Kiyokazu Agata

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (177)590.79 Total impact

  • Shigeru Kuratani, Kiyokazu Agata
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 10/2014; 31(10):623. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; 449(4):412–418. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Planarians have strong regenerative abilities derived from their adult pluripotent stem cell (neoblast) system. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in planarian regeneration have long remained a mystery. In particular, no anterior-specifying factor(s) could be found, although Wnt family proteins had been successfully identified as posterior-specifying factors during planarian regeneration (Gurley et al., 2008; Petersen and Reddien, 2008; Hayashi et al., 2011). A recent textbook of developmental biology therefore proposes a Wnt antagonist as a putative anterior factor (Gilbert, 2013). That is, planarian regeneration was supposed to be explained by a single decreasing gradient of the β-catenin signal from tail to head. However, recently we succeeded in demonstrating that in fact the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK) form a decreasing gradient from head to tail to direct the reorganization of planarian body regionality after amputation (Umesono et al., 2013).
    Zoology 06/2014; · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonicatyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) involved in mRNA metabolism in mammals have been believed to downregulate the corresponding mRNA expression level in a pre- or post-transcriptional manner by forming short or long ncRNA-mRNA duplex structures. Information on non-duplex-forming long ncRNAs is now also rapidly accumulating. To examine the directional properties of transcription at the whole-genome level, we performed directional RNA-seq analysis of mouse and chimpanzee tissue samples. We found that there is only about 1% of the genome where both the top and bottom strands are utilized for transcription, suggesting that RNA-RNA duplexes are not abundantly formed. Focusing on transcription start sites (TSSs) of protein-coding genes revealed that a significant fraction of them contain switching-points that separate antisense- and sense-biased transcription, suggesting that head-to-head transcription is more prevalent than previously thought. More than 90% of head-to-head type promoters contain CpG islands. Moreover, CCG and CGG repeats are significantly enriched in the upstream regions and downstream regions, respectively, of TSSs located in head-to-head type promoters. Genes with tissue-specific promoter-associated ncRNAs (pancRNAs) show a positive correlation between the expression of their pancRNA and mRNA, which is in accord with the proposed role of pancRNA in facultative gene activation, whereas genes with constitutive expression generally lack pancRNAs. We propose that single-stranded ncRNA resulting from head-to-head transcription at GC-rich sequences regulates tissue-specific gene expression.
    BMC Genomics 01/2014; 15(1):35. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regeneration of a lost tissue in an animal is an important issue. Although regenerative studies have a history of research spanning more than a century, the gene functions underlying regulation of the regeneration are mostly unclear. Analysis of knockout animals is a very powerful tool with which to elucidate gene function. Recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have been developed as an effective technique for genome editing. This technique enables gene targeting in amphibians such as newts that were previously impossible. Here we show that newts microinjected with TALEN mRNAs designed for targeting the tyrosinase gene in single-cell stage embryos revealed an albino phenotype. Sequence analysis revealed that the tyrosinase genes were effectively disrupted in these albino newts. Moreover, precise genome alteration was achieved using TALENs and single strand oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Our results suggest that TALENs are powerful tools for genome editing for regenerative research in newts.
    Embryologia 12/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In natural forests, hundreds of fungal species colonize plant roots. The preference or specificity for partners in these symbiotic relationships is a key to understanding how the community structures of root-associated fungi and their host plants influence each other. In an oak-dominated forest in Japan, we investigated the root-associated fungal community based on a pyrosequencing analysis of the roots of 33 plant species. Of the 387 fungal taxa observed, 153 (39.5%) were identified on at least two plant species. Although many mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi are shared between the plant species, the five most common plant species in the community had specificity in their association with fungal taxa. Likewise, fungi displayed remarkable variation in their association specificity for plants even within the same phylogenetic or ecological groups. For example, some fungi in the ectomycorrhizal family Russulaceae were detected almost exclusively on specific oak (Quercus) species, whereas other Russulaceae fungi were found even on "non-ectomycorrhizal" plants (e.g., Lyonia and Ilex). Putatively endophytic ascomycetes in the orders Helotiales and Chaetothyriales also displayed variation in their association specificity and many of them were shared among plant species as major symbionts. These results suggest that the entire structure of belowground plant-fungal associations is described neither by the random sharing of hosts/symbionts nor by complete compartmentalization by mycorrhizal type. Rather, the colonization of multiple types of mycorrhizal fungi on the same plant species and the prevalence of diverse root-endophytic fungi may be important features of belowground linkage between plant and fungal communities.
    Ecology and Evolution 09/2013; 3(9):3112-3124. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The planarian Dugesia japonica can regenerate a complete individual from a head, trunk or tail fragment via activation of somatic pluripotent stem cells. About a century ago, Thomas Hunt Morgan attempted to explain the extraordinary regenerative ability of planarians by positing two opposing morphogenetic gradients of formative "head stuff" and "tail stuff" along the anterior-posterior axis. However, Morgan's hypothesis remains open to debate. Here we show that extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways establish a solid framework for planarian regeneration. Our data suggest that ERK signalling forms a spatial gradient in the anterior region during regeneration. The fibroblast growth factor receptor-like gene nou-darake (which serves as an output of ERK signalling in the differentiating head) and posteriorly biased β-catenin activity negatively regulate ERK signalling along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct manners, and thereby posteriorize regenerating tissues outside the head region to reconstruct a complete head-to-tail axis. On the basis of this knowledge about D. japonica, we proposed that β-catenin signalling is responsible for the lack of head-regenerative ability of tail fragments in the planarian Phagocata kawakatsui, and our confirmation thereof supports the notion that posterior β-catenin signalling negatively modulates the ERK signalling involved in anteriorization across planarian species. These findings suggest that ERK signalling has a pivotal role in triggering globally dynamic differentiation of stem cells in a head-to-tail sequence through a default program that promotes head tissue specification in the absence of posteriorizing signals. Thus, we have confirmed the broad outline of Morgan's hypothesis, and refined it on the basis of our proposed default property of planarian stem cells.
    Nature 07/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
  • Shota Nakanoh, Kenji Okazaki, Kiyokazu Agata
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    ABSTRACT: As amniotes diversified, mammals may have modified mechanisms of cellular pluripotency along with the acquisition of a placenta. What then defined pluripotent states in the ancestral amniotes? To study the evolutionary background of pluripotency in amniotes, we tested the effects of extracellular effectors on primary culture cells from avian and reptile embryos in serum-free medium. When treated with a combination of a MEK inhibitor and a GSK3 inhibitor (2i condition), chicken early embryos formed domed colonies (DCs), which were morphologically indistinguishable from the colonies formed by mouse and rat naïve embryonic stem cells. However, no DCs formed when cells from further-developed embryos were cultured in the 2i condition, indicating that there is a clear boundary of DC-forming ability at around the stage of primitive streak elongation. Quail embryos at the blastoderm and cleavage stages also formed DCs in the 2i condition, which is consistent with the notion that the appearance of DCs corresponds with the presence of pluripotent cells in embryos. Gecko blastoderms also formed DCs in the 2i condition, but gastrulas did not. ERK activation by bFGF caused an effect opposite to that of the 2i condition, namely, it dispersed colonies of cells even from early embryos in all species examined. These results suggest that the regulation of pluripotency by FGF/ERK signaling may date back at least to the common ancestor of mammals, birds, and reptiles. However, gene expression analysis indicated the possibility that mammalian pluripotency transcription factors function differently in non-mammalian amniotes.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 07/2013; 30(7):543-52. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Low magnification image of planarian flatworms (Schmidtea mediterranea) fed with liver paste containing either red, green, yellow, or blue food dye. Uptake of colored liver paste containing in vitro synthesized double-stranded RNA is readily visualized in the planarian gut. Ingestion and processing of double-stranded RNA in the planarian gut leads to systemic RNA-interference. Image credit: Labib Rouhana and Phillip A. Newmark, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. From RNA Interference by feeding in vitro-synthesized double-stranded RNA to planarians, Labib Rouhana, Jennifer A. Weiss, David J. Forsthoefel, Hayoung Lee, Ryan S. King, Takeshi Inoue, Norito Shibata, Kiyokazu Agata, and Phillip A. Newmark, Developmental Dynamics 242:718-730, 2013.
    Developmental Dynamics 06/2013; 242(6):C1. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animals that possess regenerative abilities are widespread in the animal kingdom. Hydra, planarian, zebrafish, newt and axolotl are known prominent species, and the cellular aspects of the stem cell system for regeneration are well elucidated. However, few animals can be used to investigate the molecular basis of neuronal regeneration, in spite of the presence of prominent regenerative animals, as mentioned above. Planarians, for instance, can regenerate a functional brain after amputation in a few days, even from non-brain tissue. Newts can regenerate several tissues and organs (i.e., lens, limbs, jaws, hearts and tails) with recovery of function and physiology after injury or tissue removal. These animals achieve regeneration of missing nervous system utilizing stem cells. However, it is difficult to regenerate nervous system in mammalians, including human beings, although these animals possess neural stem cells. Therefore, regenerative animals provide unique opportunities to investigate the generation and utilization of stem cells to repair lost or injured tissue in non-regenerative animals. On the other hand, the successful derivation of neural cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under in vitro conditions provides a new experimental strategy for clinical translation. In other words, although human beings lack regenerative abilities, the new clinical strategy of “regenerative medicine,” including cell-transplantation therapy, has been developed to recover lost neural functions by using stem cells. This research field has become a greatly advancing scientific field worldwide. In this chapter, we focus on the molecular systems of generation of functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vivo and/or in vitro in regenerative and non-regenerative animals. The first topic investigates how regenerative animals recruit new DA neurons from stem cells after injury. The second topic explores how to generate DA neurons from mammalian ESCs and iPSCs under in vitro conditions. The third topic evaluates clinical applications for human neural disease, especially Parkinson’s disease.
    04/2013: pages 271-286; , ISBN: 978-953-51-1069-9
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The ability to assess gene function is essential for understanding biological processes. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) is the only technique available to assess gene function in planarians, in which it has been induced via injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), soaking, or ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. Results: We describe a simple and robust RNAi protocol, involving in vitro synthesis of dsRNA that is fed to the planarians. Advantages of this protocol include the ability to produce dsRNA from any vector without subcloning, resolution of ambiguities in quantity and quality of input dsRNA, as well as time, and ease of application. We have evaluated the logistics of inducing RNAi in planarians using this methodology in careful detail, from the ingestion and processing of dsRNA in the intestine, to timing and efficacy of knockdown in neoblasts, germline, and soma. We also present systematic comparisons of effects of amount, frequency, and mode of dsRNA delivery. Conclusions: This method gives robust and reproducible results and is amenable to high-throughput studies. Overall, this RNAi methodology provides a significant advance by combining the strengths of current protocols available for dsRNA delivery in planarians and has the potential to benefit RNAi methods in other systems. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.
    Developmental Dynamics 02/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebrates have achieved great evolutionary success due in large part to the anatomical diversification of their jaw complex, which allows them to inhabit almost every ecological niche. While many studies have focused on mechanisms that pattern the jaw skeleton, much remains to be understood about the origins of novelty and diversity in the closely associated musculature. To address this issue, we focused on parrots, which have acquired two anatomically unique jaw muscles: the ethmomandibular and the pseudomasseter. In parrot embryos, we observe distinct and highly derived expression patterns for Scx, Bmp4, Tgfβ2 and Six2 in neural crest-derived mesenchyme destined to form jaw muscle connective tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis reveals that cell proliferation is more active in the cells within the jaw muscle than in surrounding connective tissue cells. This biased and differentially regulated mode of cell proliferation in cranial musculoskeletal tissues may allow these unusual jaw muscles to extend towards their new attachment sites. We conclude that the alteration of neural crest-derived connective tissue distribution during development may underlie the spatial changes in jaw musculoskeletal architecture found only in parrots. Thus, parrots provide valuable insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that may generate evolutionary novelties with functionally adaptive significance.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 01/2013; 280(1752):20122319. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. RESULTS: Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 >= 50%). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution.
    BMC Genomics 11/2012; 13(1):604. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limb regeneration involves re-establishing a limb development program from cells within adult tissues. Identifying molecular handles that provide insight into the relationship between cell differentiation status and cell lineage is an important step to study limb blastema cell formation. Here, using single cell PCR, focussing on newly isolated Twist1 sequences, we molecularly profile axolotl limb blastema cells using several progenitor cell markers. We link their molecular expression profile to their embryonic lineage via cell tracking experiments. We use in situ hybridization to determine the spatial localization and extent of overlap of different markers and cell types. Finally, we show by single cell PCR that the mature axolotl limb harbors a small but significant population of Twist1(+) cells.
    Developmental Biology 10/2012; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbes are usually believed to have cosmopolitan distributions. However, for estimating the global distributions of microorganisms, discriminating among cryptic species and eliminating undersampling biases are important challenges. We used a novel approach to address these problems and infer the global distribution of a given fungal ecological guild. We collected mushroom-forming fungi from Yakushima, Japan. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from these samples and queried their sequences against GenBank. After identifying similar sequences, we tracked down the geographical origins of samples that yielded those sequences. We used Bayesian zero-inflated models to allow for species whose DNA sequences have not yet been deposited in GenBank. Results indicated that the geographical distribution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi was strongly constrained by host specificity, resulting in the occurrence of these fungi intensively in the neighbouring regions. On the other hand, saprotrophic (SAP) fungi were less constrained by climatic conditions, resulting in a much broader distribution range. We inferred that differences in constraints during colonization between ECM and SAP fungi were responsible for the different geographical distribution ranges. We hypothesize that the degree of host/habitat specificity and the degree of isolation of potentially suitable habitats determine microbial biogeographic patterns.
    Molecular Ecology 10/2012; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DJ-1/PARK7 has multiple functions as an antioxidant, an oncogene, and a molecular chaperone in vertebrates, and loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 cause early onset of Parkinson's disease. However, the function of invertebrate DJ-1 remains unknown. In order to investigate the function of planarian DJ-1, we isolated the planarian DJ-1 gene Dugesia japonica DJ-1 (DjDJ-1) and analyzed its expression and function. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that DjDJ-1 mRNA was expressed throughout the body, including the central nervous system, cells surrounding the pharynx, and stem cells. Planarian DjDJ-1 protein exhibited antioxidant function, similar to human DJ-1, as evidenced by the fact that recombinant DjDJ-1 protein reduced reactive oxygen species and protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from cell death. In addition, dopaminergic neurons in DjDJ-1(RNAi) planarians became susceptible to 6-hydroxydopamine, a dopaminergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that planarians have a DJ-1 ortholog, which has conserved antioxidant and neuroprotective functions.
    Neuroscience Research 09/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is widely accepted that juvenile animals can regenerate faster than adults. For example, in the case of lens regeneration of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster, larvae and adults require approximately 30 and 80 days for completion of lens regeneration, respectively. However, when we carefully observed lens regeneration in C. pyrrhogaster at the cellular level using molecular markers in the present study, we found that lens regeneration during the larval stage proceeded at similar speed and by means of similar steps to those in adults. Results: We could not find any drastic difference between regeneration at these two stages, except that the size of the eyes was very different. Conclusions: Our observations suggested that larvae could regenerate a lens of the original size within a shorter time than adults because the larval lens was smaller than the adult lens, but the speed of regeneration was not faster in larvae. In addition, by repeatedly observing the regeneration in one individual transgenic newt that expressed fluorescence specifically in lens fiber cells in vivo and comparing the regeneration process at the embryonic, larval, and postmetamorphosis stages, we confirmed that the regeneration speed was the same at each of these stages in the same individual. Developmental Dynamics 241:1575-1583, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Developmental Dynamics 08/2012; 241(10):1575-83. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Planarians are considered to be among the extant animals close to one of the earliest groups of organisms that acquired a central nervous system (CNS) during evolution. Planarians have a bilobed brain with nine lateral branches from which a variety of external signals are projected into different portions of the main lobes. Various interneurons process different signals to regulate behavior and learning/memory. Furthermore, planarians have robust regenerative ability and are attracting attention as a new model organism for the study of regeneration. Here we conducted large-scale EST analysis of the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica to construct a database of the head-region transcriptome, and then performed comparative analyses among related species. RESULTS: A total of 54,752 high-quality EST reads were obtained from a head library of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and 13,167 unigene sequences were produced by de novo assembly. A new method devised here revealed that proteins related to metabolism and defense mechanisms have high flexibility of amino-acid substitutions within the planarian family. Eight-two CNS-development genes were found in the planarian (cf. C. elegans 3; chicken 129). Comparative analysis revealed that 91% of the planarian CNS-development genes could be mapped onto the schistosome genome, but one-third of these shared genes were not expressed in the schistosome. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed a database that is a useful resource for comparative planarian transcriptome studies. Analysis comparing homologous genes between two planarian species showed that the potential of genes is important for accumulation of amino-acid substitutions. The presence of many CNS-development genes in our database supports the notion that the planarian has a fundamental brain with regard to evolution and development at not only the morphological/functional, but also the genomic, level. In addition, our results indicate that the planarian CNS-development genes already existed before the divergence of planarians and schistosomes from their common ancestor.
    BMC Genomics 06/2012; 13(1):289. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A hallmark of stem cells is the ability to sustainably generate stem cells themselves (self-renew) as well as differentiated cells. Although a full understanding of this ability will require clarifying underlying the primordial molecular and cellular mechanisms, how stem cells maintain their stem state and their population in the evolutionarily oldest extant multicellular organisms, sponges, is poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of the first stem cell-specific gene in demosponges, a homolog of Musashi (an evolutionarily conserved RNA binding protein that regulates the stem cell state in various organisms). EflMsiA, a Musashi paralog, is specifically expressed in stem cells (archeocytes) in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis. EflMsiA protein is localized predominantly in the nucleus, with a small fraction in the cytoplasm, in archeocytes. When archeocytes enter M-phase, EflMsiA protein diffuses into the cytoplasm, probably because of the breakdown of the nuclear membrane. In the present study, the existence of two types of M-phase archeocytes [(M)-archeocytes] was revealed by a precise analysis of the expression levels of EflMsiA mRNA and protein. In Type I (M)-archeocytes, presumably archeocytes undergoing self-renewal, the expression levels of EflMsiA mRNA and protein were high. In Type II (M)-archeocytes, presumably archeocytes committed to differentiate (committed archeocytes), the expression levels of EflMsiA mRNA and protein were about 60% and 30% lower than those in Type I (M)-archeocytes. From these results, archeocytes can be molecularly defined for the first time as EflMsiA-mRNA-expressing cells. Furthermore, these findings shed light on the mode of cell division of archeocytes and suggest that archeocytes divide symmetrically for both self-renewal and differentiation.
    Mechanisms of development 03/2012; 129(1-4):24-37. · 2.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
590.79 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Kyoto University
      • • Department of Biophysics
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2012
    • Nagoya University
      • Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 2003–2012
    • Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
      • Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Physiology
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2010
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty of Science and Graduate School of Science
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1993–2009
    • Himeji Institute of Technology
      • Faculty of Science
      Himezi, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2008
    • Osaka City University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1988–2008
    • National Institute for Basic Biology
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 2007
    • University of Hyogo
      • Graduate School of Life Science
      Akō, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • 1998–2007
    • Kobe University
      • Faculty of Science
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2005–2006
    • RIKEN
      • • Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology
      • • Center for Developmental Biology (CDB)
      Wako, Saitama-ken, Japan
    • Hokkaido University
      • Laboratory of Analytical Geomechanics
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2003–2004
    • National Institute of Genetics
      • Center for Information Biology
      Mishima, Shizuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2002
    • Osaka University
      • Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Ibaraki, Osaka-fu, Japan
    • Okayama University
      • Department of Biology
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 1994
    • Shinshu University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Matsumoto, Nagano-ken, Japan
  • 1991
    • National Institute of Animal Health
      Ibaragi, Ōsaka, Japan