[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal recognition particle (SRP) takes part in protein targeting and secretion in all organisms. Searches for components of archaeal SRP in primary databases and completed genomes indicated that archaea possess only homologs of SRP RNA, and proteins SRP19 and SRP54. A recombinant SRP was assembled from cloned, expressed and purified components of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Recombinant Af-SRP54 associated with the signal peptide of bovine pre-prolactin translated in vitro. As in mammalian SRP, Af-SRP54 binding to Af-SRP RNA required protein Af-SRP19, although notable amounts bound in absence of Af-SRP19. Archaeoglobus fulgidus SRP proteins also bound to full-length SRP RNA of the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii, to eukaryotic human SRP RNA, and to truncated versions which corresponded to the large domain of SRP. Dependence on SRP19 was most pronounced with components from the same species. Reconstitutions with heterologous components revealed a significant potential of human SRP proteins to bind to archaeal SRP RNAs. Surprisingly, M.jannaschii SRP RNA bound to human SRP54M quantitatively in the absence of SRP19. This is the first report of reconstitution of an archaeal SRP from recombinantly expressed purified components. The results highlight structural and functional conservation of SRP assembly between archaea and eucarya.
Nucleic Acids Research 04/2000; 28(6):1365-73. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein composed of an Alu domain and an S domain. The S domain contains unique sequence SRP RNA and four SRP proteins: SRP19, SRP54, SRP68, and SRP72. SRP interacts with ribosomes to bring translating membrane and secreted proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for proper processing. Additionally, SRP RNA is a member of a family of small nonribosomal RNAs found recently in the nucleolus, suggesting that the nucleolus is more plurifunctional than previously realized. It was therefore of interest to determine whether other SRP components localize to this intranuclear site. In transfected rat fibroblasts, green fluorescent protein fusions of SRP19, SRP68, and SRP72 localized to the nucleolus, as well as to the cytoplasm, as expected. SRP68 also accumulated in the ER, consistent with its affinity for the ER-bound SRP receptor. SRP54 was detected in the cytoplasm as a green fluorescent protein fusion and in immunofluorescence studies, but was not detected in the nucleolus. In situ hybridization experiments also revealed endogenous SRP RNA in the nucleolus. These results demonstrate that SRP RNA and three SRP proteins visit the nucleolus, suggesting that partial SRP assembly, or another unidentified activity of the SRP components, occurs at the nucleolus. SRP54 apparently interacts with nascent SRP beyond the nucleolus, consistent with in vitro reconstitution experiments showing that SRP19 must bind to SRP RNA before SRP54 binds. Our findings support the notion that the nucleolus is the site of assembly and/or interaction between the family of ribonucleoproteins involved in protein synthesis, in addition to ribosomes themselves.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2000; 97(1):55-60. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of human SRP54M from the signal recognition particle (SRP) reveals a homodimer interaction, which may be a model for the way signal sequences on nascent proteins recognize and activate the SRP.
Journal of Molecular Biology - J MOL BIOL. 01/1999; 292(1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex that associates with ribosomes to promote the co-translational translocation of proteins across biological membranes. Human SRP RNA molecules exist in two distinct conformations, SR-A and SR-B, which may exchange during the assembly of the particle or could play a functional role in the SRP cycle. We have used systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the SRP RNA to determine the electrophoretic mobilities of altered RNA molecules, and we have identified the nucleotides that avert the formation of the two conformers. The conformer behavior of the various RNAs was addressed quantitatively by calculating a value zeta as an indicator of conformational variability. Single loose A-like forms were induced by changes in helix 5 [nucleotides (nt) at positions 111-128 or 222-231], helix 6 (nt at positions 141-150) and helix 7 (nt at position 169 and 170), whereas other mutations in helix 6 and helix 8 preserved the conformational variability of the mutant RNA molecules. The more compact B-like form was induced only when a small region (129-CAAUAU-134), located in the 5'-proximal portion of helix 6, was altered. Since this region is part of the binding site for SRP19, we suggest that protein SRP19 uses nucleotides at 129-134 to trigger the formation of the favored SR-B-form, and thus directs an early step in the hierarchical assembly of the large SRP domain.
Nucleic Acids Research 08/1997; 25(14):2835-40. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein SRP19 is a 144-amino-acid polypeptide that associates intimately with the signal-recognition particle RNA (SRP RNA) and serves as an important structural and functional component of the SRP. We investigated the structure and RNA-binding activity of the human SRP19 protein by the use of comparative sequence analysis, high-stringency structure prediction, proteolytic susceptibility, and site-directed mutagenesis. SRP19 was found to consist of two distinct regions (called N-terminal and C-terminal regions) that are separated by a boundary of approximately 12-15 amino acid residues. Both regions contain an alpha-helix and several beta-strands that are connected by loops or turns. In agreement with the hypothetical model, proteolytic susceptibility demonstrated the predominant accessibility of two sites: one in a surface loop of the N-terminal region (YLNNKKTIAEGR33), and another site in the C-terminal tail at residues L129 and E133. The RNA-binding activities of mutant polypeptides with changes of conserved lysines and arginines (mutants K27Q, R33Q and R34Q) demonstrated that the proteolytically accessible loop of the N-terminal region is in direct contact with the SRP RNA. In contrast, alteration of a certain basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal region (R83, K116 and R118), as well as a deletion of four amino acid residues located at the boundary between the two regions, had no effect on the RNA-binding ability. The structural model that emerges from our data is thematically similar to that of ribosomal protein S5, the N-domain of which contains a loop motif believed to interact with double-stranded RNA. The presence of a similar structural feature in protein SRP19 has significant implications for the structure and function of the SRP19-RNA complex.
European Journal of Biochemistry 06/1997; 245(3):564-72. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction of protein SRP54M from the human signal recognition particle with SRP RNA was studied by systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the RNA molecule. Protein binding sites were identified by the analysis of mutations that removed individual SRP RNA helices or disrupted helical sections in the large SRP domain. The strongest effects on the binding activity of a purified polypeptide that corresponds to the methionine-rich domain of SRP54 (SRP54M) were caused by changes in helix 8 of the SRP RNA. Binding of protein SRP19 was diminished significantly by mutations in helix 6 and was stringently required for SRP54M to associate. Unexpectedly, mutant RNA molecules that resembled bacterial SRP RNAs were incapable of interaction with SRP54M, showing that protein SRP19 has an essential and direct role in the formation of the ternary complex with SRP54 and SRP RNA. Our findings provide an example for how, in eukaryotes, an RNA function has become protein dependent.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/1997; 25(2):388-94. · 8.28 Impact Factor