[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report is an open-label case series of seven depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder treated with uridine for 6 weeks. Treatment response was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Uridine was associated with decreased depressive symptoms, and was well tolerated by study participants. Further systematic studies of uridine are warranted.
Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 04/2011; 21(2):171-5. DOI:10.1089/cap.2010.0054 · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.
Depression research and treatment 01/2011; 2011(2090-1321):650450. DOI:10.1155/2011/650450
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder that is often associated with suicide. We have recently suggested that elevation may play a role in regional variations in rates of suicide. We hypothesize that there is also a significant correlation between incidence of MDD and elevation of residence.
The substate estimates from the 2004 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) report from SAMHSA was used to extract substate level data related to percentages of people 18 years or older who experienced serious psychological distress or a major depressive episode in the past year. Mean elevation of each substate region was calculated by averaging the weighted elevations of its relevant counties. Average elevation for United States counties was calculated using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation dataset. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to investigate the association between average substate elevation and rate of serious psychological distress or major depressive episode.
There was a significant correlation between percentage of people experiencing serious psychological distress in the past year in a substate region and that substate region's mean elevation (r=0.18; p=0.0005), as well as between the percentage of people having at least one major depressive episode in the past year in a substate region and that substate region's mean elevation (r=0.27; p0.0001).
Elevation appears to be a significant risk factor for MDD. Further studies are indicated to determine whether the increased incidence of depression with increased elevation may be due to the hypoxic effects on subjects with MDD.