Junko Sato

Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba-ken, Japan

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Publications (25)31.79 Total impact

  • Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 87(6):714-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 06/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC90 of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient’s physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC(90) of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 β-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of β-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 7345 cases of digestive organ surgery were investigated over the course of 20 years. Owing to the increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, we classified our countermeasures into periods A (September 1987 to February 1990), B (March 1990 to February 1997), C (March 1997 to February 1999), D (March 1999 to October 2004), and E (November 2004 to August 2007), and compared the number of infections during these periods. In period B, cefazolin and cefotiam were administered as prophylaxis. The treatment continued for 4 days, including the day of surgery. The patients undergoing endotracheal intubation or tracheotomy were managed with nonscreening pre-emptive isolation and cohorting (NSPEI&C), regardless of whether MRSA was present. However, NSPEI&C was halted in period C, but it was thereafter implemented again, and prophylactic antibiotics were administered only on the day of surgery during period D. In period E, prophylactic antibiotics were administered for 3 days. In period A, MRSA was contracted in 4.1% (34/833) of patients. In period B, the MRSA isolation rate decreased to 0.3% (8/2722). In period C, the MRSA isolation rate increased to 3.4% (23/681). In period D, the MRSA isolation rate fell to 2.2% (40/1807). In period E, MRSA isolation cases significantly decreased to 0.4% (5/1302; P < 0.002 vs period D). The comprehensive management, selection of prophylactic antibiotics, and NSPEI&C were all considered to be effective.
    Surgery Today 05/2011; 41(5):630-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens collected from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted a third year of nationwide surveillance during the period from January to April 2008. A total of 1,097 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 987 strains (189 Staphylococcus aureus, 211 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 187 Haemophilus influenzae, 106 Moraxella catarrhalis, 126 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 162 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 β-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including a ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 59.8%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 35.5 and 11.8%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 13.9% of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 26.7% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.3% to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5%) of β-lactamase-producing strains was suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2%) extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5%) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo β-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9%) suspected multidrug-resistant strains showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continual national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 03/2011; 17(4):510-23. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and is the first nationwide study on bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with urinary tract infections at 28 hospitals throughout Japan between January 2008 and June 2008. A total of 688 bacterial strains were isolated from adult patients with urinary tract infections. The strains investigated in this study are as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (n = 140), Escherichia coli (n = 255), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 93), Proteus mirabilis (n = 42), Serratia marcescens (n = 44), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 114). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 39 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) manual. All Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Although a majority of the E. faecalis strains were susceptible to linezolid, 11 strains (7.8%) were found to be intermediately resistant. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and S. marcescens strains were 35.7%, 29.3%, 18.3%, and 15.2%, respectively. The proportions of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and S. marcescens strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase were 5.1%, 11.9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones were 9.2%, 4.4%, and 34.8%, respectively, and among them, 2 strains (1.8%) were found to be multidrug resistant. These data present important information for the proper treatment of urinary tract infections and will serve as a useful reference for periodic surveillance studies in the future.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 02/2011; 17(1):126-38. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first-line treatment for intra-abdominal abscess is source control. Sometimes, however, source control is too invasive for relatively small abscesses and is not feasible due to the risk of injury to some organs. Based on reports that fosfomycin (FOM) can break up biofilms to enhance the permeability of other antibiotics, we investigated the FOM time-lag combination therapy (FOM-TLCT). We enrolled 114 patients who had intra-abdominal abscess after gastrointestinal surgery and examined the efficacy of FOM-TLCT using the same therapeutic antibiotic (TA) as that which had been used previously, but had proven ineffective, at the same dose schedule. The efficacy endpoint determination was carried out as follows: among the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)-positive cases, even after administration of TA, excellent outcome was defined as SIRS negative within 7 days of FOM-TLCT with TA without the need for other treatment, including other antibiotics or drainage. Of the 114 patients enrolled, 104 cases (SIRS positive 73; SIRS negative 31) were assessed. Ten patients were excluded; four had received TA at higher doses, three had received different TAs, and three were considered to have bacteria resistant to TAs. Among these patients, 86.3% (63/73) of the SIRS-positive cases were classified as excellent, and 90.3% (28/31) of the SIRS-negative cases were classified as effective. In total, the efficacy rate was 87.5% (91/104). The total no-response rates were 12.5% (13/104). FOM-TLCT seems to be effective for treating refractory intra-abdominal abscess.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 02/2011; 17(1):91-6. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the purpose of a nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens in patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted their second year survey, during the period from January to August, 2007. A total of 1178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable for 1108 strains (226 Staphylococcus aureus, 257 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 206 Haemophilus influenzae, 120 Moraxella catarrhalis, 122 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 171 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 beta-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was high, at 59.7%, and the incidences of penicillin-intermediateresistant and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 30.4% and 5.1%, respectively. Among Haemophilus influenzae strains, 19.9% of them were found to be beta-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately-resistant (BLNAI), 29.1% to be beta-lactamasenon-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 6.7% to be beta-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was not isolated. Two isolates (1.2%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains, including one (0.6%) suspected multidrug-resistant strain showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. These data will be a useful reference for future periodic surveillance studies and for investigations to control resistant infections as well. Continued surveillance is required to prevent the further spread of these antimicrobial resistances.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2009; 15(3):156-67. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 07/2009; 34. · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - INT J ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. 01/2009; 34.
  • International Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2008; 12. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) conducted the first nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens during the period from January to August 2006. With the cooperation of 32 medical institutions throughout Japan, a total of 924 strains belonging to seven clinically relevant bacterial species were collected from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 887 evaluable strains (205 Staphylococcus aureus, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 9 Streptococcus pyogenes, 165 Haemophilus influenzae, 91 Moraxella catarrhalis, 74 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 143 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) to 42 antibacterial agents was conducted at the Central Laboratory of the Research Center for Anti-infective Drugs of the Kitasato Institute, according to recommendations issued by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The antibacterial agents employed were 25 beta-lactams, three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including one azalide and one ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, five fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone. The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 63.4%, and the incidences of penicillin-intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) were 35.0% and 4.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.2% of the strains were found to be beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 29.1% to be beta-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 4.8% to be beta-lactamaseproducing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. The incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae was 2.7% (2 of 74 strains). Three (2.1%) of the 143 P. aeruginosa strains were found to be metallo-beta-lactamaseproducing, including 1 (0.7%) multidrug-resistant strain. Through the nationwide surveillance, we obtained fundamental antimicrobial susceptibility data of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in adult RTI to various antibacterial agents. These data will be a useful reference for future periodic surveillance studies, as well as for investigations to control antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 09/2008; 14(4):279-90. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to find which method better prevented MRSA isolation from postoperative infection sites: the administration of postoperative infection control agents within 72 h of surgery, including the day of surgery, or the administration of these agents within 24 h of surgery. More than 3000 patients who underwent elective surgery of the digestive system were studied. Cefazolin or cefotiam was used as the prophylactic antibiotic. The number of patients, sex, age, clinical stage, incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), isolated bacteria, distal pancreatectomy with or without gastrectomy, the rate of laparoscopic surgery, and the rate of abdominoperineal resection (APR) were examined in a prospective controlled study over three time periods. There were no significant differences in the demographics of patients in the three periods. The duration of antibiotic administration was 96.1 +/- 11.2 h in period A, 18.2 +/- 2.7 h in period B, and 66.9 +/- 11.1 hours in period C (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of SSI in the three periods. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from the infectious site in 0.47% of patients in period A, and from 2.1% and 0.34% of patients in periods B and C, respectively, and the incidence of MRSA was significantly higher in period B as compared with periods A and C (P < 0.01). The isolation rates of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) were both significantly higher in period B patients (P < 0.005). We concluded that the administration of prophylactic antibiotics within 24 h of surgery increased the rate of isolation of MRSA.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 02/2008; 14(1):44-50. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Infectious Diseases - INT J INFECT DIS. 01/2008; 12.
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective controlled study included 5859 cases of digestive surgery from September 1987 to August 2002. The study was divided into six 2.5-year periods, A-F. During and after period B, cefazolin was used for surgery of the esophagus, stomach, and gall bladder, and cefotiam for colon resection, hepatectomy, and pancreatectomy. During period A, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was administered for 6 (+/-4.6) days before surgery, on average. During and after period B, TPN was confined to patients who were incapable of oral intake. During thoracic esophageal cancer surgery, frozen plasma was administered at 10 ml/h, colloid osmotic pressure was maintained, and water was prevented from accumulating in the third space. Mechanical respiratory support was not needed during or after period B. The incidence rate of respiratory infection decreased to 1.7% during period A, and to 0.7%-1.1% during and after period B. During and after period B, in particular, early respiratory infection cases after surgery decreased significantly to 0.1%-0.3%. In period A, among the respiratory infectious bacteria isolated, MRSA was the most frequent, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After period B, P. aeruginosa was the most frequent bacterium isolated. Over all periods, there was no significant difference in resistant ratios in P. aeruginosa. Because of consistent infusion management during the perioperative period, artificial breathing became unnecessary and, as a result, the prevalence of early respiratory infection decreased significantly.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2007; 13(3):172-6. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial culture is not often performed for mild surgical site infections, so only isolates from patients with severe surgical site infections have been identified. Consequently, broad-spectrum antibacterials, such as carbapenems, whose resistance has been highly modified, have been selected for use from the initial stage of these infections, and this is one reason for the increase in drug-resistant bacteria. We carried out this study to show antibiotics that are appropriate for each period of such infections. Bacteria obtained from postoperative infection sites in 114 patients with surgical site infections after gastrointestinal surgery were classified as first, second, third, and fourth isolates: the first isolates were taken when the administration of prophylactic antibiotics was finished, and the second, third, and fourth isolates were taken when the administrations of the first, second, and third therapeutic antibiotics, respectively, were finished. The incidence of drug-resistant strains was rare in strains isolated in the early phase of infections. The numbers of strains resistant to cephems and carbapenems increased as the clinical course of the infection progressed. New broad-spectrum antibiotics such as carbapenems should not be selected for the treatment of early-phase surgical site infections.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2007; 13(3):166-71. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - INT J ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. 01/2007; 29.