[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routinely collected health data, obtained for administrative and clinical purposes without specific a priori research goals, are increasingly used for research. The rapid evolution and availability of these data have revealed issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines, such as Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data (RECORD) statement was created to fill these gaps. RECORD was created as an extension to the STROBE statement to address reporting items specific to observational studies using routinely collected health data. RECORD consists of a checklist of 13 items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section of articles, and other information required for inclusion in such research reports. This document contains the checklist and explanatory and elaboration information to enhance the use of the checklist. Examples of good reporting for each RECORD checklist item are also included herein. This document, as well as the accompanying website and message board (http://www.record-statement.org), will enhance the implementation and understanding of RECORD. Through implementation of RECORD, authors, journals editors, and peer reviewers can encourage transparency of research reporting.
PLoS Medicine 10/2015; 12(10):e1001885. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001885 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in English regions, and within each English region by deprivation quintile. We also assess disease and injury burden in England attributable to potentially preventable risk factors. England and the English regions are compared with the remaining constituent countries of the UK and with comparable countries in the European Union (EU) and beyond.
The Lancet 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00195-6 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Figure appendix 1: Change in life expectancy at birth for both sexes (A), men (B), and women (C) in EU15+ countries, British nations, and English regions from 1990 to 2013 by broad cause group
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the association between length of residence in an urban area and obesity among Peruvian rural-to-urban migrants.
Cross-sectional database analysis of the migrant group from the PERU MIGRANT Study (2007). Exposure was length of urban residence, analysed as both a continuous (10-year units) and a categorical variable. Four skinfold site measurements (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were used to calculate body fat percentage and obesity (body fat percentage >25% males, >33% females). We used Poisson generalized linear models to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. Multicollinearity between age and length of urban residence was assessed using conditional numbers and correlation tests.
A peri-urban shantytown in the south of Lima, Peru.
Rural-to-urban migrants (n 526) living in Lima.
Multivariable analyses showed that for each 10-year unit increase in residence in an urban area, rural-to-urban migrants had, on average, a 12 % (95 % CI 6, 18 %) higher prevalence of obesity. This association was also present when length of urban residence was analysed in categories. Sensitivity analyses, conducted with non-migrant groups, showed no evidence of an association between 10-year age units and obesity in rural (P=0·159) or urban populations (P=0·078). High correlation and a large conditional number between age and length of urban residence were found, suggesting a strong collinearity between both variables.
Longer lengths of urban residence are related to increased obesity in rural-to-urban migrant populations; therefore, interventions to prevent obesity in urban areas may benefit from targeting migrant groups.
Public Health Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1368980015002578 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Cardiovascular disease is an important comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to systematically review the evidence for: (1) risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in people with COPD; (2) risk of MI associated with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD); (3) risk of death after MI in people with COPD.
Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCI were searched up to January 2015. Two reviewers screened abstracts and full text records, extracted data and assessed studies for risk of bias. We used the generic inverse variance method to pool effect estimates, where possible. Evidence was synthesised in a narrative review where meta-analysis was not possible.
Results Searches yielded 8362 records, and 24 observational studies were included. Meta-analysis showed increased risk of MI associated with COPD (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.42) for cohort analyses, but not in case–control studies: OR 1.18 (0.80 to 1.76). Both included studies that investigated the risk of MI associated with AECOPD found an increased risk of MI after AECOPD (incidence rate ratios, IRR 2.27, 1.10 to 4.70, and IRR 13.04, 1.71 to 99.7). Meta-analysis showed weak evidence for increased risk of death for patients with COPD in hospital after MI (OR 1.13, 0.97 to 1.31). However, meta-analysis showed an increased risk of death after MI for patients with COPD during follow-up (HR 1.26, 1.13 to 1.40).
Conclusions There is good evidence that COPD is associated with increased risk of MI; however, it is unclear to what extent this association is due to smoking status. There is some evidence that the risk of MI is higher during AECOPD than stable periods. There is poor evidence that COPD is associated with increased in hospital mortality after an MI, and good evidence that longer term mortality is higher for patients with COPD after an MI.
BMJ Open 09/2015; 5(9). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007824 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Given the recent declines in heart attack and stroke incidence, it is unclear how women and men differ in first lifetime presentations of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We compared the incidence of 12 cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases in women and men at different ages.
-We studied 1,937,360 people, aged ≥30 years and free from diagnosed CVD at baseline (51% women), using linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, acute coronary syndrome registry and mortality (CALIBER research platform). During 6 years median follow-up between 1997-2010, 114,859 people experienced an incident cardiovascular diagnosis, the majority (66%) of which were neither myocardial infarction (MI) nor ischemic stroke. Associations of male sex with initial diagnoses of CVD, however, varied from strong (age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 3.6-5.0) for abdominal aortic aneurysm, MI and unheralded coronary death (particularly under 60 years), through modest (HR 1.5-2.0) for stable angina, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, heart failure and cardiac arrest, to weak (HR <1.5) for transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage and unstable angina, and inverse (0.69) for sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (all p<0.001).
-The majority of initial presentations of CVD are neither MI nor ischemic stroke, yet most primary prevention studies focus on these presentations. Sex has differing associations with different CVDs, with implications for risk prediction and management strategies. Clinical Trial Registration Information-www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01164371.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: It is important to understand the local burden of non-communicable diseases including within-country heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to characterise hypertension and type-2 diabetes profiles across different Peruvian geographical settings emphasising the assessment of modifiable risk factors.
Methods: Analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study baseline assessment was conducted. Cardiometabolic outcomes were blood pressure categories (hypertension, prehypertension, normal) and glucose metabolism disorder status (diabetes, prediabetes, normal). Exposures were study setting and six modifiable factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, leisure time and transport-related physical activity levels, TV watching, fruit/vegetables intake and obesity). Poisson regression models were used to report prevalence ratios (PR). Population attributable risks (PAR) were also estimated.
Results: Data from 3238 participants, 48.3% male, mean age 45.3 years, were analysed. Age-standardised (WHO population) prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 24% and 16%, whereas for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes it was 18% and 6%, respectively. Outcomes varied according to study setting (p<0.001). In multivariable model, hypertension was higher among daily smokers (PR 1.76), heavy alcohol drinkers (PR 1.61) and the obese (PR 2.06); whereas only obesity (PR 2.26) increased the prevalence of diabetes. PAR showed that obesity was an important determinant for hypertension (15.7%) and type-2 diabetes (23.9%).
Conclusions: There is an evident heterogeneity in the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension and diabetes within Peru. Prehypertension and prediabetes are highly prevalent across settings. Our results emphasise the need of understanding the epidemiology of cardiometabolic conditions to appropriately implement interventions to tackle the burden of non-communicable diseases.
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1136/jech-2015-205988 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster patients can develop persistent pain after rash healing, a complication known as postherpetic neuralgia. By preventing zoster through vaccination, the risk of this common complication is reduced. We searched Medline and Embase for studies assessing risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia, with a view to informing vaccination policy. Nineteen prospective studies were identified. Meta-analysis showed significant increases in the risk of postherpetic neuralgia with clinical features of acute zoster including prodromal pain (summary RR 2.29, 95%CI: 1.42-3.69), severe acute pain (2.23, 1.71-2.92), severe rash (2.63, 1.89-3.66) and ophthalmic involvement (2.51, 1.29-4.86). Older age was significantly associated with postherpetic neuralgia; for individual studies, relative risk estimates per ten-year increase ranged from 1.22-3.11. Evidence for differences by gender was conflicting, with considerable between-study heterogeneity. A proportion of studies reported an increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia with severe immunosuppression (studies, n=3/5) and diabetes mellitus (n=1/4). Systemic lupus erythematosis, recent trauma and personality disorder symptoms were associated with postherpetic neuralgia in single studies. No evidence of higher postherpetic neuralgia risk was found with depression (n=4) or cancer (n=5). Our review confirms a number of clinical features of acute zoster are risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia. It has also identified a range of possible vaccine-targetable risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia, yet aside from age-associated risks, evidence regarding risk factors to inform zoster vaccination policy is currently limited.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries.
Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions.
26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries.
Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website.
Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents.
Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132401. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132401 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) use has been found to be associated with increased major congenital anomaly (CA) risks. However whether such AED-associated risks were different according to periconceptional high dose (5mg daily) folic acid supplementation is still unclear.
We included 258,591 singleton live-born children of mothers aged 15-44 years in 1990-2013 from The Health Improvement Network, a large UK primary care database. We identified all major CAs according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification. Absolute risks and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated comparing children of mothers prescribed AEDs to those without such prescriptions, stratified by folic acid prescriptions around the time of conception (one month before conception to two months post-conception).
CA risk was 476/10,000 in children of mothers with first trimester AEDs compared with 269/10,000 in those without AEDs equating to an aOR of 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.56. The highest system-specific risks were for heart anomalies (198/10,000 and 79/10,000 respectively, aOR 2.49,1.47-4.21). Sodium valproate and lamotrigine were both associated with increased risks of any CA (aOR 2.63,1.46-4.74 and aOR 2.01,1.12-3.59 respectively) and system-specific risks. Stratification by folic acid supplementation did not show marked reductions in AED-associated risks (e.g. for CAs overall aOR 1.75, 1.01-3.03 in the high dose folic acid group and 1.94, 95%CI 1.21-3.13 in the low dose or no folic acid group); however, the majority of mothers taking AEDs only initiated high dose folic acid from the second month of pregnancy.
Children of mothers with AEDs in the first trimester of pregnancy have a 2-fold increased risk of major CA compared to those unexposed. We found no evidence that prescribed high dose folic acid supplementation reduced such AED-associated risks. Although statistical power was limited, prescribing of folic acid too late for it to be effective during the organogenic period or selective prescribing to those with more severe morbidity may explain these findings.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0131130. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131130 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent in vitro and animal experiments suggest that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ) agonist medications, such as antidiabetic glitazone (GTZ) drugs, are neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). These findings have not been tested in humans. We hypothesized that individuals prescribed GTZ drugs would have a lower incidence of PD compared to individuals prescribed other treatments for diabetes.
Using primary care data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we conducted a retrospective cohort study in which individuals with diabetes who were newly prescribed GTZ (GTZ-exposed group) were matched by age, sex, practice, and diabetes treatment stage with up to five individuals prescribed other diabetes treatments (other antidiabetic drug-exposed group). Patients were followed up from 1999 until the first recording of a PD diagnosis, end of observation in the database, or end of the study (1 August 2013). An incidence rate ratio (IRR) was calculated using conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for possible confounders. 44,597 GTZ exposed individuals were matched to 120,373 other antidiabetic users. 175 GTZ-exposed individuals were diagnosed with PD compared to 517 individuals in the other antidiabetic drug-exposed group. The incidence rate (IR) of PD in the GTZ-exposed group was 6.4 per 10,000 patient years compared with 8.8 per 10,000 patient years in those prescribed other antidiabetic treatments (IRR 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.87). Adjustments for potential confounding variables, including smoking, other medications, head injury, and disease severity, had no material impact (fully adjusted IRR 0.75, 0.59-0.94). The risk was reduced in those with current GTZ prescriptions (current GTZ-exposed IRR 0.59, 0.46-0.77) but not reduced among those with past prescriptions (past GTZ-exposed IRR 0.85, 0.65-1.10). Our study only included patients with diabetes who did not have a PD diagnosis when they were first prescribed GTZ, and thus, it cannot establish whether GTZ use prevents or slows the progression of PD.
In patients with diabetes, a current prescription for GTZ is associated with a reduction in incidence of PD. This suggests PPAR gamma pathways may be a fruitful drug target in PD.
PLoS Medicine 07/2015; 12(7):e1001854. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001854 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different bio-markers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions.
We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the bio-markers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (i.e., excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori.
Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2–6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age–sex–survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, sub-national, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA1c 6·5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52·8% (95% CI 51·3–54·3%) and a pooled specificity of 99·74% (99·71–99·78%) compared with FPG 7·0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30·5% (28·7–32·3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA1c versus FPG.
Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA1c-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, health systems in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on acute conditions. Few data exist on the readiness of African health facilities (HFs) to address the growing burden of chronic diseases (CDs), specifically chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
A stratified random sample of 28 urban and rural Ugandan HFs was surveyed to document the burden of selected CDs by analysing service statistics, service availability and service readiness using a modified WHO SARA questionnaire. Knowledge, skills and practice in the management of CDs of 222 health workers were assessed through a self-completed questionnaire.
Among adult outpatient visits at hospitals, 33% were for CDs including HIV versus 14% and 4% at medium-sized and small health centres, respectively. Many HFs lacked guidelines, diagnostic equipment and essential medicines for primary management of CDs; training and reporting systems were weak. Lower-level facilities routinely referred patients with hypertension and diabetes. HIV services accounted for most CD visits and were stronger than NCD services. Systems were weaker in lower level HFs. Non-doctor clinicians and nurses lacked knowledge and experience in NCD care.
Compared to higher level HFs, lower-level ones are less prepared and little used for CD care. Health systems in Uganda, particularly lower level HFs, urgently need improvement in managing common NCDs to cope with the growing burden. This should include the provision of standard guidelines, essential diagnostic equipment and drugs, training of health workers, supportive supervision and improved referral systems. Substantially better HIV basic service readiness demonstrates that improved NCD care is feasible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2015; 20(10). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12560 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet.
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10903-015-0234-9 · 1.16 Impact Factor