K Kenneth Chao

William Beaumont Army Medical Center, El Paso, Texas, United States

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Publications (8)34.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate radiographic and metabolic response after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early lung tumors. Thirty-nine tumors were treated prospectively with SBRT (dose=48-60 Gy, 4-5 Fx). Thirty-six cases were primary NSCLC (T1N0=67%; T2N0=25%); three cases were solitary metastases. Patients were followed using CT and PET at 6, 16, and 52 weeks post-SBRT, with CT follow-up thereafter. RECIST and EORTC criteria were used to evaluate CT and PET responses. At median follow-up of 9 months (0.4-26), RECIST complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and stable disease (SD) rates were 3%, 43%, 54% at 6 weeks; 15%, 38%, 46% at 16 weeks; 27%, 64%, 9% at 52 weeks. Mean baseline tumor volume was reduced by 46%, 70%, 87%, and 96%, respectively at 6, 16, 52, and 72 weeks. Mean baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was 8.3 (1.1-20.3) and reduced to 3.4, 3.0, and 3.7 at 6, 16, and 52 weeks after SBRT. EORTC metabolic CR/PR, SD, and progressive disease rates were 67%, 22%, 11% at 6 weeks; 86%, 10%, 3% at 16 weeks; 95%, 5%, 0% at 52 weeks. SBRT yields excellent RECIST and EORTC based response. Metabolic response is rapid however radiographic response occurs even after 1-year post treatment.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 03/2011; 99(1):18-22. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided correction in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Twenty planning and 162 CBCT images from 20 patients undergoing lung SBRT were analyzed. The precorrection CBCT (CBCT after patient setup, no couch correction) was registered to planning CT using soft tissue; couch shift was applied, with a second CBCT for verification (postcorrection CBCT). Targets and normal structures were delineated on CBCTs: gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), cord, esophagus, lung, proximal bronchial tree, and aorta. Dose distributions on all organs manifested on each CBCT were compared with those planned on the CT. Without CBCT guided target position correction, target dose reduced with respect to treatment plan. Mean and standard deviation of treatment dose discrepancy from the plan were -3.2% (4.9%), -2.1% (4.4%), -6.1% (10.7%), and -3.5% (7%) for GTV D(99%), GTV D(95%), CTV D(99%), and CTV D(95%), respectively. With CBCT correction, the results were -0.4% (2.6%), 0.1% (1.7%), -0.3% (4.2%), and 0.5% (3%). Mean and standard deviation of the difference in normal organ maximum dose were 2.2% (6.5%) before correction and 2.4% (5.9%) after correction for esophagus; 6.1% (14.1%) and 3.8% (8.1%) for cord; 3.1% (17.5%) and 6.2% (9.8%) for proximal bronchial tree; and 17.7% (19.5%) and 14.1% (17%) for aorta. Online CBCT guidance improves the accuracy of target dose delivery for lung SBRT. However, treatment dose to normal tissue can vary regardless of the correction. Normal tissues should be considered during target registration, according to target proximity.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 12/2010; 78(5):1571-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2008; 72(1). · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine treatment accuracy and margins for stereotactic lung radiotherapy with and without cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance. Acquired for the study were 308 CBCT of 24 patients with solitary peripheral lung tumors treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients were immobilized in a stereotactic body frame (SBF) or alpha-cradle and treated with image guidance using daily CBCT. Four (T1) or five (T2/metastatic) 12-Gy fractions were prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV) edge. The PTV margin was >or=5 mm depending on a pretreatment estimate of tumor excursion. Initial daily setup was according to SBF coordinates or tattoos for alpha-cradle cases. A CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using soft tissue registration of the target. The initial setup error/precorrection position, was recorded for the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral directions. The couch was adjusted to correct the tumor positional error. A second CBCT verified tumor position after correction. Patients were treated in the corrected position after the residual errors were <or=2 mm. A final CBCT after treatment assessed intrafraction tumor displacement. The precorrection systematic (Sigma) and random errors (sigma) for the population ranged from 2-3 mm for SBF and 2-6 mm for alpha-cradle patients; postcorrection errors ranged from 0.4-1.0 mm. Calculated population margins were 9 to 13 mm (SBF) and 10-14 mm (cradle) precorrection, 1-2 mm (SBF), and 2-3 mm (cradle) postcorrection, and 2-4 mm (SBF) and 2-5 mm (cradle) posttreatment. Setup for stereotactic lung radiotherapy using a SBF or alpha-cradle alone is suboptimal. CBCT image guidance significantly improves target positioning and substantially reduces required target margins and normal tissue irradiation.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 03/2008; 70(4):1045-56. · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2007; 69(3). · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review our institution's experience of treating patients with the MammoSite (Cytyc Corp., Marlborough, MA) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI), for determining short-term treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity. From January 2000 to April 2006, 80 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) received adjuvant radiation using the MammoSite (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions prescribed to 1.0 cm from the balloon surface). Twenty-three patients (29%) had Stage 0 breast cancer, 46 (57%) had Stage I breast cancer, and 11 (14%) had Stage II breast cancer. The median follow-up was 22.1 months. Two ipsilateral breast-tumor recurrences (IBTRs) (2.5%) developed for a 3-year actuarial rate of 2.9% (no regional failures were observed). On molecular-based clonality assay evaluation, both recurrences were clonally related. Younger age at diagnosis was the only variable associated with IBTR (continuous variable, p = 0.044; categorical variable [<55 years vs. >/=55 years], p = 0.012). The percentages of patients with good/excellent cosmetic results at 12 and 36 months were 96.9% and 88.2%, respectively (p = NS). Patients with applicator-to-skin spacing <7 mm and those who received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy exhibited lower rates of good/excellent cosmetic results, though the association was not statistically significant. The overall incidence of symptomatic seromas and any seromas was 10% and 45%, respectively. The overall incidence of fat necrosis and infections was 8.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Early-stage breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant APBI using the MammoSite catheter exhibited a 3-year treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity similar to those observed with other forms of interstitial APBI at this length of follow-up.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 10/2007; 69(1):32-40. · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a complete pathologic analysis examining extracapsular extension (ECE) and microscopic spread of malignant cells beyond the prostate capsule to determine whether and when clinical target volume (CTV) expansion should be performed. A detailed pathologic analysis was performed for 371 prostatectomy specimens. All slides from each case were reviewed by a single pathologist (N.S.G.). The ECE status and ECE distance, defined as the maximal linear radial distance of malignant cells beyond the capsule, were recorded. A total of 121 patients (33%) were found to have ECE (68 unilateral, 53 bilateral). Median ECE distance=2.4 mm [range: 0.05-7.0 mm]. The 90th-percentile distance = 5.0 mm. Of the 121 cases with ECE, 55% had ECE distance>or=2 mm, 19%>or=4 mm, and 6%>or=6 mm. ECE occurred primarily posterolaterally along the neurovascular bundle in all cases. Pretreatment prostrate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason, pathologic Gleason, clinical stage, bilateral involvement, positive margins, percentage of gland involved, and maximal tumor dimension were associated with presence of ECE. Both PSA and Gleason score were associated with ECE distance. In all 371 patients, for those with either pretreatment PSA>or=10 or biopsy Gleason score>or=7, 21% had ECE>or=2 mm and 5%>or=4 mm beyond the capsule. For patients with both of these risk factors, 49% had ECE>or=2 mm and 21%>or=4 mm. For prostate cancer with ECE, the median linear distance of ECE was 2.4 mm and occurred primarily posterolaterally. Although only 5% of patients demonstrate ECE>4 to 5 mm beyond the capsule, this risk may exceed 20% in patients with PSA>or=10 ng/ml and biopsy Gleason score>or=7. As imaging techniques improve for prostate capsule delineation and as radiotherapy delivery techniques increase in accuracy, a posterolateral CTV expansion should be considered for patients at high risk.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 07/2006; 65(4):999-1007. · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 10/2005; 63. · 4.18 Impact Factor