[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by adding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to conventional methods and to describe the clinical and laboratory features between patients with bacterial pneumonia (BP) and viral pneumonia (VP). Adults with CAP admitted from November 2009 to October 2010 were included. Demographics, comorbidities, severity and clinical features were recorded. Conventional microbiological methods included blood and sputum cultures, acute and convalescent serologic samples, and antigen urinary detection. New methods included multiplex PCR for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis and 15 respiratory viruses. A total of 169 patients were included. Using conventional methods, we identified a pathogen in 51 % of cases. With PCR, up to 70 % of cases had an aetiological diagnosis. Forty-five patients had BP (34 %), 22 had VP (17 %) and 25 (19 %) had co-infection (BP and VP). Pneumococci and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the most frequently identified pathogens. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) median values were significantly higher in BP than in VP patients. Shaking chills, higher CURB score and shock were significantly more frequent in BP. A viral infection was identified in more than one-third of patients with CAP. Clinical and laboratory features could help to differentiate between VP and BP and to guide empirical therapy.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 05/2012; 31(10):2765-72. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolation in patients hospitalised for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation remain controversial. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for PA isolation in sputum at hospital admission in a prospective cohort of patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. We prospectively studied all patients with COPD exacerbation admitted to our hospital between June 2003 and September 2004. Suspected predictors of PA isolation were studied. Spirometry tests and 6-min walking tests were performed 1 month after the patients were discharged. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in a randomised manner in one out of every two patients to quantify the presence and extent of bronchiectasis. Patients were followed up during the following year for hospital re-admissions. A total of 188 patients were included, of whom 31 (16.5%) had PA in sputum at initial admission. The BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity) index (OR 2.18, CI 95% 1.26-3.78; p = 0.005), admissions in the previous year (OR 1.65, CI 95% 1.13-2.43; p = 0.005), systemic steroid treatment (OR 14.7, CI 95% 2.28-94.8; p = 0.01), and previous isolation of PA (OR 23.1, CI 95% 5.7-94.3; p<0.001) were associated with PA isolation. No relationship was seen between bronchiectasis in HRCT and antibiotic use in the previous 3 months. PA in sputum at hospital admission is more frequent in patients with poorer scoring on the BODE index, previous hospital admissions, oral corticosteroids and prior isolation of PA.
European Respiratory Journal 05/2009; 34(5):1072-8. · 6.36 Impact Factor