[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clerodendron capitatum (Willd) (family: verbenaceae) is locally named as Gung and used traditionally to treat erectile dysfunction. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the erectogenic properties of C. capitatum. The relaxation effect of this plant was tested on phenylephrine precontracted rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). The effects of C. capitatum were also examined on isolated Guinea pig atria alone, in the presence of calcium chloride (Ca(2+) channel blocker), atropine (cholinergic blocker), and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker). These effects were confirmed on isolated rabbit aortic strips. The extract, when tested colorimetrically for its inhibitory activities on phosphordiesterase-5 (PDE-5) in vitro towards p-nitrophenyl phenyl phosphate (PNPPP), was observed to induce significant dose-dependent inhibition of PDE-5, with an ID(50) of 0.161 mg/ml (P < .05). In conclusion, our results suggest that C. capitatum possesses a relaxant effect on CCSM, which is attributable to the inhibition of PDE-5, but not mediated by the release calcium, activation of adrenergic or cholinergic receptors, or the activation of potassium channels.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:137386. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities of aqueous-methanolic extract (CAME) of Orthosiphonstamineus Benth(OS), and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), n-butanol (NBF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (WF) fractions were investigated. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using the assays of Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminiumtrichloride, β-carotene bleaching and DPPH. The role of OS against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on MDA-M231 epithelial cells was examined using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope, colorimetric assay of caspase-3, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EAF showed the highest total phenolic content followed by CAME, NBF, WF, CF and HF, respectively. Flavonoid content was in the order of the CF > EAF > HF > CAME > NBF > WF. The IC(50) values on DPPH assay for different extract/fractions were 126.2 ± 23, 31.25 ± 1.2, 15.25 ± 2.3, 13.56 ± 1.9, 23.0 ± 3.2, and 16.66 ± 1.5 μg/ml for HF, CF, EAF, NBF, WF and CAME, respectively. OSreduced the oxidation of β-carotene by hydroperoxides. Cell death was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with OS. Caspase-3 and distinct morphological features suggest the anti-apoptotic activities of OS. This plant not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, but also decreased Bax expression, and ultimately reduced H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. The current results showed that phenolics may provide health and nutritional benefits.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2011; 2011:156765. · 1.72 Impact Factor