observed in 27.1% of the CQ patients but in no patients receiving SP or MQ. Late treatment failures were seen in 59.3% of the CQ patients and 6.4% of the SP patients but in none of those treated with MQ. Based on these findings and because of concern about the potential for development of resistance if SP were used alone, the National Malaria Control Program is planning a change in malaria treatment policy to SP-artesunate combination therapy for this region of the country.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2003; 68(1):120-3. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In September 1995, a Michigan resident with no history of international travel was diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection, and local mosquito-borne transmission was suspected. An epidemiological investigation did not identify additional cases of local transmission, and there was no apparent link to the 12 imported malaria cases detected in the region. Potential sites of nighttime outdoor exposure included a campground in a swampy area, close to a racetrack frequented by international travelers, some of whom were known to come from countries with malaria transmission. Entomological investigation identified Anopheles spp. larvae and adults near the campsite. Summer temperatures 4.2 degrees C above average would have contributed to shortened maturation time of P. vivax within the insect vector, increasing the likelihood of infectivity. These investigations indicated that this patient probably acquired P. vivax infection through the bite of a locally infected Anopheles spp. mosquito. Physicians need to consider malaria as a possible cause of unexplained febrile illness, even in the absence of international travel, particularly during the summer months.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 01/2002; 65(6):949-53. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In response to the spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Malaŵi changed its first-line antimalarial drug in 1993 from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Surveillance data has suggested that resistance to SP may be increasing. We compared the efficacy of SP with a potential successor, mefloquine (MQ). By use of a modified World Health Organization in vivo protocol, children infected with P. falciparum were randomized to receive SP (sulfadoxine 25 mg/kg) or MQ (15 mg/kg). We observed combined RII and RIII parasitologic failures of 20.0 and 22.0% in the SP and MQ arms, respectively. Among those in the MQ arm, the relative hazard of failing with a Day 2 drug level < 500 ng/mL was 10.6 times higher than those with levels > or = 500 ng/mL. Given the decreased efficacy of the first-line antimalarial drug and the high failure rates of MQ at this lower dosage, Malaŵi should consider assessing the efficacy and feasibility of alternative drugs to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/2001; 65(6):679-84. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of malaria with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and of presumed bacterial infections with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole) was assessed to see if either increases the carriage of cotrimoxazole-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Malawian children. Children <5 years old treated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, cotrimoxazole, or no antimicrobial agent were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken before treatment and 1 and 4 weeks later. Pneumococci were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by broth microdilution. In sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine-treated children, the proportion colonized with cotrimoxazole-nonsusceptible pneumococci increased from 38.1% at the initial visit to 44.1% at the 4-week follow-up visit (P=.048). For cotrimoxazole-treated children, the proportion colonized with cotrimoxazole-nonsusceptible pneumococci increased from 41.5% at the initial visit to 52% at the 1-week follow-up visit (P=.0017) and returned to 41.7% at the 4-week follow-up. Expanding use of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine to treat chloroquine-resistant malaria may have implications for national pneumonia programs in developing countries where cotrimoxazole is widely used.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2000; 181(4):1501-5. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although chloroquine (CQ) resistance was first reported in Colombia in 1961 and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in 1981, the frequency of treatment failures to these drugs in Colombia is unclear. A modified World Health Organization 14-day in vivo drug efficacy test for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas with intense malaria transmission was adapted to reflect the clinical and epidemiologic features of a low-intensity malaria transmission area in the Pacific Coast Region of Colombia. Patients > or =1 year of age with a parasite density > or =1,000 asexual parasites per microliter were enrolled in this study. Forty-four percent (24 of 54) of the CQ-treated patients were therapeutic failures, including 7 early treatment failures (ETFs) and 17 late treatment failures (LTFs). Four (6%) of 67 SP-treated patients were therapeutic failures (2 ETFs and 2 LTFs). Therapeutic failure in the CQ-treated group was associated with an age <15 years old (P < 0.01), but was not associated with initial parasite density, the presence of CQ or sulfa-containing drugs in urine, or a history of malaria. The high level of therapeutic failures to CQ detected in this study underscores the need and importance of drug efficacy evaluation in the development of a rational national antimalarial drug policy. The relatively low level of therapeutic failures to SP compared with other South American countries raises further questions regarding factors that might have prevented the rapid development of in vivo resistance to this drug combination.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/1999; 61(6):968-72. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The global resurgence of malaria has raised concerns of the possible reintroduction of indigenous transmission in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Malaria Surveillance System, using data supplied by state and local health departments (SLHDs), is maintained to detect local malaria transmission and monitor trends in imported cases. To determine the completeness of reporting of malaria cases to SLHDs, cases identified by local surveillance systems were compared with those identified through active case detection conducted at all laboratories that receive clinical specimens from 11 metropolitan areas in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Of the 61 malaria cases identified through either local surveillance or active case detection, 43 (70%) were identified by SLHDs (range by metropolitan area = 50-100%) and 56 (92%) through active case detection. High percentages of cases were identified by SLHDs in New Mexico (80%) and San Diego County (88%), where laboratories are required to send positive blood smears to the SLHD laboratory for confirmation. Completeness of reporting, calculated using the Lincoln-Peterson Capture-Recapture technique, was 69% for SLHD surveillance systems and 89% for laboratory-based active case detection. The high percentage of cases identified by the 11 SLHDs suggests that the National Malaria Surveillance System provides trends that accurately reflect the epidemiology of malaria in the United States. Case identification may be improved by promoting confirmatory testing in SLHD laboratories and incorporating laboratory-based reporting into local surveillance systems.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/1999; 60(6):910-4. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some Ministries of Health in Africa plan to make blood slide microscopy available in peripheral health centers to improve malaria diagnosis over the current practice, which relies solely on clinical findings. To assess whether microscopy improves the management of febrile persons in health centers, we prospectively reviewed medical records of all outpatients visiting six health centers with laboratories in Zambia during a 2-3-day period. Staff interviews and a blinded review of a series of blood slides from each facility by two expert microscopists were also conducted. Of 1,442 outpatients, 655 (45%) reported fevers or had a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C. Blood slide microscopy was ordered in 28-93% of patients with fever (mean = 46%). Eighty-eight (35%) patients without parasitemia were prescribed an antimalarial drug. Antimalarial drugs were prescribed with equal frequency to those who were referred for a blood slide (56%) and those not referred (58%). The sensitivity of microscopy was 88% and the specificity was 91%. Use of malaria microscopy varied widely, indicating that clinicians are not using standard criteria for ordering this test. Although diagnosis by microscopy was generally accurate, it appeared to have had little impact on the treatment of persons with fever. Guidelines for using blood slide microscopy are needed and prescription of antimalarial drugs should be discouraged when slide results are negative.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/1999; 60(6):1024-30. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is caused by four species of Plasmodium (i.e., P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, or P. malariae), which are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles sp. mosquito. Most malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to areas with ongoing transmission. Occasionally, cases occur in the United States through exposure to infected blood products, by congenital transmission, or by local mosquito-borne transmission. Malaria surveillance is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. Cases with onset of illness during 1995. Malaria cases confirmed by blood smears are reported to local and/or state health departments by health-care providers and/or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and/or state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS). Data from NMSS serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,167 cases of malaria with onset of symptoms during 1995 among persons in the United States or one of its territories. This number represents an increase of 15% from the 1,014 cases reported for 1994. P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, and P. ovale were identified in 48.2%, 38.6%, 3.9%, and 2.2% of cases, respectively. More than one species was present in three patients (0.3% of total). The infecting species was not determined in 80 (6.9%) cases. The number of reported malaria cases acquired in Africa (n=519) remained approximately the same as in 1994 (n=517); cases acquired in Asia increased by 32.4% (n=335); and cases acquired in the Americas increased by 37.4 % (n=246). Of 591 U.S. civilians who acquired malaria abroad, 15.6% had followed a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the area where they had traveled. Nine patients became infected in the United States. Of these nine cases, five were congenitally acquired; one was acquired by organ transplantation; and one was acquired by a blood transfusion. For two of the nine cases, the source of infection was unknown. Six deaths were attributed to malaria. The 15% increase in malaria cases in 1995 compared with 1994 resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Asia and the Americas, most notably a 100% increase in the number of cases reported from South America. This change could have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, travel patterns, reporting errors, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. In most reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria. Additional information was obtained concerning the six fatal cases and the nine infections acquired in the United States. Malaria prevention guidelines were updated and distributed to health-care providers. Persons traveling to a malarious area should take the recommended chemoprophylaxis regimen and use personal protection measures to prevent mosquito bites. Any person who has been to a malarious area and who subsequently develops a fever or influenza-like symptoms should seek medical care; investigation should include a blood smear for malaria. Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Recommendations concerning prevention and treatment of malaria can be obtained from CDC.
    MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries / Centers for Disease Control 03/1999; 48(1):1-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroquine-resistant malaria is a major public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa. While a few countries have already replaced chloroquine as the first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria or are in the process of doing so, other countries are faced with the complicated task of assessing the current status of drug resistance, making national policy-level decisions about whether to replace chloroquine or not, and initiating a monitoring system to track changes in the efficacy of malaria therapy. There is currently no standardized approach for collecting and interpreting data on therapy efficacy. There is also no agreement as to how much chloroquine resistance or treatment failure is acceptable and how much warrants a change in treatment policy. Using data collected in 10 sites in eastern and southern Africa between 1990 and 1996, we have assessed the therapeutic response to chloroquine and investigated predictors of clinical success or failure. Based on these experiences and analyses, a standardized protocol for in vivo studies of the efficacy of malaria therapy and for approaches to designing monitoring systems are proposed. The process of making policy-level decisions based on data collected by these systems is also discussed.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 08/1998; 3(7):543-52. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum throughout sub-Saharan Africa, chloroquine (CQ) remains the first-line treatment for uncomplicated infection in most countries. To assess the efficacy of CQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Zambia, studies using a standardized 14-day in vivo test were conducted at 6 geographically representative sites. Febrile children < or = 5 years of age were treated with standard doses of CQ or SP and monitored for parasitological failure (using modified WHO criteria) and clinical failure (fever with parasitaemia after completion of therapy). RII/RIII (high to moderate level) parasitological failures were identified in 34% to 70% of CQ-treated children (total N = 300) at the 6 sites and clinical failures in 31% to 48%. SP testing at 2 sites identified RII/RIII failures in 3% and 17% of children and only 1 clinical failure at each site. Because of the high levels of CQ resistance identified in these trials, the Ministry of Health of Zambia convened a national consensus meeting which recommended that Zambia's national malaria treatment policy be modified to make SP available at all health facilities for use in persons who fail initial therapy with CQ. In addition, selected sites, staff, and the methodology from these studies were used to implement a sentinel surveillance system for antimalarial drug efficacy. This systematic approach to antimalarial drug efficacy testing could be easily replicated in other countries seeking to reassess their malaria treatment policies.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 07/1998; 3(7):535-42. · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • L M Barat, P B Bloland
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    ABSTRACT: Recent decades have witnessed the emergence and spread of parasites resistant to standard drug therapies, particularly malaria. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has now spread to most malarial areas, and resistance to other antimalarial drugs, including mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, have become significant problems in some parts of Southeast Asia and South America. Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax is well established in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia and has been reported in other areas. Trichomonas and Giardia infections resistant to metronidazole have also been documented. This article reviews the current status of drug resistance among parasites, particularly malaria, and offers strategies for managing patients with these infections.
    Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 01/1998; 11(4):969-87. · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is caused by infection with one of four species of Plasmodium (i.e., P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae ), which are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles sp. mosquito. Most malarial infections in the United States occur in persons who have traveled to areas (i.e., other countries) in which disease transmission is ongoing. However, cases are transmitted occasionally through exposure to infected blood products, by congenital transmission, or by local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to adapt prevention recommendations. Cases with onset of symptoms during 1994. Malaria cases confirmed by blood smear are reported to local and/or state health departments by health-care providers and/or laboratories. Case investigations are conducted by local and/or state health departments, and the reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), which was the source of data for this report. Numbers of cases reported through NMSS may differ from those reported through other passive surveillance systems because of differences in the collection and transmission of data. CDC received reports of 1,014 cases of malaria with onset of symptoms during 1994 among persons in the United States or one of its territories. This number represented a 20% decrease from the 1,275 cases reported for 1993. P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, and P. ovale accounted for 44%, 44%, 4%, and 3% of cases, respectively. More than one species was present in five persons (<1% of the total number of patients). The infecting species was not determined in 50 (5%) cases. The number of reported malaria cases in U.S. military personnel decreased by 86% (i.e., from 278 cases in 1993 to 38 cases in 1994). Of the U.S. civilians who acquired malaria during travel to foreign countries, 18% had followed a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the area to which they had traveled. Five persons became infected while in the United States; the infection was transmitted to two of these persons through transfusion of infected blood products. The remaining three cases, which occurred in Houston, Texas, were probably locally acquired mosquitoborne infections. Four deaths were attributed to malaria. The 20% decrease in the number of malaria cases from 1993 to 1994 resulted primarily from an 86% decrease in cases among U.S. military personnel after withdrawal from Somalia. Because most malaria cases acquired in Somalia during 1993 resulted from infection with P. vivax, there was a proportionately greater decrease during 1994 in the number of cases caused by P. vivax relative to those caused by P. falciparum. Additional information was obtained concerning the four fatal cases and the five cases acquired in the United States. Malaria prevention guidelines were updated and distributed to health-care providers. Persons traveling to a geographic area in which malaria is endemic should take the recommended chemoprophylactic regimen and should use protective measures to prevent mosquito bites. Persons who have a fever or influenza-like illness after returning from a malarious area should seek medical care; medical evaluation should include a blood smear examination for malaria. Malarial infections can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Recommendations concerning prevention and treatment of malaria can be obtained from CDC.
    MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries / Centers for Disease Control 10/1997; 46(5):1-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is caused by infection with one of four species of Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae), which are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles sp. mosquito. Most malaria cases in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to areas (i.e., other countries) in which disease transmission is ongoing. However, cases are transmitted occasionally through exposure to infected blood products, by congenital transmission, or by local mosquito-borne transmission. Malaria surveillance is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations. Cases with onset of illness during 1993. Malaria cases confirmed by blood smear are reported to local and/or state health departments by health-care providers and/or laboratories. Case investigations are conducted by local and/or state health departments, and the reports are transmitted to CDC. CDC received reports of 1,275 cases of malaria in persons in the United States and its territories who had onset of symptoms during 1993; this number represented a 40% increase over the 910 malaria cases reported for 1992. P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 52%, 36%, 4%, and 3% of cases, respectively. The species was not determined in the remaining 5% of cases. The 278 malaria cases in U.S. military personnel represented the largest number of such cases since 1972; 234 of these cases were diagnosed in persons returning from deployment in Somalia during Operation Restore Hope. In New York City, the number of reported cases increased from one in 1992 to 130 in 1993. The number of malaria cases acquired in Africa by U.S. civilians increased by 45% from 1992; of these, 34% had been acquired in Nigeria. The 45% increase primarily reflected cases reported by New York City. Of U.S. civilians who acquired malaria during travel, 75% had not used a chemoprophylactic regimen recommended by CDC for the area in which they had traveled. Eleven cases of malaria had been acquired in the United States: of these cases, five were congenital; three were induced; and three were cryptic, including two cases that were probably locally acquired mosquito-borne infections. Eight deaths were associated with malarial infection. The increase in the reported number of malaria cases was attributed to a) the number of infections acquired during military deployment in Somalia and b) complete reporting for the first time of cases from New York City. Investigations were conducted to collect detailed information concerning the eight fatal cases and the 11 cases acquired in the United States. Malaria prevention guidelines were updated and disseminated to health-care providers. Persons who have a fever or influenza-like illness after returning from a malarious area should seek medical care, regardless of whether they took antimalarial chemoprophylaxis during their stay. The medical evaluation should include a blood smear examination for malaria. Malaria can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly. Recommendations concerning prevention and treatment of malaria can be obtained from CDC.
    MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries / Centers for Disease Control 03/1997; 46(2):27-47.

Publication Stats

499 Citations
36.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002
    • Oakwood Hospital & Medical Center
      Dearborn, Michigan, United States
  • 1999
    • Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas
      Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
  • 1998–1999
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria
      Atlanta, MI, United States