[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia.
This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD)) from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report.
Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins.
Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved their LDL-C target in Taiwan, and the most significant determinant for this was statin therapy.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0116513. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116513 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The principal pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is coronary artery atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel walls of the coronary artery. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) displays an important role in the development of the inflammation reaction and atherosclerosis. Few studies report the association of ICAM-1 genetic polymorphisms with CAD in Taiwanese subjects. Therefore, we conducted a study to associate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ICAM-1, rs5491, rs5498, rs281432 and rs3093030 with CAD. Five hundred and twenty-five male and female subjects, who received elective coronary angiography in Taiwan Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, were recruited to determine four ICAM-1 SNPs by real time-polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. The relationships among ICAM-1 SNPs, haplotypes, demographic and characteristics and CAD were analyzed. This study showed that rs281432 (C8823G) was the only ICAM-1 SNP which affect the development of CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 CC/CG [p=0.016; odds ratio (OR): 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.56], male gender (p=0.018; OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51), aspirin use in the past 7 days (p=0.001; OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33-3.14), hypertension (p<0.001; OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.42-3.25), serum cardiac troponin I elevation (p<0.001; OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.47-3.24) and severe angina in recent 24 hours (p=0.001; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31- 2.95) increase the risk of CAD. In conclusion, ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 is an independent factor to predict the development of CAD. ICAM-1 SNP rs281432 homozygotic mutant GG can reduce the susceptibility to the CAD in Taiwanese subjects.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2015; 12(6):510-6. DOI:10.7150/ijms.12097 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical EXCITE (EXperienCe of amlodIpine and valsarTan in hypErtension) study reported clinically relevant blood pressure (BP) reductions across all doses of amlodipine/valsartan (Aml/Val) and Aml/Val/hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) single-pill combinations. The study prospectively observed a multiethnic population of hypertensive patients for 26 weeks who were treated according to routine clinical practice. Here, we present the results in high-risk subgroups including the elderly, obese patients, and patients with diabetes or isolated systolic hypertension. In addition, we present a post hoc analysis as per prior antihypertensive monotherapy and dual therapy.
Patients prescribed Aml/Val or Aml/Val/HCT were assessed in this 26±8 week, noninterventional, multicenter study across 13 countries in the Middle East and Asia. Changes in mean sitting systolic BP, mean sitting diastolic BP, and overall safety were assessed.
Of a total of 9,794 patients analyzed, 8,603 and 1,191 patients were prescribed Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCT, respectively. Among these, 15.5% were elderly, 32.5% were obese, 31.3% had diabetes, and 9.8% had isolated systolic hypertension. Both Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCT single-pill combinations, respectively, were associated with clinically relevant and significant mean sitting systolic/diastolic BP reductions across all subgroups: elderly patients (-32.2/-14.3 mmHg and -38.5/-16.5 mmHg), obese patients (-32.2/-17.9 mmHg and -38.5/-18.4 mmHg), diabetic patients (-30.3/-16.1 mmHg and -34.4/-16.6 mmHg), and patients with isolated systolic hypertension (-25.5/-4.1 mmHg and -30.2/-5.9 mmHg). Incremental BP reductions with Aml/Val or Aml/Val/HCT single-pill combinations were also observed in patients receiving prior monotherapy or dual therapy for hypertension. Overall, both Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCT were generally well tolerated.
This large, multiethnic study supports the evidence that Aml/Val and Aml/Val/ HCT single-pill combinations are effective in diverse and clinically important subgroups of patients with hypertension.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2015; 11:71-8. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S76599
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been almost 5 years since the publication of the 2010 hypertension guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC). There is new evidence regarding the management of hypertension, including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials, post-hoc analyses, subgroup analyses, retrospective studies, cohort studies, and registries. More recently, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published joint hypertension guidelines in 2013. The panel members who were appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC) also published the 2014 JNC report. Blood pressure (BP) targets have been changed; in particular, such targets have been loosened in high risk patients. The Executive Board members of TSOC and the Taiwan Hypertension Society (THS) aimed to review updated information about the management of hypertension to publish an updated hypertension guideline in Taiwan.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 12/2014; 78(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2014.11.005 · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The EXCITE (Clinical EXperienCe of amlodipine and valsarTan in hypErtension) study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness, tolerability and adherence of amlodipine/valsartan (Aml/Val) and amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Aml/Val/HCT) single-pill combination therapies in patients with hypertension from the Middle East and Asia studied in routine clinical practice. Research design and methods: This was a prospective, multinational, non-interventional real-world study in which adult patients with hypertension receiving treatment with Aml/Val or Aml/Val/HCT as part of routine clinical practice were observed for a period of 26 ± 8 weeks. Dosages in mg (prescribed in accordance with local prescribing information) were Aml/Val: 5/80, 5/160, 10/160, 5/320 or 10/320; Aml/Val/HCT: 5/160/12.5, 10/160/12.5, 5/160/25, 10/160/25 or 10/320/25. Main outcome measures: Treatment effectiveness was assessed by change from baseline in mean sitting systolic blood pressure (BP)/diastolic BP (msSBP/msDBP), and the proportion of patients achieving therapeutic goal and BP response. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Of 9794 patients analysed (mean age 53.2 years), 8603 received Aml/Val and 1191 Aml/Val/HCT. At study end (26 ± 8 weeks), overall msSBP (95% confidence interval [CI]) reductions from baseline were -31.0 (-31.42, -30.67) mmHg for Aml/Val and -36.6 (-37.61, -35.50) mmHg for Aml/Val/HCT; msDBP reductions from baseline were -16.6 (-16.79, -16.34) mmHg for Aml/Val and -17.8 (-18.41, -17.22) mmHg for Aml/Val/HCT. Meaningful reductions in BP from baseline were also consistently observed across all Aml/Val dosages and severities of hypertension. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 11.2% and 6.1% of patients in the Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCT groups, respectively. Most frequently reported AEs in the Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCT groups were oedema and peripheral oedema. While the observational design of the study has inherent limitations, it enables collection of real world data from a more naturalistic clinical setting, and the large size of the study increases the robustness of the study, as indicated by the narrow confidence intervals for the main study outcomes. Conclusions: The EXCITE study provides evidence that Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCT provide clinically meaningful BP reductions and are well tolerated in a large multi-ethnic hypertensive population studied in routine clinical practice.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 07/2014; 30(10):1-33. DOI:10.1185/03007995.2014.942415 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a very high risk cardiovascular disease population and should be treated aggressively. We investigated lipid management in CKD patients with atherosclerosis in Taiwan.
Methods: 3057 patients were enrolled in a multi-center study (T-SPARCLE). Lipid goal are defined as total cholesterol (TC) < 160mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) <100 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) > 40 mg/dl in men, HDL > 50 mg/dl in women, non-HDL cholesterol < 130mg/dl, and triglyceride < 150 mg/dl.
Results: Compared with those without CKD (n=2239), patients with CKD (n=818) had more co-morbidities (hypertension, glucose intolerance, stroke and heart failure) and lower HDL but higher triglyceride levels. Overall 2168 (70.5%) patients received lipid-lowering agents. There was similar equivalent statin potency between CKD and non-CKD groups. The goal attainment is lower in HDL and TG in the CKD group as compared with non-CKD subjects (47.1 vs. 51.9% and 63.2 vs. 68.9% respectively, both p < 0.02). Analysis of sex and CKD interaction on goals attainment showed female CKD subjects had lower non-HDL and TG goals attainment compared with non-CKD males (both p < 0.019).
Conclusion: Although presenting with more comorbidities, the CKD population had suboptimal lipid goal attainment rate as compared with the non-CKD population. Further efforts may be required for better lipid control especially on the female CKD subjects.
International journal of medical sciences 02/2014; 11(4):381-8. DOI:10.7150/ijms.7069 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldosterone is increasingly recognized for its involvement in atrial structural remodeling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and signal pathways underlying aldosterone-induced atrial fibrosis are unknown.
Western blotting was used to investigate the effects of aldosterone on the expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and fibrotic marker proteins in cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes.
Aldosterone upregulated MR and AT1 expressions in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Aldosterone (10(-6)M) significantly and time-dependently increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38MAPK pathways, and the protein expression of collagen 1A and 3A (COL1A and COL3A), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Pre-treatment with eplerenone (10(-10)M) prevented the increased expression of MR, MAPK signals and the above profibrotic molecules, but amplified the increase in AT1 level stimulated by aldosterone (10(-6)M). Pre-treatment with losartan (10(-10)M) or MAPK pathway inhibitors (U0126 or SP600125) abolished aldosterone-induced MR upregulation and significantly inhibited the expression of the above fibrotic marker proteins, indicating the critical role of MR and the requirement for active AT1 in the development of aldosterone-induced atrial fibrosis.
Elevated MR activity plays a central role in aldosterone-mediated activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and subsequent profibrotic effects in HL-1 atrial cells. MR/AT1 and the MAPK signaling pathway interact to trigger the molecular mechanism underlying the aldosterone-induced atrial fibrotic response. Our results support the view that MR blockade in conjunction with AT1 blockade can prevent the occurrence of atrial fibrillation.
International journal of cardiology 10/2013; 169(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.06.046 · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the second leading cause of death for the past 3 years in Taiwan. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is considered a new risk factor of CAD because investigations show that the levels and bioactivity of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (where IGFBP is insulin-like growth factor-binding protein) may be involved in elevating the risk of CAD. This study investigated the relationships among IGF-I +1770, IGF-I +6093, and IGFBP-3 -202 genetic polymorphisms and CAD in the Taiwanese population. MethodsA total of 581 subjects, including 390 non-CAD controls and 191 patients with CAD, were recruited and the isolated DNA was subjected to real-time polymerase chain to evaluate the effects of these three polymorphic variants on CAD. ResultsOur results showed a significant association between the IGF-I +1770 gene polymorphism and increased risk of CAD. Furthermore, CAD patients with a minimum of one mutant C allele, T/C or C/C, in IGF-I +1770 gene polymorphism had significantly high blood pressure including systolic blood pressure (SBP; P = 0.025) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.004), compared to CAD patients with T/T homozygotes. Moreover, CAD patients with a minimum of one mutant A allele, G/A or A/A, in the IGF-I +6093 gene polymorphism had a 1.695-fold elevated risk of congestive heart failure (CHF), compared to CAD patients with the G/G homozygote. Conclusions
Polymorphism of IGF-I +1770 was associated with increased CAD risk. In CAD patients, the contributions of IGF-I +1770 and +6093 could be through the effect on blood pressure in CAD patients. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 27:162-169, 2013. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A length polymorphism of GT repeats in the promoter region of the human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene modulates its gene transcription to protect against myocardial injury. The present study investigated the association between HO-1 promoter polymorphisms and the outcomes of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The allelic frequencies of GT repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter were screened in 205 random individuals who underwent catheter ablation for drug refractory AF.In the patients who received catheter ablation, those with AF recurrence had fewer GT repeats (53.4±7.1 vs. 56.1±6.5, p = 0.004), a lower incidence of hyperlipidemia, more non-paroxysmal AF, and a larger left atrial diameter. After conducting a multivariate logistic analysis, the number of GT repeats (Odds ratio: 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99, p = 0.01) and the diameter of the left atrium (Odds ratio: 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.15, p = 0.01) remained independent predictors. The carriers of GT repeats, which were <29 in both alleles, were associated with a lower sinus maintenance rate after catheter ablation (38.5% vs. 60.1%, p = 0.003). The patients were divided into paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal AF groups; the number of GT repeats was associated with AF recurrence only in the patients with paroxysmal AF. The number of GT repeats, combined with LAD, was significant for predicting AF recurrence after catheter ablation (p = 0.01). The number of GT repeats was not found to be associated with differences in the left atrial diameter, the biatrial voltage, or the levels of bilirubin, ferritin, iron, C-reactive protein, or von-Willibrand factor. In conclusions, HO-1 gene promoter polymorphisms were associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56440. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056440 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of timing of surgery on mortality risk in patients with necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by Vibrio vulnificus infection. METHODS: Medical records of 121 patients (mean age, 65.2 ± 11.6 years) with V vulnificus-related NF who underwent surgical intervention between July 1998 and June 2011 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to the time between admission and surgical treatment as follows: those who received surgical treatment less than 12 hours after admission, those who received treatment 12 to 24 hours after admission, and those who received treatment more than 24 hours after admission. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of the timing of surgery after admission on mortality risk across the 3 groups by adjusting for potential confounding covariates. RESULTS: During their hospitalization, 35 patients died, yielding a case-fatality rate of 29%. After adjustment for potential confounding covariates (age, sex, duration of prodrome before admission, severity of illness on admission, the presence of primary septicemia, hepatic disorders, chronic renal insufficiency, blood pressure less than 90/60 mm Hg on admission, surgical and antibiotic modalities, and intensive care needed), patients who underwent surgery less than 12 hours after admission had a significantly lower mortality risk compared with those who had surgery either 12 to 24 hours after admission (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], .064; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 × 10(-7) to .25; P = .037) or more than 24 hours after admission (adjusted HR, .0043; 95% CI, 2.1 × 10(-5) to .0085; P = .002). There was no difference in mortality risk between patients who underwent surgery 12 to 24 hours after admission and those who had surgery more than 24 hours after admission (P = .849). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide important clinically based evidence for the beneficial effects of surgical treatment within 12 hours of admission for V vulnificus-related NF.
American journal of surgery 02/2013; 206(1). DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.08.008 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose
Aggressive and persistent control of risk factors is recommended for prevention of secondary comorbidities in patients with cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to evaluate guideline recommendations for achieving targets for lipid and blood pressure (BP) control in patients with cardiovascular diseases in Taiwan.
This multicenter cohort study was conducted in 14 hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 3316 outpatients who had established cerebrovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), or both were recruited. Risk factors for comorbid conditions such as high BP, sugar, hemoglobin A1C, abnormal lipids, lipoproteins, and medication use were compared between patients with CVD, CAD, or both.
Of all patients, 503 (15.2%) had CVD only, 2568 (77.4%) had CAD only, and 245 (7.4%) had both CVD and CAD. Compared with patients who had only CAD, those with CVD were older, had higher frequency of hypertension, and lower frequency of diabetes mellitus. Patients with CAD were more likely to receive lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs than those with CVD (p < 0.001). Only 54.8% and 55.9% of patients achieved the recommended lipid and BP control targets, respectively. Patients with CVD (adjusted odds ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.48–0.78; p < 0.001) and women (adjusted odds ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.55–0.78; p < 0.001) were less likely to achieve the recommended lipid and BP targets.
The guideline-recommended targets for lipids and BP in patients with CAD and CVD were still suboptimal in Taiwan. Greater efforts are required to achieve the targets, particularly in patients with CVD and in women.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2013.10.007 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous genetic loci are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including genes related to aldosterone synthesis and mineralocorticoid receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic distribution of mineralocorticoid receptor and cytochrome P450 11B2 (CYP11B2) T-344C polymorphisms and their relationship with hypertension and cardiac remodeling in a Taiwanese population. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis for the mineralocorticoid receptor loci, G3514C and A4582C, and CYP11B2 T-344C. The genetic distribution and the association with echocardiographic measurements were analyzed. A total of 192 normotensive and 514 hypertensive Taiwanese patients were recruited. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the genetic distribution of mineralocorticoid receptor and CYP11B2 polymorphisms between normotensive and hypertensive patients, nor were there differences in the echocardiographic measurements. Female patients with the T/T genotype of CYP11B2 were more likely to have hypertension (p = 0.045), compared with the T/C or C/C genotypes. In addition, female hypertensive patients carrying C-allele had significantly greater left ventricular mass (p = 0.0215) and left atrial dimension (p = 0.0081). Such differences were not observed in the male patients. Our data suggest that CYP11B2 T-344C polymorphism affects left ventricular structures only in the female hypertensive population. This gender-difference needs to be further elucidated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score has been verified as a useful diagnostic tool for detecting necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Its application, however, is mainly for NF types I and II. The practical relevance of the LRINEC score for Vibro vulnificus-related skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) was hardly ever investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the LRINEC scoring system and to identify NF-predicting factors in patients with V. vulnificus-caused SSTI. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted, enrolling 125 consecutive patients diagnosed with V. vulnificus-related SSTI who were admitted to a teaching hospital between January 2003 and December 2011. Demographics, laboratory data, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes were collected for each patient and extracted for analysis. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the 125 patients was 63.0 (10.9) years; 58% of the patients were male. The mean (SD) LRINEC score at admission was 2.4 (1.9) points. Of the 125 patents, 72 (58%) had NF. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of hemorrhagic bullous lesions (p = 0.002) and higher LRINEC scores at admission (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with the presence of NF. In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the LRINEC scoring model for detecting NF was 0.783 (p < 0.0001). An optimal cutoff LRINEC score of 2 or greater had a sensitivity of 71%, a specificity of 83%, and a positive predictive value of 85%, with an 11.9-fold increased risk for the presence of NF (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that the LRINEC score and hemorrhagic bullous/blistering lesions are significant predictors of NF in patients with V. vulnificus-related SSTI. V. vulnificus-infected patients having hemorrhagic bullous/blistering lesions or with an LRINEC score of 2 or greater should be thoughtfully evaluated for the presence of NF. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test study, level II.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the second leading cause of death during the last 3 years in Taiwan. Smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages, and endothelial cells produce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) within atherosclerotic plaques following binding to the chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2). Previous studies have well-documented the association between MCP-1 expression and susceptibility to, or clinicopathological features, of CAD. This study investigated the relationships between MCP-1-2518A/G and CCR-2-V64I genetic polymorphisms and CAD in the Taiwanese population. A total of 608 subjects, including 392 non-CAD controls and 216 patients with CAD, were recruited and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to evaluate the effects of these two polymorphic variants on CAD. Results indicated a significant association between MCP-1 -2548 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to CAD. GG genotypes (OR = 1.629; 95 % CI = 1.003-2.644), or individuals with at least one G allele (OR = 1.511; 95 % CI = 1.006-2.270), had a higher risk of CAD as compared with AA genotypes. Results also revealed that subjects with at least one A allele of the V64I CCR2 gene polymorphism had significantly increased risk of CAD. G allele in MCP-1-2518 might contribute to higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation in CAD patients (OR = 4.254; p < 0.05). In conclusion, MCP-1-2518G and CCR-2 64I gene polymorphisms represent important factors in determining susceptibility to CAD, and the contribution of MCP-1-2518G could be through effects on atrial fibrillation in CAD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims. To assess safety and efficacy of valsartan/amlodipine combination in hypertensive Taiwanese patients. Methods. This 12-week, multi-center, prospective, observational, post-marketing study enrolled 1029 patients to receive valsartan/amlodipine combination alone or as add-on to other antihypertensives. Efficacy was evaluated by blood pressure (BP) control rate (in mmHg; non-diabetics, < 140/90; diabetics, < 130/80) at Week 12 and BP-lowering ability at Weeks 4 and 12. Additionally, responder rate (sitting-SBP < 140 for baseline SBP ≥ 140 or sitting-DBP < 90 for baseline DBP ≥ 90, or SBP reduction > 20 or DBP reduction > 10 from baseline) was determined. Major findings. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 12.15% patients; dizziness, cough, and peripheral edema were the most commonly reported AEs. Overall BP control rate was 48.27%. Greater BP reduction was noted at Week 12 than at Week 4 between all groups and subgroups. Greater SBP/DBP reduction was observed in patients with stage 2 hypertension than stage 1 hypertension at baseline. The overall responder rate was 78.52%. Subgroup analysis showed greater BP reduction in non-diabetics than diabetics; only SBP reduction reached statistical significance (- 13.7 [18.3] vs. - 10.7 [17.4] mmHg; p < 0.0093). Principal conclusion. Valsartan/amlodipine combination was well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified and an effective treatment option for hypertensive Taiwanese patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension generally requires the use of a combination therapy to achieve the satisfactory control of blood pressure. A traditional Chinese herb, Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been shown to have cardioprotective effects in animals and humans. The study investigated the add-on effect of Fufang Danshen extract capsule in Taiwanese hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, single-center study clinical trial. Fifty-five patients with uncontrolled mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled under current conventional antihypertensive treatment, randomized equally to receive a Fufang Danshen capsule (formula mixture) 1000 mg twice-daily or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Primary endpoints were the control rate and the response rate. By ITT analysis at week 12, the control rates were 25.5% in the Fufang Danshen group and 7.3% in the control group (p = 0.016). The response rates were 45.6% in the Fufang Danshen group and 38.2% in the placebo group (p = 0.946). A significant reduction of systolic blood pressure at week 12 was noted in the Fufang Danshen group compared with the placebo group (13.8 vs 4.2 mmHg, p = 0.005). A decrease of pulse rate was also noted in the Fufang Danshen group (- 3.2 vs +2.7/min, p = 0.027). Adverse events were not statistically different between the two groups. It was concluded that Fufang Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) extract reduced systolic blood pressure and pulse rate, and was well tolerated in patients with hypertension.
Phytotherapy Research 02/2012; 26(2):291-8. DOI:10.1002/ptr.3548 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate graft and patient survival and long-term outcomes of primary endoluminal stenting (PES) as an initial treatment for transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS).
From December 1999 to March 2010, 744 consecutive patients undergoing renal transplantation were enrolled. Patients were divided into one of two groups: the study group, comprised of 18 patients who underwent PES for TRAS > 60%, and a control group, including the remaining 726 recipients who did not develop TRAS post-transplantation. Primary outcome measures were death-censored graft failure and all-cause mortality. The immediate and long-term effects of PES were evaluated by assessing blood pressure (BP) control and biochemical graft function.
The technical success rate for PES was 100%, and minor complication occurred in only one case (5.6% of the study group). With a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 3.7 and 6.9 ± 2.4 years in the study and control groups, respectively, 4 patients in the study group and 113 patients in the control group reached the primary outcome (log rank P = 0.418). The reduction in stenosis resulted in immediate improvement in BP control and graft function, which persisted throughout the 6 year follow-up period. Restenosis occurred in only one patient (5.6%), but restenosis was not the cause of graft failure.
This study indicated that both the long-term graft and patient survival were as good in TRAS patients treated with PES as in patients without TRAS. The data also supported the use of PES as an initial treatment for TRAS.
World Journal of Surgery 11/2011; 36(1):222-8. DOI:10.1007/s00268-011-1312-3 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achieving the maximum reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is the primary goal of blood pressure (BP) control. Current guidelines recommend several antihypertensive classes as first-line therapy for this purpose but the decision on which agent/s to use will likely be based upon the treating physician's clinical experience. Observational studies provide a useful way of ascertaining the efficacy and tolerability of an antihypertensive in a real-life clinical setting.
The aim of this observational study was to determine the efficacy, tolerability and physician/patient satisfaction with long-acting nifedipine (gastrointestinal therapeutic system [GITS]/osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system [OROS]) in a large multinational cohort of hypertensive patients.
This observational study was conducted in adults (aged ≥18 years) with previously untreated or treated hypertension. The decision to prescribe nifedipine 30 or 60 mg once daily was made by the treating physician. Patients then attended up to three clinic visits any time over a 12-week period when medication could be up- or down-titrated or switched. The mean reduction in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) from first visit and whether target BP (<140/<90 mmHg or <130/<80 mmHg [for patients with diabetes mellitus]) had been achieved were recorded at the final visit and stratified according to hypertension grade and presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Subjective assessment of efficacy was reported by physicians and patients. All adverse events and their possible relationship to study drug were recorded. All assessments were performed on patients who received at least one dose of nifedipine GITS/OROS.
A total of 14 344 patients received nifedipine GITS/OROS treatment (58.7% male; 77.7% non-diabetic; mean age 57.5 years); 14 266 had at least one follow-up visit over a mean 10.2-week period, and 8000 patients had three visits over a mean 12-week period. Initially, 12 826 (89.4%) patients received nifedipine 30 mg, and 6912 patients (48.2%) overall received concomitant antihypertensive agents. The overall mean reduction in SBP/DBP was -27.7/-14.1 mmHg; BP reduction was linked to hypertension grade, age, the presence of five or more cardiovascular risk factors, and prior treatment. Target BP was achieved in 2485/7432 patients (33.4%) receiving nifedipine GITS/OROS monotherapy and in 1751/6912 (25.3%) receiving combination therapy (i.e. GITS/OROS plus any other antihypertensive agent). Non-diabetic patients with moderate (n = 3413) and high (n = 1138) risk reached their target BP goal in 62.5% and 54.2% of cases, respectively; the corresponding values in diabetic patients (moderate-added risk n = 8; high-added risk n = 684) were 75.0% and 54.8%, respectively. A total of 229 patients (1.6%) reported experiencing 286 adverse events. Physician/patient satisfaction with treatment was high.
Long-acting nifedipine GITS/OROS, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, provides effective and well tolerated treatment of hypertension in a broad spectrum of patients routinely seen in day-to-day clinical practice.
Clinical Drug Investigation 05/2011; 31(9):631-42. DOI:10.2165/11588970-000000000-00000 · 1.70 Impact Factor