Kifle W Michael

Jimma University, Djimma, Oromiya, Ethiopia

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Publications (6)7.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance. Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p = 0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p < 0.01). The malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, was however more abundant in villages nearer to the dam reservoir. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 13(1):161. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-161 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown the adverse health consequences of food insecurity on household members. To what extent this relationship is mediated by gender among adolescents has not been documented. We hypothesized that the health consequences of food insecurity would be more pronounced in girls compared with boys. We used the first-round data from a 5-year longitudinal family survey of 2084 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban, semiurban, and rural areas of southwest Ethiopia. Stratified random sampling was used to select households and adolescents. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare self-reported morbidity according to food-security status and gender after adjusting for nutritional and socioeconomic covariates. Overall, 29.9% of girls and 19.2% of boys reported illness during the previous 1 month before the survey. Food-insecure girls were twice as likely to report suffering from an illness (P < .01) compared with boys, and the risk of reported illness tripled when girls were food insecure and were part of food-insecure households (P < .01). Girls were 7.4 and 7.0 times more likely to report difficulties with activities because of poor health and having a feeling of tiredness/low energy compared with boys, respectively (P < .001). We report that in a food-insecure situation, gender is an important predictor of an adolescent's self-reported health status. Food-security interventions should consider gender as a key variable to narrow the gap in health between boys and girls.
    PEDIATRICS 02/2011; 127(2):e398-405. DOI:10.1542/peds.2010-0944 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM) is a harmful practice which has an effect on females’ well-being. However, the practice has continued to prevail in many cultures. Research on the social determinants of the practice and its continuation are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess what factors affect support for the continuation of female genital mutilation among adolescents in Jimma zone. METHODS: This study used data collected in the first round of the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth. A total of 2084 adolescents were interviewed from 3700 households using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, religiosity, access to electronic media, gender role attitudes, and support for the continuation of female circumcision was collected. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data using SPSS for windows version 12.0. Statistical tests were performed at the 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Among male respondents, five hundred seventy three (54%) said that marrying a circumcised girl was not important. However, 149 (14%) and 258 (24.4%) agreed that it is very important and important, respectively, to marry a circumcised girl. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender role attitudes, sex, place of residence, highest level of household education, and religion were important predictors of support for the continuation of female genital mutilation after adjustment for age and ethnicity. Adolescents who had more traditional gender role attitudes were 1.4 times more likely to support the continuation of female genital mutilation compared to adolescents with less traditional gender role attitudes (OR: 1.41; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.94). Female adolescents were 36% less likely to support (P<0.01) the continuation of FGM compared to their male counterparts (OR: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.49, 0.83). Compared to urban youth, those who live in semi-urban and rural areas were 1.46 and 1.52 times more likely to support the continuation of FGM, respectively(P<0.05). Similarly, the probability of supporting the continuation of FGM decreased steadily as the educational level in the household increased. CONCLUSION: One-fifth of the youth support the continuation of the practice. More traditional gender role attitudes, residence in rural areas, lower levels of household education, being very religious, and being Muslim were strong predictors of support for the continuation of FGM. Changing traditional gender role attitudes through public awareness campaigns that let the young people know the dangerous and harmful consequences of FGM and that involve religious leaders are recommended as useful strategies to reduce the practice . KEY WORDS: Youth, female genital mutilation,gender role, Jimma
    Fooyin Journal of Health Sciences 01/2009; 19(2):119 -129.
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    ABSTRACT: Female genital mutilation/cutting is a harmful practice which has effect on female's wellbeing. However, the practice has continued to prevail in many cultures. Research on the social determinants of the practice and its continuation are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess whether attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation is predicted by gender role perception among adolescents in Jimma zone.
  • Kifle W Michael · Tefera Belachew · Challi Jira
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with tuberculosis on the DOTS regimen in the four teaching health centers of Jimma zone to determine rate of defaulting and factors associated with it. All tuberculosis patients registered and treated using DOTS regimen in the 4 teaching health centers (THC's) from the second half of 1999 to December 30, 2000 were included in the study. A sub-sample of one hundred and fourteen 114 (56.2%) defaulters were traced at their homes and interviewed to elicit their reasons for defaulting. The study showed that overall rate of defaulting was 6.7%. The default rate from the DOTS regimen was found to be quite low when compared to the rate of defaulting from the standard regimen in Jimma zone. Socio-economic factors including distance of patients' residence from the health institution, lack of money for paying transportation and poor awareness about the disease were the major reasons contributing to poor compliance and defaulting. Designing community based strategies for DOTS regimen in order to make the drug available within the vicinity of the grass root community and strong information education and communication activities need to be employed in order to reduce the defaulter rate and improve the quality of treatment of tuberculosis cases by the DOTS regimen.
    Ethiopian medical journal 11/2004; 42(4):247-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Several studies have shown the adverse health consequences of food insecurity on household members. To what extent this relationship is mediated by gender among adolescents has not been documented. We hypothesized that the health consequences of food insecurity would be more pronounced in girls compared with boys. Methods: We used the first-round data from a 5-year longitudinal family survey of 2084 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban, semiurban, and rural areas of southwest Ethiopia. Stratified random sampling was used to select households and adolescents. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare self-reported morbidity according to food-security status and gender after adjusting for nutritional and socioeconomic covariates. Results: Overall, 29.9% of girls and 19.2% of boys reported illness during the previous 1 month before the survey. Food-insecure girls were twice as likely to report suffering from an illness (P < .01) compared with boys, and the risk of reported illness tripled when girls were food insecure and were part of food-insecure households (P < .01). Girls were 7.4 and 7.0 times more likely to report difficulties with activities because of poor health and having a feeling of tiredness/low energy compared with boys, respectively (P < .001). Conclusions: We report that in a food-insecure situation, gender is an important predictor of an adolescent's self-reported health status. Food-security interventions should consider gender as a key variable to narrow the gap in health between boys and girls.