K. Krishna Moorthy

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Tiruvananantapuram, Kerala, India

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Publications (154)260.47 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous and collocated estimates of near-surface mass concentration of black carbon (BC), number size distribution (NSD) and total number concentration (NT) of composite aerosols, columnar spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and local meteorological parameters were made from Aug 2009 to July 2012 at the high altitude (4520 m amsl), remote location Hanle in western trans-Himalayas. Even though all the aerosol parameters remain quite low, large annual variations are seen in the monthly mean values of BC (25 ng m−3–181 ng m−3), total number concentrations of composite aerosols (628 cm−3–1500 cm−3) and AOD (0.05–0.16). Size segregated correlation analysis reveals that the BC mass contributes significantly to the size range of 200–400 nm of the submicron aerosol size spectra. The diurnal variation of BC mostly has been dampened; yet seems to be prominent during spring, showing the presence of weak boundary layer dynamics. In contrast, the diurnal fluctuations in total number concentration have been mostly controlled by the new particle formation events, leading to bursts of large concentrations of ultrafine particles, which subsequently undergo coagulation. Spectral dependence of AOD also shows large monthly variations, with the Angstrom exponent varying from ∼0.52 to 1.3, with a mean value of ∼0.95 ± 0.21. The vertical distribution of extinction coefficients, obtained from CALIPSO data, indicates the presence of elevated aerosol layers, attributed mainly to the influence of long range transport of aerosols from the west Asian and Indian desert region.
    Atmospheric Environment. 01/2014; 84:262–274.
  • Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, K. Krishna Moorthy, S. Suresh Babu
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    ABSTRACT: The response of Black Carbon (BC) concentrations to a near cut-off of vehicular and industrial emissions favoured by a regional ‘strike call’ by organized trade unions, that brought to a halt of all industrial activities and commercial road traffic for 2 days is presented. In a dramatic, spectacular response to the seizure of emissions, BC concentrations dropped rapidly to ∼22% of the average concentrations that prevailed before the strike depicting the rapidity with which the concentrations deplete and the ‘rather slow’ replenishment as the emissions restart. These observations support the argument that controlling BC emissions yields quick results.
    Atmospheric Science Letters 12/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • S. K. Satheesh, K. Krishna Moorthy, J. Srinivasan
    Atmospheric Environment 11/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regular measurements of Black Carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration have been carried out since March 2011 at a tropical location (12.81°N, 80.03°E) adjoining the mega city, Chennai, on the east coast of India for the first time. As this region is influenced by both the South West and North East monsoons, the BC observations at this site assume importance in understanding the overall BC distribution over India. The data collected until August 2012 has been examined for the general and regionally distinctive features. Spectral absorption characteristics reveal that the BC is mainly from fossil fuel based emissions. The BC concentration shows significant diurnal variation only in the North East monsoon and winter seasons with night time concentration considerably higher than the day time concentration. In the other seasons the day–night contrast in BC is not significant. Seasonal variation is rather subdued with a broad maximum during the Northeast monsoon and winter months and a minimum during the southwest monsoon months. The observed diurnal and seasonal variations are examined in the light of local Atmospheric Boundary Layer dynamics and long range transport. For the first time, an inverse relationship has been established between BC and ABL height on a quantitative basis. A distinctive feature of the region is that in all the seasons transport pathways have long continental overpasses which could lead to the suppressed seasonal variation. It is found that the BC over this region shows distinct diurnal and seasonal features compared to those reported for other coastal and inland regions in India.
    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 11/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [1] The first regional synthesis of long-term (back to ~ 25 years at some stations) primary data (from direct measurement) on aerosol optical depth from the ARFINET (network of aerosol observatories established under the Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) project of Indian Space Research Organization over Indian subcontinent) have revealed a statistically significant increasing trend with a significant seasonal variability. Examining the current values of turbidity coefficients with those reported ~ 50 years ago reveals the phenomenal nature of the increase in aerosol loading. Seasonally, the rate of increase is consistently high during the dry months (December to March) over the entire region whereas the trends are rather inconsistent and weak during the premonsoon (April to May) and summer monsoon period (June to September). The trends in the spectral variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) reveal the significance of anthropogenic activities on the increasing trend in AOD. Examining these with climate variables such as seasonal and regional rainfall, it is seen that the dry season depicts a decreasing trend in the total number of rainy days over the Indian region. The insignificant trend in AOD observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a regional hot spot of aerosols, during the premonsoon and summer monsoon season is mainly attributed to the competing effects of dust transport and wet removal of aerosols by the monsoon rain. Contributions of different aerosol chemical species to the total dust, simulated using Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model over the ARFINET stations, showed an increasing trend for all the anthropogenic components and a decreasing trend for dust, consistent with the inference deduced from trend in Angstrom exponent.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 10/2013; 118(20).
  • Journal of Climate 10/2013; 26(19):7611-7621. · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500μm and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500μm exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31μg/m(3) and 4.5μg/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25μm4.0μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1Wm(-2) and -35.6Wm(-2), -6.7Wm(-2) and -13.4Wm(-2) and 5.5Wm(-2) to 22.5Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year.
    Science of The Total Environment 09/2013; 468-469C:83-92. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Vijayakumar S. Nair, K. Krishna Moorthy, S. Suresh Babu
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    ABSTRACT: [1] Extensive measurements of aerosol number size distributions (in the size range of 10 to 875 nm) carried out over the oceanic regions of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during two large cruise experiments (one during pre-monsoon and the other during winter) are used to investigate the spatial distribution of aerosol size distributions, in general, and that of fine particles, in particular, within the marine atmospheric boundary layer. The size distributions over the northwestern Bay of Bengal, lying downwind of the continental outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and over the eastern Bay of Bengal, under the influence of the East Asian outflow, showed a bimodal structure with prominent mode (100–125 nm) in the accumulation regime and weak mode (30–40 nm) in the Aitken regime during both pre-monsoon and winter seasons. While the Aitken mode was found to be relatively quite weak in the Indo-Gangetic Plain outflow during both seasons, it was prominent in the East Asian outflow regions, especially during the winter season. The distributions over the northern Arabian Sea, a region quite prone to advection of dust during pre-monsoon and summer seasons, showed a prominent Aitken mode (~45 nm) followed by a weaker accumulation mode during pre-monsoon season. Analysis of SeaWiFS data revealed a systematic collocation of Aitken mode aerosols and the high chlorophyll concentration in the northern Arabian Sea, implying the role of ocean biogeochemistry in influencing the aerosol size distributions. Such a feature implying biogeochemical influence was not seen over the eastern and northern Bay of Bengal during pre-monsoon and winter seasons.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 07/2013; 118(13).
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    ABSTRACT: Continuous measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations made over a period of 3 years from a semi-arid, near-coastal, remote and sparsely inhabited location along with satellite-based data of aerosol absorption index, optical depth and extinction profiles in western India are used to characterize the distinct nature of aerosols near the surface and in the free troposphere and their seasonality. Despite being far remote and sparsely inhabited, significant levels of BC are observed in the ambient during winter (1.45 ± 0.71 μg m−3) attributed to biomass burning aerosols, advected to the site from the north and west; while during summer the concentrations are far reduced (0.23 ± 0.11 μg m−3) and represent the apparent background concentrations. The spectral absorption coefficients suggest the BC during summer be mostly of fossil fuel combustions. The strong convective boundary layer dynamics produces significant diurnal variation during winter and modulates to a lesser extent the seasonal variation. Examination of aerosol (absorption) index from OMI data for the study period showed a seasonal pattern that is almost opposite to that seen at the surface; with high aerosol index in summer, showing a significant difference between the surface and columnar aerosol types in summer. MISR and MODIS-derived columnar AOD follow the OMI pattern. Analysis of the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and volume depolarization ratio (VDR), derived from CALIPSO data indicates the presence of strong dust layers with VDR ∼ 0.3 in the altitude region 4–6 km, contributing to the high aerosol index in the OMI data, while the surface measurements show absorptive properties representing fossil fuel BC aerosols.
    Atmospheric Environment 07/2013; 73:92–102. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • K. Krishna Moorthy, S. Suresh Babu, M. R. Manoj, S. K. Satheesh
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    ABSTRACT: Climate change has great significance globally in general and South Asia in particular. Here we have used data from a network of 35 aerosol observatories over the Indian region to generate the first time regional synthesis using primary data and estimate the aerosol trends. On an average, aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found increasing at a rate of 2.3% (of its value in 1985) per year and more rapidly (~4%) during the last decade. If the trends continue so, AOD at several locations would nearly double and approach unity in the next few decades leading to an enhancement in aerosol-induced lower atmospheric warming by a factor of two. However, a regionally averaged scenario can be ascertained only in the coming years, when longer and denser data would become available. The regional and global climate implications of such trends in the forcing elements need to be better assessed using GCMs.
    Geophysical Research Letters 03/2013; 40(5):1011-1014. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) were made over the Bay of Bengal region (adjacent to the Indian landmass) on board the oceanographic research vessel Sagar Kanya during February 2003. Simultaneous measurements of spectral AODs and mass concentrations of the composite aerosols and aerosol black carbon (BC) were made at an island location, Port Blair (11.63degreesN, 92.71degreesE), also in the Bay of Bengal. At the cruise locations the AODs were in the range of similar to0.3-0.6 at 500 nm (with a mean value of 0.41 +/- 0.14) and Angstrom wavelength exponent of similar to1.1 +/- 0.1; while at Port Blair the AODs were in the range of 0.11-0.48 at 500 nm and Angstrom wavelength exponent of 0.98 +/- 0.07. Aerosol BC constituted 5.8 +/- 0.6% of the composite aerosol mass concentration with a single-scattering albedo of similar to0.88, indicating the presence of a significant amount of submicron absorbing aerosols. Comparisons of AODs measured at Port Blair during cruise 188 and an earlier cruise (cruise 161B) during March 2001 (over the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean) with those derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (on board the TERRA platform) showed excellent agreement with a mean difference of similar to0.01 and a root-mean-square difference of similar to0.03. Regionally averaged aerosol (net) forcing over the Bay of Bengal was in the range -15 to -24 W m(-2) at the surface and -2 to -4 W m(-2) at the top of the atmosphere in February 2003; these values were smaller in magnitude than those observed over this region during March 2001 and larger than that observed over the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The resulting atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption was similar to0.5degreesK/d.
    Journal of Geophysical Research 02/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • V Vinoj, SK Satheesh, K. Krishna Moorthy
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive measurements of aerosol radiative and microphysical properties were made at an island location, Minicoy (8.3 degrees N, 73.04 degrees E) in the southern Arabian Sea. A large variability in aerosol characteristics associated with changes in air mass and precipitation characteristics was observed. Six distinct transport pathways were identified on the basis of cluster analysis. The Indo-Gangetic Plain, along with the northern Arabian Sea and west Asia (NWA), was identified to be the region having the highest potential for aerosol mass loading at the island. This estimate is based on the concentration weighted trajectory as well as cluster analysis. Dust transport from the NWA region was found to make a substantial contribution to the supermicron mass fraction. The black carbon mass mixing ratios observed were the lowest compared to previous measurements over this region. Consequently, the atmospheric radiative forcing efficiency was low and was in the range 10-28 W m(-2).
    Journal of Geophysical Research 02/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The information on altitude distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere is essential in assessing the impact of aerosol warming on thermal structure and stability of the atmosphere.In addition, aerosol altitude distribution is needed to address complex problems such as the radiative interaction of aerosols in the presence of clouds. With this objective,an extensive, multi-institutional and multi-platform field experiment (ICARB-Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget) was carried out under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO-GBP) over continental India and adjoining oceans during March to May 2006. Here, we present airborne LIDAR measurements carried out over the east Coast of the India during the ICARB field campaign. An increase in aerosol extinction (scattering + absorption) was observed from the surface upwards with a maximum around 2 to 4 km. Aerosol extinction at higher atmospheric layers (>2 km) was two to three times larger compared to that of the surface. A large fraction (75-85%) of aerosol column optical depth was contributed by aerosols located above 1 km. The aerosol layer heights (defined in this paper as the height at which the gradient in extinction coefficient changes sign) showed a gradual decrease with an increase in the offshore distance. A large fraction (60-75%) of aerosol was found located above clouds indicating enhanced aerosol absorption above clouds. Our study implies that a detailed statistical evaluation of the temporal frequency and spatial extent of elevated aerosol layers is necessary to assess their significance to the climate. This is feasible using data from space-borne lidars such as CALIPSO,which fly in formation with other satellites like MODIS AQUA and MISR, as part of the A-Train constellation.
    Annales Geophysicae 02/2013; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations ([BC]), measured continuously during a mutli-platform field experiment, Integrated Campaign for Aerosols gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB, March–May 2006), from a network of eight observatories spread over geographically distinct environments of India, (which included five mainland stations, one highland station, and two island stations (one each in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal)) are examined for their spatio-temporal characteristics. During the period of study, [BC] showed large variations across the country, with values ranging from 27 μg m−3 over industrial/urban locations to as low as 0.065 μg m−3 over the Arabian Sea. For all mainland stations, [BC] remained high compared to highland as well as island stations. Among the island stations, Port Blair (PBR) had higher concentration of BC, compared to Minicoy (MCY), implying more absorbing nature of Bay of Bengal aerosols than Arabian Sea. The highland station Nainital (NTL), in the central Himalayas, showed low values of [BC], comparable or even lower than that of the island station PBR, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment over there. An examination of the changes in the mean temporal features, as the season advances from winter (December–February) to pre-monsoon (March–May), revealed that: (a) Diurnal variations were pronounced over all the mainland stations, with an afternoon low and a nighttime high; (b) At the islands, the diurnal variations, though resembled those over the mainlands, were less pronounced; and (c) In contrast to this, highland station showed an opposite pattern with an afternoon high and a late night or early morning low. The diurnal variations at all stations are mainly caused by the dynamics of local Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). At the entire mainland as well as island stations (except HYD and DEL), [BC] showed a decreasing trend from January to May. This is attributed to the increased convective mixing and to the resulting enhanced vertical dispersal of species in the ABL. In addition, large short-period modulations were observed at DEL and HYD, which appeared to be episodic. An examination of this in the light of the MODIS-derived fire count data over India along with the back-trajectory analysis revealed that advection of BC from extensive forest fires and biomass-burning regions upwind were largely responsible for this episodic enhancement in BC at HYD and DEL.
    Atmospheric Environment 02/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), mass concentrations of black carbon (MB) and composite aerosols (MT) in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were made during onward [Dec 2007 to Jan 2008; Northern Hemispheric (NH) winter] and return (Mar–Apr 2008; NH spring) legs of the trans-continental cruise of 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year of 2007–2008. Large latitudinal gradients are seen; with AOD decreasing from coastal India (AOD~0.45) to coastal Antarctica (AOD~0.04) during NH winter. The measurements also evidenced a strong seasonality of AOD over all regions, with a decrease of the values and gradient in NH spring. BC concentration in the MABL decreases exponentially from 3800 ng m−3 (over 10°N) to 624 ng m−3 near equator and much lower values (<100 ng m−3) over southern oceanic region. Seasonality in the latitudinal gradients of AOD, MB and MT exists over regions north of 20°S. Multi campaign [Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (2004), Special Expedition to Larsemann Hills (2007) and Tropical Indian Ocean cruise (2010)] analysis over these oceanic regions showed that the pattern over the regions (south of 20°S) remained the same. Seasonality of AOD exists over Atlantic Ocean as well. Temporal variation of AOD at different latitudes derived from AERONET data also showed marked seasonality and latitudinal variation in northern hemisphere than in southern Hemisphere. Satellite retrieved AOD showed good correlation with the ship borne measurements; while GOCART retrieved AOD underestimates but gives a measure of the spatial variations.
    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 01/2013; 104:18–28. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthesizing data from several cruise experiments over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), the seasonal characterization of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentration was made. The study indicated that the BC mass concentration (MBC) showed significant seasonal variation over the oceanic region with MBC being the highest during the winter season (∼2407 ± 1756 ng m−3) and lowest in summer monsoon (∼765 ± 235 ng m−3). The seasonal changes in the BC mass concentration were more prominent over the northern BoB (having an annual amplitude of ∼4) compared to southern BoB (amplitude ∼ 2). Significant spatial gradients in MBC, latitudinal as well as longitudinal, existed in all the seasons. Latitudinal gradients, despite being consistently increasing northwards, were found to be sharper during winter and weakest during summer monsoon with e-fold scaling distances of ∼7.7° and ∼15.6° during winter and summer monsoon seasons respectively. Longitudinally, BC concentrations tend to increase toward east during winter and premonsoon seasons, but an opposite trend was seen in monsoon season highlighting the seasonally changing source impacts on BC loading over BoB. Examination of the results in light of possible role of transport from adjoining landmasses, using airmass back trajectory cluster analysis, also supported spatially and temporally varying source influence on oceanic region.
    Atmospheric Environment 01/2013; 64:366–373. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Time variability of black carbon (BC) aerosols over different timescales (daily, weekly and annual) is studied over a tropical urban location Hyderabad in India using seven channel portable Aethalometer. The results for the 2-year period (January 2009–December 2010) show a daily-mean BC variability from ~1.00±0.12 µg m−3 to 12.50±3.06 µg m−3, with a remarkable annual pattern of winter high and monsoon low. The BC values maximize during winter (December–January), ~6.67±0.22 µg m−3, and drop during summer (June–August), ~2.36±0.09 µg m−3, which establishes a large seasonal variation. Furthermore, the BC mass concentration exhibits a well-defined diurnal variation, with a morning peak and early afternoon minimum. The magnitude of the diurnal variations is seasonal dependent, which maximizes during the winter months. Air mass back trajectories indicated several different transport pathways, while the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the most important potential sources for BC aerosols are the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), central India and some hot spots in Pakistan, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf. The absorbing Ångström exponent (αabs) estimated from the spectral values of absorption coefficient (σabs) ranges from 0.9 to 1.1 indicating high BC/OC ratio typical of fossil fuel origin. The annual average BC mass fraction to composite aerosols is found to be (10±3) % contributing to the atmospheric forcing by (55±10) %. The BC radiative forcing at the atmosphere shows strong seasonal dependency with higher values in winter (33.49±7.01) and spring (31.78±12.89) and moderate in autumn (18.94±6.71) and summer (13.15±1.66). The BC radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is positive in all months, suggesting an overall heating of the regional climate over Hyderabad.
    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 01/2013; s 105–106:81–90. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • R. K. Choudhary, K. Rajeev, K. Krishna Moorthy, R. Sridharan
    Geophysical Research Letters 01/2013; 40(2):239-244. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using continuous and near-real time measurements of the mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) aerosols near the surface, for a period of 1 year (from January to December 2006) from a network of eight observatories spread over different environments of India, a space-time synthesis is generated. The strong seasonal variations observed, with a winter high and summer low, are attributed to the combined effects of changes in synoptic air mass types, modulated strongly by the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics. Spatial distribution shows much higher BC concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) than the peninsular Indian stations. These were examined against the simulations using two chemical transport models, GOCART (Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport) and CHIMERE for the first time over Indian region. Both the model simulations significantly deviated from the measurements at all the stations; more so during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons and over mega cities. However, the CHIMERE model simulations show better agreement compared with the measurements. Notwithstanding this, both the models captured the temporal variations; at seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales and the natural variabilities (intra-seasonal oscillations) fairly well, especially at the off-equatorial stations. It is hypothesized that an improvement in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) parameterization scheme for tropical environment might lead to better results with GOCART.
    Atmospheric Environment 01/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A co-ordmated experimental campaign was conducted for 40 consecutive days from 21 February to 01 April 2000 using RH-200 rockets, balloons, Rayleigh lidar and MST radar, with the objective of delineating the equatorial waves and estimating momentum fluxes associated with them. Winds and temperatures in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere over two low latitude stations Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and SHAR (13.7°N, 80.2°E) were measured and were used for the study of equatorial waves and their interactions with the background mean flow in various atmospheric regions. The study shows the occurrence of a strong stratospheric cooling (∼25 K) anomaly along with a zonal wind anomaly and this low-latitude event appears to be linked to high-latitude stratospheric warming event and followed by subsequent generation of short period (∼5 days) oscillations lasting for a few cycles in the stratosphere. Slow and fast Kelvin waves and RG wave (∼-17-day and ∼7.2-day and ∼4.2-day periods respectively) have been identified. The mean flow acceleration produced by the divergence of the momentum flux due to the observed Kelvin waves in the 35–60 km height region were compared with the zonal flow accelerations computed from the observed zonal winds. Contribution by the slow and fast Kelvin waves was found to be only ∼25 % of the observed acceleration during the evolution of the westerly phase of the semi-annual oscillation.
    Advances in Space Research 12/2012; · 1.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
260.47 Total Impact Points


  • 1979–2014
    • Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
      • Laboratory for Space Physics
      Tiruvananantapuram, Kerala, India
  • 2013
    • Goa University
      • Department of Marine Science
      Panaji, Goa, India
  • 2009
    • Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
      Bengalūru, Karnātaka, India
    • Sri Krishnadevaraya University
      • Department of Physics
      Anantapur, State of Andhra Pradesh, India
    • Indian Institute of Science
      • Centre for Atomospheric and Ocean Sciences (CAOS)
      Bengalore, State of Karnataka, India