[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of unoprostone on neurite extension of cultured retinal pieces and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in the crushed optic nerve of adult cats.
The retinal pieces were cultured with unoprostone or its primary metabolite, M1, dissolved in DMSO or polysorbate for 14 days, and the number and length of Tau-1-positive neurites and glial processes labeled with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies were examined. After the optic nerve was crushed, unoprostone was injected into the vitreous body and the crushed site. On day 12, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was injected into the vitreous body to anterogradely label the regenerated axons. On day 14, the optic nerve was excised and longitudinally sectioned. After peroxidase reaction, the number of axons regenerating beyond the crush site was examined.
The greatest number of neurites protruded from the cultured retinal pieces in 3 μM unoprostone and 3 μM M1. The neurite length was also the longest at 3 μM unoprostone and 3 μM M1, in which no glial processes were detected. After injections of 3 μM unoprostone, the final concentration in the vitreous humor, into the vitreous body and the crush site, the optic nerve fibers regenerated and extended beyond the crush site. In contrast, almost no fibers extended beyond the crush site after injection of phosphate-buffered saline.
The results indicate that intravitreal injection of unoprostone promotes regeneration of crushed optic nerve fibers in adult cats.
Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10384-013-0282-4 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been widely used to prevent the development of a variety of poor health conditions in premature infants including chronic lung disease, inflammation, circulatory failure, and shock. Although there are some reports of neurologic complications related to DEX exposure, its full effects on the premature brain have not been examined in detail. To investigate the effects of DEX on neural development, we first administered low doses (0.2mg/kg bodyweight or less) of the glucocorticoid to neonatal rats on a daily basis during the first postnatal week and examined subsequent behavioral alterations at the juvenile stage. DEX-treated rats exhibited not only a significant reduction in both somatic and brain weights but also learning disabilities as revealed in the shuttle avoidance test. The hippocampi of DEX-treated rats displayed a high apoptotic and a low mitotic cell density compared to control rats on day 7 after birth. In a subsequent experiment, neural stem/progenitor cells were cultured in the presence of DEX for 6days. The glucocorticoid inhibited cell growth without an increase in cell death. These results suggest that administration of DEX to premature infants induces neurological dysfunction via inhibition of the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells.
Early human development 11/2012; 89(5). DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.10.007 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, prevents excitatory amino acid-induced neuronal cell death by an as yet unknown mechanism. To reveal this mechanism, we pretreated neurons in culture with various inhibitors, and examined whether N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced neuronal cell death was reduced in the presence of CS-E. The inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) ameliorated NMDA-induced neuronal cell death, but did not affect the neuroprotective activity of CS-E. Among the growth factors with which CS-E can interact, high concentration of BDNF protected against the NMDA-induced neuronal cell death and strengthened neuroprotection by CS-E. CS-E, but neither CS-A nor CS-C, adsorbed to a subclass of neurons with nuclear condensation, namely pyknosis. Contactin-1 (CNTN-1), a putative receptor for neuritogenic activity of CS-E, was present in cortical neurons, but a neutralizing antibody to CNTN-1 did not block neuroprotective activity of CS-E. The results suggest that CS-E may prevent the progression of cell death at the early stages of excitotoxicity through a signaling pathway different from CNTN-1.
Neuroscience Research 09/2012; 74(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2012.08.009 · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Owing to advances in neonatal intensive care, many infants who are hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) can survive and grow, and are referred to as NICU survivors. However, social development in NICU survivors has not been fully explored.
To examine the social development of NICU survivors, a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used. The M-CHAT was completed by the parents of either NICU survivors (n= 117) or normally delivered children (control group, n= 112) during their regular medical checkups at a corrected age of 12 months.
Ninety percent of NICU survivors and 63% of control children did not pass the M-CHAT screen. As it was originally designed for children aged 18-30 months, failed M-CHAT items could have been due to developmental issues and not due to autistic spectrum disorders. However, there was a significant difference in the total number of items failed between the two groups. In particular, many NICU survivors did not pass on M-CHAT items, such as oversensitivity to noise, unusual finger movements, and attempts to attract attention. Concerning perinatal complications, infants with low birthweight and/or the need for respiratory support tended to have a higher number of failures on all M-CHAT items.
NICU survivors may have distinct developmental patterns of social communication, and should be followed up for assessment of social skills and neurological development.
Pediatrics International 03/2011; 53(6):858-66. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2011.03367.x · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SLC19A3 (solute carrier family 19, member 3) is a thiamin transporter with 12 transmembrane domains. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC19A3 cause two distinct clinical phenotypes, biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease and Wernicke's-like encephalopathy. Biotin and/or thiamin are effective therapies for both diseases.
We conducted on the detailed clinical, brain MRI and molecular genetic analysis of four Japanese patients in a Japanese pedigree who presented with epileptic spasms in early infancy, severe psychomotor retardation, and characteristic brain MRI findings of progressive brain atrophy and bilateral thalami and basal ganglia lesions.
Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed a disease locus at chromosome 2q35-37, which enabled identification of the causative mutation in the gene SLC19A3. A pathogenic homozygous mutation (c.958G > C, [p.E320Q]) in SLC19A3 was identified in all four patients and their parents were heterozygous for the mutation. Administration of a high dose of biotin for one year improved neither the neurological symptoms nor the brain MRI findings in one patient.
Our cases broaden the phenotypic spectrum of disorders associated with SLC19A3 mutations and highlight the potential benefit of biotin and/or thiamin treatments and the need to assess the clinical efficacy of these treatments.
BMC Medical Genetics 12/2010; 11(1):171. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-11-171 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroglycan C (NGC) is a transmembrane-type chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that promotes neurite outgrowth. To identify the ligand of NGC, we applied a detergent-solubilized membrane fraction of fetal rat brains to an NGC-immobilized affinity column. Several proteins were eluted from the column including an 18 kDa-band protein recognized by an anti-pleiotrophin antibody. The binding of pleiotrophin (PTN) to NGC was confirmed by a quartz crystal microbalance method and had a Kd of 8.7 nM. PTN bound to the acidic amino acid cluster of the NGC extracellular domain. In addition, PTN bound to both chondroitin sulfate-bearing NGC and chondroitinase-treated NGC prepared from the neonatal rat brain. These results suggest that NGC interacts with PTN.
Neurochemical Research 04/2010; 35(8):1131-7. DOI:10.1007/s11064-010-0164-9 · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains a critical issue. Cell transplantation therapy could be a potent treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases, but limited works on this kind of therapy have been reported for perinatal HI. In this study, the therapeutic effect of transplantation with neural stem/ progenitor cells (NSPCs) and chondrotinase ABC (ChABC) in a neonatal HI rat model is evaluated. Histological studies showed that the unaffected area of the brain in animals treated with NSPCs together with ChABC was significantly larger than that in the animals treated with vehicle or NSPCs alone. The wet weight of the brain that received the combined treatment was also significantly higher than those of the vehicle and their individual treatments. These results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of NSPCs with ChABC reduces brain injury in a rat neonatal HI model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a major microenvironmental molecule in the CNS, and there have been few reports about its neuroprotective activity. As neuronal cell death by excitotoxicity is a crucial phase in many neuronal diseases, we examined the effect of various CS preparations on neuronal cell death induced by the excitotoxicity of glutamate analogs. CS preparations were added to cultured neurons before and after the administration of glutamate analogs. Then, the extents of both neuronal cell death and survival were estimated. Pre-administration of a highly sulfated CS preparation, CS-E, significantly reduced neuronal cell death induced by not only NMDA but also (S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid or kainate. Neither CS preparations other than CS-E nor other highly sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin and dextran sulfate exerted any neuroprotective effects. NMDA-induced current in neurons was not changed by pre-administration of CS-E, but the pattern of protein-tyrosine phosphorylation was changed. In addition, the elevation of caspase 3 activity was significantly suppressed in CS-E-treated neurons. These results indicate that CS-E prevents neuronal cell death mediated by various glutamate receptors, and suggest that phosphorylation-related intracellular signals and the suppression of caspase 3 activation are implicated in neuroprotection by CS-E.
Journal of Neurochemistry 04/2008; 104(6):1565-76. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.05107.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroglycan C (NGC) is a transmembrane-type of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like module that is exclusively expressed in the CNS. Because ectodomain shedding is a common processing step for many transmembrane proteins, we examined whether NGC was subjected to proteolytic cleavage. Western blotting demonstrated the occurrence of a soluble form of NGC with a 75 kDa core glycoprotein in the soluble fraction of the young rat cerebrum. In contrast, full-length NGC with a 120 kDa core glycoprotein and its cytoplasmic fragment with a molecular size of 35 kDa could be detected in the membrane fraction. The soluble form of NGC was also detectable in culture media of fetal rat neurons, and the full-length form existed in cell layers. The amount of the soluble form in culture media was decreased by adding a physiological protease inhibitor such as a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 or TIMP-3, but not by adding TIMP-1. Both EGF-like and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of the NGC ectodomain may be regulated by this proteolytic processing.
Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2007; 102(5):1561-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04658.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-ischemia is a common cause of neonatal brain injuries. Nitric oxide (NO) is upregulated in the brain after hypoxia-ischemia and generally believed to exert a paradoxical effect on neurons, neurodestruction and neuroprotection, but it has not been demonstrated that NO is actually neuroprotective in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of nipradilol (3,4-dihydro-8-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino)-propoxy-3-nitroxy-2H-1-benzopyran), a potent NO donor, at various concentrations (0.1 muM to 1 mM in 5 mul PBS/brain) to neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic treatment. The extent of the infarct area in the brain was significantly reduced by injection of the 1 muM nipradilol solution. However, denitro-nipradilol (3,4-dihydro-8-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino)-propoxy-3-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran), that does not release NO, did not show the neuroprotective effect, suggesting that NO released from nipradilol exerts a neuroprotective effect on neonatal neurons.
Early Human Development 09/2007; 83(8):535-40. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.10.003 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) in immature neurons is higher than that expected for a passive distribution, therefore the equilibrium potential for chloride is more positive than the resting membrane potential, and the resulting GABA renders immature neurons depolarization. The higher [Cl(-)](i) in immature neurons is thought to be attributed to the uptake of Cl(-) mediated by NKCC1 (Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter). Thus, a dysfunction of this transporter could affect synaptic development through a GABA(A) receptor-mediated pathway. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of a Cl(-)-uptake inhibitor on the development of synaptic activities of rat neocortical neurons in culture. Chronic treatment with bumetanide at 10 microM during the culture diminished the amplitude of synaptically-driven rhythmic depolarizing potentials (RDPs) in neurons and also decreased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) but not of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Chronic treatment with bumetanide decreased vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-immunopositive particles without affecting paired-pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs), indicating decrease in the number of functional GABAergic synapses. Acute treatment with bumetanide (10 microM) decreased neuronal [Cl(-)](i), the amplitude of RDPs, and neuronal excitability, while bumetanide had no effect on RDPs and neuronal excitability in the presence of bicuculline. These results suggest that the uptake of Cl(-) by NKCC1 affects the development of inhibitory synapses by promoting a depolarizing GABA-mediated response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroglycan C (NGC) is a transmembrane-type chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. We report that the recombinant ectodomain of NGC core protein enhances neurite outgrowth from rat neocortical neurons in culture. Both protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors attenuated the NGC-mediated neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NGC promotes neurite outgrowth via PI3K and PKC pathways. The active sites of NGC for neurite outgrowth existed in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain and acidic amino acid (AA)-domain of the NGC ectodomain. The EGF-domain caused cells to extend preferentially one neurite from a soma, whereas the AA-domain caused several neurites to develop. The EGF-domain also enhanced neurite outgrowth from GABA-positive neurons, but the AA-domain did not. These results suggest that the EGF-domain and AA-domain have distinct functions in terms of neuritogenesis. From these findings, NGC can be considered to be involved in neuritogenesis in the developing central nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The behavior of cells is generally considered to be regulated by environmental factors, but the molecules in the milieu of neural stem cells have been little studied. We found by immunohistochemistry that chondroitin sulfate (CS) existed in the surroundings of nestin-positive cells or neural stem/progenitor cells in the rat ventricular zone of the telencephalon at embryonic day 14. Brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), including neurocan, phosphacan/receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta, and neuroglycan C, were detected in the ventricular zone. Neurospheres formed by cells from the fetal telencephalon also expressed these CSPGs and NG2 proteoglycan. To examine the structural features and functions of CS polysaccharides in the milieu of neural stem cells, we isolated and purified CS from embryonic day 14 telencephalons. The CS preparation consisted of two fractions differing in size and extent of sulfation: small CS polysaccharides with low sulfation and large CS polysaccharides with high sulfation. Interestingly, both CS polysaccharides and commercial preparations of dermatan sulfate CS-B and an E-type of highly sulfated CS promoted the fibroblast growth factor-2-mediated proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells. None of these CS preparations promoted the epidermal growth factor-mediated neural stem cell proliferation. These results suggest that these CSPGs are involved in the proliferation of neural stem cells as a group of cell microenvironmental factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroglycan C (NGC) is a membrane-spanning chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan that is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system (CNS). NGC dramatically changed its structure from a proteoglycan to a nonproteoglycan form with cerebellar development, whereas a small portion of NGC molecules existed in a nonproteoglycan form in the other areas of the mature CNS, suggesting that the CS glycosylation of NGC is developmentally regulated in the whole CNS. As primary cultured neurons and astrocytes from cerebral cortices expressed NGC in a proteoglycan form and in a nonproteoglycan form, respectively, CS glycosylation seems to be regulated differently depending on cell type. To investigate the glycosylation process, cell lines expressing a proteoglycan form of NGC would be favorable experimental models. When a mouse NGC cDNA was transfected into COS 1, PC12D, and Neuro 2a cells, only Neuro 2a cells, a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, expressed NGC bearing CS chains. In PC12D cells, although three intrinsic CS proteoglycans were detected, exogenously expressed NGC did not bear any short CS chains just like NGC in the mature cerebellum. This suggests that the addition of CS chains to the NGC core protein is regulated in a manner different from that of other CS proteoglycans. As the first step in investigating the CS glycosylation mechanism using Neuro 2a cells, we determined the CS attachment site as Ser-123 on the NGC core protein by site-directed mutagenesis. The CS glycosylation was not necessary for intracellular trafficking of NGC to the cell surface at least in Neuro 2a cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal X-irradiation can induce severe microcephaly in the brains of offspring. The possible alteration of neuronal synapse formation was examined in such X-irradiated rats with microcephaly using the whole-cell current clamp technique. The total number of neocortical cells from prenatally (E16) X-irradiated rats decreased to 16% of the control value, while the ratio of GABA-positive/MAP2-positive neurons increased 2.2-fold. Neocortical neurons from E17 normal rat fetuses cultured on monolayers of astrocytes for 7-10 days exhibited synchronized synaptically-driven rhythmic depolarizing potentials (RDPs). Neocortical neurons from prenatally (E15 or E16) X-irradiated rats also exhibited synchronized RDPs, however, their amplitude and the number of spikes decreased. These results suggest that, although neurons which survive in X-irradiated rats can form synapses, inhibitory inputs are predominant over excitatory inputs. It is possible that not only acute neuronal loss induced by X-irradiation but also increased inhibitory inputs in neocortex give rise to subsequent neurological disorders in X-irradiated rats.