Katarina Guttmannova

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (11)10.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Guided by a domain-specific cumulative risk model and an emerging notion of general and alcohol-specific influences, this study examined whether general and alcohol-specific influences from family, peer, and school contexts in childhood and adolescence differentially predict heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorder at two developmental periods: the transition to adulthood (age 21) and later in adulthood (age 33). Method: Data are from a longitudinal panel study (n = 808) examining the etiology of substance use problems and associated behavior problems from age 10 to age 33 in a Northwest United States urban community sample. The sample is ethnically diverse and evenly distributed by gender (51% male). Results: At age 21, alcohol problems were most consistently predicted by adolescent family alcohol and peer alcohol environments and by peer general environment, but not by general family functioning. Conversely, by age 33, alcohol problems were more consistently predicted by general poor family functioning in adolescence and not by family alcohol or any of the peer environment measures. Conclusions: Adolescent family and peer alcohol environment influenced alcohol problems at the transition to adulthood. However, alcohol problems later in adulthood were more strongly associated with general poor family functioning in adolescence. These results suggest that alcohol prevention efforts should involve both components designed to reduce alcohol-specific risk and components to improve general family and peer environments during childhood and adolescence. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 684-694, 2014).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs. 07/2014; 75(4):684-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Overwhelming evidence links parental use of marijuana and other substances to use among their children. Past research has established parent-child transmission of both substance-specific tendencies to use (e.g., marijuana to marijuana) and a general tendency to use any substance (e.g., marijuana to alcohol or cigarettes). Most studies of the effects of parent substance use on child use, however, have focused on current parent substance use. Few studies have considered the possibility that parent substance use that occurred at earlier developmental stages (e.g., in adolescence or young adulthood) may also have implications for the healthy development of children. The proposed study will examine links between parent current marijuana use, parent marijuana use in adolescence and early adulthood, and substance use onset among their children. Data will be drawn from two studies linking three generations, the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) and The SSDP Intergenerational Project (SSDP-TIP). SSDP began in 1985, and has followed a Washington State panel of 808 youth from ages 10-33. SSDP-TIP (N = 383 families) began in 2002, and includes those SSDP participants who are parents, their oldest biological child, and an additional caregiver, typically the SSDP parent’s spouse or partner. About 80% of TIP families continue to live in Washington. Seven waves of SSDP-TIP data have been collected, and participating children span ages 1 to 22 years. Analyses presented will focus on youth ages 6-18. Survival analysis will be conducted using SAS software, and analyses will reflect the accelerated longitudinal design of SSDP-TIP. Results show that parent current marijuana use predicted onset of child alcohol and cigarette use, but not child marijuana use. Parent adolescent and early adult marijuana use was unrelated to child initiation of alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana. Control variables included parent depressive symptoms in early adulthood, child gender, child birth cohort, and family current welfare receipt. Taken together with prior findings from TIP showing links between parent historical substance use and child social and cognitive functioning, results suggest that parent current substance use may be most closely linked to child substance use, whereas parent historical substance use may be more closely linked to child psychosocial functioning. Findings are discussed in light of the recent legalization of adult recreational marijuana use in Washington State.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug (SAMHSA, 2002). Previous research has commonly focused on timing of onset of marijuana use on comparing users and nonusers; less is known about predictors and consequences of other patterns of use. The present paper examines a) whether distinct trajectories of marijuana use can be identified from ages 14 to 30, and b) what childhood, adolescent, and adult environmental and individual factors distinguish membership in these trajectories. Marijuana use trajectories were estimated using Growth Mixture Modeling in Mplus from ages 14-30. Participants from the Seattle Social Development Project (N=808) reported general and marijuana-specific functioning of their family, school, peer, neighborhood environments at key points of convergence and divergence of trajectories (ages 10-14, 18, 21, 24). Measures of behavioral disinhibition, depression, anxiety, and substance use were also examined. Outcome variables included substance abuse and dependence, mental health, problem behavior, economic well-being, and positive functioning at age 33. Four trajectories of use were identified: Nonusers (27%), Adolescent-limited (21%), Late-onset (20%), and Chronic (32%). In childhood (ages 10-14), the Chronic and the Adolescent-limited groups were differentiated only by school environment and behavioral disinhibition. The Late-onset group mostly resembled the Nonuser group. However, by age 18 the Chronic group differentiated from the Adolescent-limited on most indicators. The Late-onset group reported more antisocial peers, substance use, and behavioral disinhibition than the Nonusers. At ages 21 and 24, the Adolescent-limited and Late-onset groups were almost indistinguishable whereas the Chronic users continued to show lowest level of functioning. Nonusers were similar to Adolescent-limited and Late-onset groups on general functioning, but reported less substance use, behavioral disinhibition, and peer marijuana use. The Late Onset group was more likely to report alcohol and tobacco abuse/dependence symptoms than Nonusers at age 33, but did not differ on the likelihood of marijuana dependence or on economic and positive functioning outcomes. The Adolescent Limited group was less likely to have graduated from high school, to have finished college, or to be constructively engaged than either the Nonuser or the Late-onset groups. These results suggest that different patterns of marijuana use in adolescence and young adulthood can be distinguished and that they have distinctly different etiologies. Findings demonstrate that there is developmental heterogeneity in the etiology of marijuana use, indicating different interventions for different patterns of marijuana use.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Moderate marijuana use among adolescents and young adults is relatively common. However, heavy or regular use has been associated with negative long-term consequences. The present study is a prospective, longitudinal examination of the relationship between persistent regular marijuana use from adolescence through young adulthood and mental health outcomes at age 33. Methods: Data were drawn from The Seattle Social Development Project. Mental health outcomes were assessed at age 33 (2008) and included both DSM-IV diagnosis (1=yes, 0=no) and symptom count for (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) major depression; (3) social phobia; (4) alcohol abuse or dependence; (5) nicotine dependence; and (6) other drug abuse or dependence (excluding marijuana). Based on Meier et al. (2012), persistence of regular marijuana use in adulthood was defined as the total number of study waves in adulthood at which participants reported using marijuana 4 days/week or more, in addition to whether or not participants began weekly use in adolescence (assessed ages 14 thru 18). To examine onset and persistence of regular use, we categorized participants into 5 mutually exclusive groups: (1) adolescence limited regular use, (2) adolescent onset with continuing adult regular use (3) adult onset of regular marijuana use, (4) non-regular use, and (5) non-use. Analyses controlled for demographics and prior environment and behaviors including gender, poverty and ethnicity; a set of environmental controls indexing negative family, peer and neighborhood environments; and a set of individual risk controls including behavioral inhibition, disinhibition, internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (assessed ages 10 through 14). Models examining consequences of marijuana use on adult substance use also controlled for adolescent use of that substance. Results and Conclusions: Preliminary results from logistic, Poisson and negative binomial regressions indicate that the persistence of regular marijuana use is positively related to both symptom counts and the probability of meeting diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence and other drug use disorders at age 33 even after controlling for the aforementioned confounds. Non-users of marijuana were generally better off than any of the four categories of marijuana users. Results from sensitivity analyses including alternate thresholds for defining regular use will also be presented. The discussion focuses on the prevention implications of findings from this study in the context of the recent marijuana-related legislative changes in Washington State and Colorado.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:Few studies that examine the effects of parental alcohol use on child functioning consider the developmental context surrounding parent alcohol use. Furthermore, alcohol use occurring before individuals become parents may also be important to the later functioning of their children because it predicts less educational attainment and difficulty in the transition to adulthood, as well as continued alcohol use. This study examined whether parental alcohol use across life-span was related to their young children’s developmental functioning. Observed parenting practices and family SES were tested as potential explanatory mechanisms of these links. Methods: Data came from the Seattle Social Development Project and The Intergenerational Project (TIP), N=123, including 1-to-5-year-olds and their biological parents from the first three waves of TIP. Predictors included parental alcohol use variables indicating regular drinking before age 18, the frequency of gestational alcohol and tobacco use and maternal and paternal current alcohol use; maternal and paternal parenting skills based on observational data from the videotaped Parent-Child Interaction Task; and family low socioeconomic status indicated by parental educational attainment, low income, and welfare receipt. The outcome was the child developmental functioningbased on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire assessing on-time development in the domains of gross-motor, fine-motor, communication, problem-solving, and personal-social development. Results and conclusions: Results from a series of well-fitting path models suggest that the association between parental alcohol use and developmental functioning among 1-to-5–year-olds operates primarily through fathers’ alcohol use. Specifically, fathers’ adult alcohol use negatively predicted children’s developmental functioning. Furthermore, fathers who engaged in regular alcohol use in adolescence had higher alcohol consumption in adulthood. Thus, there was also an indirect association between fathers’ early alcohol misuse and children’s functioning. Additionally, father’s adolescent regular alcohol use predicted the family’s low socioeconomic status, which in turn predicted poorer maternal parenting practices and children’s functioning. Mothers’ adolescent regular drinking, prenatal drinking, and adult drinking were unrelated to their child’s functioning except, perhaps, as factors that influenced them to choose drinking partners. The results underscore the importance of prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing alcohol misuse in adolescence and young adulthood. Moreover, prevention and treatment programs providing support and education in parenting skills to families with history of alcohol misuse could show benefits across generations.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Life course developmental and ecological theories suggest that factors influencing the emergence of alcohol problems in adulthood are rooted in multiple ecological contexts in childhood and adolescence. Substantial evidence from longitudinal research has identified significant experiences in a child’s family, peer group, school and community contexts that predict adolescent alcohol problems. However, to date, most of the research examining the influence of early environment on adult alcohol problems has focused only on the family. Furthermore, these studies have tended to focus on young adult alcohol problems, and less is known about the early predictors of alcohol problems later in adulthood. Thus, the present study addresses the following primary question: Do general and alcohol-specific influences in family, peer, and school contexts differentially predict alcohol problems at the transition to adulthood (age 21) versus later in adulthood (age 33)? Method. Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel following a gender balanced, multiethnic sample of youths drawn from 18 elementary schools serving higher crime neighborhoods of Seattle. The panel was constituted when the 808 participants were in the 5th grade in 1985. Analyses presented here include data collected during late childhood (age 10), adolescence (ages 11 to 18), young adulthood (age 21), and adulthood (age 33). Alcohol problems in young adulthood (age 21) and adulthood (age 33) include heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorder. Each ecological domain and effects of general and alcohol specific cumulative risk factors on two separate alcohol problem measures in young adulthood and adulthood employed multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results. Child and adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems differed from those that predicted alcohol problems at age 33. Young adult (age 21) alcohol problems were most consistently predicted by earlier alcohol specific environments and general deviant peer influence, but not by general family functioning. However, later adult (age 33) alcohol problems were most consistently predicted by general family functioning in adolescence, and not by early alcohol specific environments. Conclusions. Study findings suggest that not only alcohol-specific risk factors but also general negative risk factors are associated with adult alcohol problems, indicating that prevention efforts narrowly targeted at alcohol problems among adolescents may not be effective in reducing alcohol problems later in one’s adulthood. Prevention efforts should involve components designed to reduce alcohol-specific risk and components to improve general peer and family environments during childhood and adolescence.
    Society for Prevention Research 21nd Annual Meeting 2015; 05/2013
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To test a broadly used community diagnostic and outcome instrument, the Communities that Care (CTC) Youth Survey for use with Native American youth. HYPOTHESIS: The CTC survey measures, developed and normed on a nationally representative sample will not be reliable or valid for Native American youths. METHODS: The study uses the SAMHSA normative CTC survey database consisting of 310,171 adolescents (ages 10-19; grades 6-12), and a range of residences (from farms to cities). In this database 5912 youth self-identified as Native American. Chronbach alpha reliabilities were computed for each of the 32 CTC scales for the Native American youth and compared to the National Database as a whole. Logistic regression was used to predict daily smoking, frequent drinking, past month marijuana use from the CTC scales. RESULTS: Reliabilities of all CTC scales for Native American youths were comparable to those for the National database. Validity analyses within the Native American sample indicated that the scales predicted smoking, drinking and marijuana use comparably to the National Database. CONCLUSIONS/DISCUSSION: The CTC scales, as they currently exist are reliable and valid measures for Native American youths. However, we also describe efforts currently underway to improve the CTC Youth Survey by adding potential culturally specific risk and protection indicators and by augmenting the survey to include HIV risk behaviors, an important but little studied outcome among Indian youth. Combined with the existing CTC survey, these efforts will help researchers and community members to conduct culturally relevant, sustainable prevention in Indian country.
    2012 Society for Advancement of Hispanics/Chicanos and Native Americans in Science National Conference; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the association between parent illicit drug use disorder (DUD) in early adulthood and observed parenting practices at ages 27-28 and examined the following 3 theoretically derived models explaining this link: (a) a disrupted parent adult functioning model,( b) a preexisting parent personality factor model, and (c) a disrupted adolescent family process model. Associations between study variables and child externalizing problems also were examined. Longitudinal data linking 2 generations were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) and The SSDP Intergenerational Project (TIP), and included 167 parents and their 2- to 8-year-old child. Path modeling revealed that parent DUD in early adulthood predicted later observed low-skilled parenting, which was related to child externalizing problems. The preexisting parent personality factor model was supported. Parent negative emotionality accounted for the association between parent early adult DUD and later parenting practices. Parent negative emotionality also was related directly to child externalizing behavior. Limited support for the disrupted transition to adulthood model was found. The disrupted adolescent family process model was not supported. Results suggest that problem drug use that occurs early in adulthood may affect later parenting skills, independent of subsequent parent drug use. Findings highlight the importance of parent negative emotionality in influencing his or her own problem behavior, interactions with his or her child, and his or her child's problem behavior. Prevention and treatment programs targeting young adult substance use, poor parenting practices, and child behavior problems should address parent personality factors that may contribute to these behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Developmental Psychology 07/2012; · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined potential explanatory mechanisms linking childhood alcohol use onset and chronicity of adult alcohol dependence by testing the following three competing hypotheses: (1) a marker hypothesis, where early onset of alcohol use may be simply a marker for other factors that have been linked to both age at initiation and adult alcohol problems; (2) a compromised development hypothesis, where early alcohol initiation may interfere with adolescent development, which can lead to later alcohol problems; and (3) an increased substance use hypothesis, where early onset of alcohol use may lead to increased substance use in adolescence and, in turn, chronic alcohol dependence. Data came from a longitudinal community sample of 808 participants recruited at age 10 in 1985. Participants were followed through age 33 in 2008 with 92% retention. Childhood onset of alcohol use (before age 11), when compared with initiation during adolescence, predicted an increased chronicity of adult alcohol dependence, even after accounting for the hypothesized confounds from the marker hypothesis. In addition, adolescent compromised functioning did not mediate this relationship between early alcohol use and chronicity of adult dependence (Hypothesis 2), nor did adolescent substance use (Hypothesis 3). However, compromised functioning and substance use in adolescence predicted increased chronicity of alcohol dependence in young adulthood. Prevention efforts as early as the elementary grades should focus on delaying the onset of alcohol use and reducing substance use in adolescence as well as improving school functioning, reducing adolescent problem behaviors, and targeting adolescent peer networks.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 05/2012; 73(3):379-90. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examines whether general and alcohol-specific peer risk factors from age 10 to 18 are associated with longitudinal patterns of adult alcohol abuse disorder symptoms from age 21 to 33. Using growth mixture modeling, trajectory groups of alcohol abuse disorder symptoms from age 21 to 33 were identified. We then examined the relationships between the identified trajectory groups of alcohol abuse disorder symptoms and respondents' own adolescent binge drinking, a general negative peer factor, and an alcohol-specific peer factor (having drinking peers) in adolescence using pseudo-class Wald Chi-square tests, and multinomial logistic regressions. Four different trajectory groups of alcohol abuse disorder symptoms were identified: persistor group (3%), decreaser group (23%), escalator group (3%), and a no-disorder group (71%). Bivariate Wald Chi-square tests indicated that adolescent binge drinking behavior and general and alcohol-specific peer factors differentiated the adult alcohol abuse trajectory groups. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression showed that the general negative peer factors distinguished those who later persisted in alcohol abuse from those who desisted (i.e., persistor group vs. decreaser group) during young adulthood, even after adjusting for respondents' adolescent binge drinking. On the other hand, associating with drinking peers did not distinguish these trajectories. Alcohol-specific peer influences appear to influence alcohol abuse disorder symptoms in the early 20s, while general negative peer exposure in adolescence increases in importance as a risk factor for alcohol abuse disorder symptom persistence in the late 20s and the early 30s.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2011; 121(3):213-9. · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between age at alcohol use onset and adult alcohol misuse and dependence by testing the sensitive-period hypothesis that early adolescence (11-14) is a vulnerable period of development during which initiating alcohol use is particularly harmful. Data came from a longitudinal panel of 808 participants recruited in 1981. Participants were followed through age 33 in 2008 with 92% retention. Onset of alcohol use before age 11 (late childhood), when compared with initiation during early adolescence, was related to an increased chronicity of adult alcohol dependence, even after accounting for sociodemographic controls and other substance use in adolescence. The present study finds no evidence that early adolescence is a particularly sensitive period for the onset of alcohol use. Findings related to the onset of regular alcohol use and the chronicity of alcohol dependence suggest that the onset of regular drinking before age 21 is problematic, but no one adolescent period is more sensitive than others. Specifically, although all age groups that started drinking regularly before age 21 had a greater rate of alcohol dependence in adulthood, initiation of regular use of alcohol at or before age 14 was not related to greater chronicity of alcohol dependence than the initiation of regular use of alcohol in middle or late adolescence. The findings suggest the importance of delaying the onset of alcohol use through prevention efforts as early as the elementary grades. In addition, prevention efforts should focus on preventing the onset of regular drinking before age 21.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2011; 72(2):221-31. · 1.68 Impact Factor