[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-invasive differentiation of ischemic and non-ischemic acute heart failure (AHF) not resulting from acute myocardial infarction is difficult and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. The aim of this study was to assess whether plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can identify ischemic etiology in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting with AHF. Design and Methods We prospectively analyzed 61 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic AHF was confirmed by coronary angiography or stress myocardial perfusion imaging. Plasma levels of BNP were measured at admission (BNP1) and 48h after admission (BNP2).
The mean age of the study patients was 67years. In these patients, 70.5% had diabetes and 47.5% had dialysis-dependent CKD; 28 of these patients (45.9%) had an ischemic etiology with significantly higher concentrations of BNP1 and BNP2 than did patients without ischemia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.755 (P=0.001) for BNP1 and 0.868 (P<0.001) for BNP2 to detect ischemic etiology of AHF. Plasma BNP1>2907ng/L (odds ratio [OR], 10.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-48.4; P=0.002) and BNP2>2322ng/L (OR 93.1, 95% CI 7.0-1238.7; P=0.001) were independently associated with an ischemic etiology of AHF.
Plasma BNP may represent a clinically useful non-invasive tool for identification of ischemic etiology of AHF in patients with stage 4-5 CKD. The trial registration number is NCT0122886.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increasing age, body fat increases and muscle mass reduces. Even people with a normal weight may have a higher percentage of body fat. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between increased body fat and renal function decline (RFD) in the general elderly population with normal or mildly impaired renal function.
Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2014; 9:1277-1286. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are a heterogeneous group with a variety of prognosis. We investigated the role of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in these patients, and tried to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.
As a prospective design, 182 asymptomatic non-diabetic CKD patients underwent carotid ultrasonography and Doppler echocardiography. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a carotid intima-media thickness >=1.0 mm and/or the presence of plaque.
During the mean follow-up period of 28.8 +/- 16.1 months, 23 adverse CV events occurred. Patients with carotid atherosclerosis (99, 54.4%) showed significantly higher rates of annual CV events than those without (8.6 vs. 1.5%, p <0.001). Particularly, the presence of carotid plaque was a powerful predictor of adverse CV outcomes (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.45-45.97). Clinical parameters associated with the presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis were old age, previous history of hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level. By echocardiography, early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') and the ratio of early peak transmitral inflow velocity (E) to E' (E/E') were closely related with the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. A multivariate analysis showed that age, hs-CRP, and E/E' were significant determinants of carotid atherosclerosis.
Carotid plaque, even subclinical, was closely associated with a poor prognosis in non-diabetic CKD patients. Increased age, hs-CRP level, and E/E' ratio may be useful markers suggesting the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fetuin-A are vascular calcification regulators that may be related to high cardiovascular (CV) mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We evaluated the relationship between OPG, fetuin-A, and pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of vascular stiffness, and determined whether OPG and fetuin-A were independent predictors of CV events in HD patients.
We conducted a prospective observational study in 97 HD patients. OPG and fetuin-A were measured at baseline and arterial stiffness was evaluated by PWV. All patients were stratified into tertiles according to serum OPG levels.
A significant trend was observed across increasing serum OPG concentration tertiles for age, HD duration, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and PWV. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that diabetes (β = 0.430, p = 0.000) and OPG levels (β = 0.308, p = 0.003) were independently associated with PWV. The frequency of new CV events was significantly higher in the upper OPG tertiles compared with those in the lower OPG tertiles. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, upper tertiles of OPG levels were significantly associated with CV events (hazard ratio = 4.536, p = 0.011).
Serum OPG, but not fetuin-A, levels were closely associated with increased vascular stiffness, and higher OPG levels may be independent predictors of new CV events in HD patients.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 11/2013; 28(6):668-77.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valvular calcification is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). This study examined the hypothesis that valvular calcification is a marker of myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic high-risk patients with ESRD.
Echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography were performed in 285 asymptomatic high-risk patients with ESRD at initiation of dialysis. We evaluated the extent and severity of myocardial ischemia by the summed difference score (SDS) and defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as SDS ≥ 3 and moderate to severe ischemia as SDS ≥ 8. The presence of cardiac valvular calcification was assessed by echocardiography and defined as aortic valve calcification or mitral valve calcification.
Eighty-five (29.9%) patients had echocardiographic evidence of cardiac valvular calcification. The presence of myocardial ischemia was significantly associated with aortic valve calcification (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76-5.78; p < 0.001), mitral valve calcification (OR = 3.31; 95% CI = 1.74-6.28; p < 0.001), and cardiac valvular calcification (OR = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.79-5.65; p < 0.001). The presence of moderate to severe myocardial ischemia (SDS ≥ 8) was independently associated with cardiac valvular calcification (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.12-7.27; p = 0.028).
Valvular calcification was significantly associated with the presence of inducible myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with ESRD, and may be a potential marker of patients at high-risk for the presence of silent myocardial ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silent myocardial ischemia is highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the criteria for coronary artery disease screening remain unclear in asymptomatic patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether baseline echocardiographic parameters can predict myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with ESRD. We investigated 259 high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD who underwent both echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography at the initiation of dialysis. We defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as a reversible or fixed perfusion defect. Silent myocardial ischemia was found in 99 (38.2 %) high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD at the initiation of dialysis. In patients with myocardial ischemia, left ventricular (LV) end systolic volume index, LV mass index, left atrial volume index (LAVI), and the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to peak mitral annulus velocity were significantly higher, and LV ejection fraction was significantly lower, than those without myocardial ischemia. Multivariate analysis showed that LAVI, LV ejection fraction, and regional wall motion abnormalities were independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia. Severe (LA) enlargement was independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia (odds ratio 1.97; 95 % confidence interval 1.08-3.57; p = 0.026). LA enlargement is a potential marker for identifying patients with ESRD at high risk of silent myocardial ischemia.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 05/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its relationship with various markers of nutrition, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, inflammation and β2-microglobulin. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 95 patients having ESRD aged over 50 years. Sarcopenia was defined as a decline in both muscle mass and strength. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.9 ± 10.0 years; 56.8% were men and 52.6% had diabetes. Sarcopenia was highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD (37.0% in men and 29.3% in women). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), inflammatory markers and β2-microglobulin levels were significantly associated with sarcopenia, even after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and body mass index. Additionally, patients with depressive symptoms showed a higher risk of sarcopenia relative to those without depressive symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 6.87, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.06-22.96) and sarcopenia was more likely to be present in patients with mild cognitive dysfunction (OR = 6.35, 95% CI = 1.62-34.96). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD and is closely associated with SGA, inflammatory markers, β2-microglobulin, depression and cognitive dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cinacalcet is effective for treating refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), but little is known about the response rates and clinical factors influencing the response. Materials and Methods: A prospective, single-arm, multi-center study was performed for 24 weeks. Cinacalcet was administered to patients with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level greater than 300 pg/mL. Cinacalcet was started at a dose of 25 mg daily and titrated until 100 mg to achieve a serum iPTH level <300 pg/mL (primary end point). Early response to cinacalcet was defined as a decrease of iPTH more than 50% within one month. Results: Fifty-seven patients were examined. Based on the magnitude of iPTH decrease, patients were divided into responder (n=47, 82.5%) and non-responder (n=10, 17.5%) groups. Among the responders, 38 achieved the primary end point, whereas 9 patients showed a reduction in serum iPTH of 30% or more, but did not reach the primary end point. Compared to non-responders, responders were significantly older (p=0.026), female (p=0.041), and diabetics (p<0.001). Additionally, early response was observed more frequently in the responders (30/47, 63.8%), of whom the majority (27/30, 90.0%) achieved the primary end point. Multivariate analysis showed that lower baseline iPTH levels [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-0.99], the presence of diabetes (OR 46.45, CI 1.92-1125.6) and early response (OR 21.54, CI 2.94-157.7) were significant clinical factors affecting achievement of iPTH target. Conclusion: Cinacalcet was effective in most hemodialysis patients with refractory SHPT. The presence of an early response was closely associated with the achievement of target levels of iPTH.
Yonsei medical journal 03/2013; 54(2):453-63. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dialysis patients have impaired host defense mechanisms and frequently require antibiotics for various infective complications. In this study, we investigated whether dialysis patients have greater risk for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).Methods
During the 4-year study period (2004–2008), 85 patients with CDAD were identified based on a retrospective review of C difficile toxin assay or histology records. Nosocomial diarrheal patients without CDAD were considered as controls (n=403). We assessed the association between renal function and the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDAD.ResultsThere was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) between CDAD and non-CDAD patients (P<0.001). Sixteen patients (18.8%) of the CDAD group were treated with dialysis, whereas 21 patients (5.2%) of the non-CDAD group were treated with dialysis. There was a significant association between renal function and CDAD in patients on dialysis [odds ratio (OR)=4.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19–8.99, P<0.001], but not in patients with CKD stage 3–5 (OR=1.10, 95% CI 0.63–1.92, P=0.73). In multivariate analysis, CKD stage 5D was an independent risk factor for the development of CDAD (OR=13.36, 95% CI 2.94–60.67, P=0.001).Conclusion
Our data indicate that dialysis patients might be at a greater risk of developing CDAD, which suggests that particular attention should be provided to CDAD when antibiotic treatment is administered to dialysis patients.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice. 03/2013; 32(1):27–31.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome play causative roles in the increasing prevalence of proteinuria in the general population. However, in young adult women the clinical significance of incidentally discovered proteinuria and its association with metabolic syndrome are unclear. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria in this population. METHODS: A total of 10,385 women aged 20 to 39 years who underwent health screenings were surveyed. Each patient was tested for proteinuria with a dipstick (-, +/-, 1+, 2+, or 3+), and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater. Persistent proteinuria was established by confirming proteinuria in a subsequent test. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asia. RESULTS: The mean age was 28.9 +/- 5.5 years, and the prevalence of persistent proteinuria was 1.0%. Among these subjects with persistent proteinuria, obesity and metabolic syndrome were found in 10.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome, as well as its components of hypertension, hyperglycemia, central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and high triglyceride levels, was closely related to the presence of proteinuria. In addition, a wide pulse pressure of >=40 mmHg was another independent risk factor for proteinuria [odds ratio (OR) 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03--11.91)]. This had an additive effect on metabolic syndrome in terms of predicting proteinuria. Even in subjects without metabolic syndrome, the influence of an increased pulse pressure was consistent (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.03--8.61). CONCLUSIONS: Specific attention to proteinuria may be necessary in asymptomatic young women aged 20 to 39 years if they have metabolic syndrome or a wide pulse pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in mesangial and tubular epithelial cells under diabetic conditions. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with either a diluent [n=16, control (C)] or streptozotocin [n=16, diabetes (DM)], and eight rats each from the control and diabetic groups were treated with evening primrose oil by gavage for three months. Rat mesangial cells and NRK-52E cells were exposed to medium containing 5.6 mM glucose and 30 mM glucose (HG), with or without GLA (10 or 100 μM). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and fibronectin (FN) mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated. Results: Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion was significantly increased in DM compared to C rats, and GLA treatment significantly reduced albuminuria in DM rats. ICAM-1, MCP-1, FN mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in DM than in C kidneys, and these increases were significantly abrogated by GLA treatment. In vitro, GLA significantly inhibited increases in MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels under high glucose conditions in HG-stimulated mesangial and tubular epithelial cells (p<0.05, respectively). ICAM-1 and FN expression showed a similar pattern to the expression of MCP-1. Conclusion: GLA attenuates not only inflammation by inhibiting enhanced MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression, but also ECM accumulation in diabetic nephropathy.
Yonsei medical journal 11/2012; 53(6):1165-75. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Depression is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing evidence indicates that glial pathology and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. S100B, a protein expressed in astro- and oligodendroglia in the human brain is considered a biomarker of depression. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between S100B and depressive symptoms in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-eight Korean patients undergoing chronic HD without significant neurological issues participated in a cross-sectional observation study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and serum S100B levels were measured using blood samples obtained prior to a mid-week HD session. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 59.0years, and the mean dialysis duration was 51.7months. About 45% of patients undergoing HD met criteria for depression (BDI-II≥20). Serum S100B levels were significantly higher in patients with depression compared with patients without depression (115.1±45.4 vs. 66.1±35.3pg/mL, p<0.001). S100B (r=0.556, p<0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; r=0.422, p<0.001) and β2-microglobulin (r=0.391, p<0.001) levels were positively correlated with BDI-II scores. A multivariate regression analysis showed that both S100B and hs-CRP were significantly associated with BDI-II scores. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a close association between S100B and depressive symptoms in patients undergoing HD. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are currently unknown and warrant further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been suggested to be an atherosclerotic index for diabetic patients and a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with and without diabetes. Even though end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are well characterized by abnormal adipocytokine metabolism, the significance of alterations in the L/A ratio is largely unexplored in these patients. In this prospective study, we investigated the associations of leptin, adiponectin, and the L/A ratio with clinical outcomes in nondiabetic PD patients. ♢ METHODS: The study included 131 stable nondiabetic ESRD patients who had been on PD for more than 3 months. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined at baseline. Mortality was evaluated over a 5-year follow-up period. ♢ RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 22 patients died (16.8%), including 10 (45.5%) as a result of cardiovascular disease. The L/A ratio showed a significant positive correlation with body mass index [BMI (r = 0.47, p < 0.001)], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.32, p < 0.001), and triglycerides (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). In addition, we observed significant inverse correlations between the L/A ratio and percentage lean body mass (r = -0.30, p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.31, p = 0.001). In contrast to individual leptin and adiponectin levels, the L/A ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased mortality risk (relative risk: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.27; p = 0.003) even after adjustments for age and BMI. ♢ CONCLUSIONS: The L/A ratio might be better related to patient outcomes than adipocytokines are individually in nondiabetic patients undergoing PD.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 08/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with diabetic end stage renal disease (ESRD), glycated albumin (GA) reflects recent glycemic control more accurately than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We evaluated the relationship between GA and average blood glucose (AG) level and developed an estimating equation for translating GA values into easier-to-understand AG levels.
A total of 185 ESRD patients, including 154 diabetic and 31 non-diabetic participants, were enrolled (108 hemodialysis, 77 peritoneal dialysis). Patients were asked to perform four-point daily self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose (SMBG) at least three consecutive days each week for four weeks. Serum levels of GA, HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were checked at baseline, as well as at 4 and 8 weeks.
Approximately 74.3±7.0 SMBG readings were obtained from each participant and mean AG was 169.1±48.2 mg/dL. The correlation coefficient between serum GA and AG levels (r=0.70, p<0.001) was higher than that of HbA1c and AG (r=0.54, p<0.001). Linear regression analysis yielded the following equation: estimated AG (eAG) (mg/dL)=4.71×GA%+73.35, and with this formula, serum GA levels could be easily translated to eAG levels. Multivariate analysis revealed significant contributions of postprandial hyperglycemia (β=0.25, p=0.03) and serum albumin (β=0.17, p=0.04) in determining serum GA level, independent to other clinical parameters.
Compared to HbA1c, serum GA levels were better correlated with AG levels. Using the estimating equation, an average blood glucose level of 155-160 mg/dL could be matched to a GA value of 18-19% in patients with ESRD.
Yonsei medical journal 05/2012; 53(3):578-86. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a rare manifestation of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of this condition have not yet been explored.
A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2000 and September 2010 in 1076 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN from four medical centers in Korea. The primary outcome was a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine concentration.
Of the 1076 patients, 100 (10.2%) presented with NS; complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), and no response (NR) occurred in 48 (48%), 32 (32%), and 20 (20%) patients, respectively. During the median follow-up of 45.2 months, 24 patients (24%) in the NS group reached the primary endpoint compared with 63 (7.1%) in the non-NS group (P<0.001). The risk of reaching the primary endpoint was significantly higher in the PR (P=0.04) and NR groups (P<0.001) than in the CR group. Among patients with NS, 24 (24%) underwent spontaneous remission (SR). SR occurred more frequently in female patients and in patients with serum creatinine levels ≤1.2 mg/dl and a >50% decrease in proteinuria within 3 months after NS onset. None of the patients with SR reached the primary endpoint and they had fewer relapses during follow-up.
This study demonstrated that the prognosis of NS in IgAN was not favorable unless PR or CR was achieved. In addition, SR was more common than expected, particularly in patients with preserved kidney function and spontaneous decrease in proteinuria shortly after NS onset.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2012; 7(3):427-36. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the impact of cardiac risk assessment using gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on cardiac events in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
We evaluated 215 asymptomatic patients who began dialysis between January 2005 and April 2009. Baseline electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed in all the patients. The subjects were stratified into low- and high-risk groups according to the baseline cardiac status, and gated SPECT was additionally recommended for the high-risk patients.
The study population consisted of 50 low- and 165 high-risk patients undergoing SPECT. Among the high-risk patients, 75 (45.5%) showed perfusion defects on SPECT and their overall cardiac-event rate per person-year of follow-up was 15.0%, significantly higher than 4.5% in high-risk group without perfusion defect and 1.2% in low-risk group. The presence of perfusion defect was a significant independent predictor of adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR) 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-4.24; P = .035]. When gated SPECT was added to the clinical and the echocardiographic variables, the prognostic stratification significantly improved (P < .001). However, coronary revascularization was not associated with improved cardiac event-free survival (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.26-1.52; P = .296).
Gated SPECT may provide additional prognostic information for cardiac risk stratification, particularly among high-risk patients starting dialysis.
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 12/2011; 19(3):438-47. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether diastolic dysfunction at the start of dialysis could influence renal and cardiovascular survival rates in 82 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Diastolic dysfunction was determined using left ventricular hypertrophy, the ratio of early peak transmitral inflow velocity to peak diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E'), and left atrial volume index (LAVI). Residual renal function (RRF) was measured with 24-hour urine collections at baseline (within 1 month of beginning peritoneal dialysis) and thereafter at 6-month intervals for 2 years. To evaluate the long-term prognostic significance of diastolic dysfunction, the 4-year cardiac event-free survival was also evaluated.
The median slope of RRF decline was -0.07 mL/min/mo/1.73 m(2). Forty-five patients (54.9%) with rapid RRF declines (< -0.07 mL/min/mo/1.73 m(2)) had a higher prevalence of diabetes and eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as significantly elevated E/E' ratios and LAVIs. There was a close relationship between baseline E/E' ratio (r = -0.221, P = .048), LAVI (r = -0.276, P = .015), and RRF decline rate, and both E/E' > 15 (odds ratio, 3.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-12.12) and LAVI > 32 mL/m(2) (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-11.58) were significant independent predictors of the loss of RRF. Furthermore, E/E' > 15 also provided additional prognostic value in predicting future cardiac events (hazard ratio, 6.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-12.12; P = .023).
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may be a significant predictor of rapid decline in RRF and adverse cardiac outcomes in patients starting peritoneal dialysis.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 12/2011; 25(4):411-20. · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is known to regulate bone mineral metabolism and to be also associated with inflammation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis (MIA) syndrome is commonly found and closely linked to mortality in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between OPG and MIA syndrome in prevalent peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Prevalent PD patients for more than 6 months were prospectively followed up from March 2005 to May 2010. At baseline, OPG, hs-CRP, albumin, and %lean body mass (LBM) by creatinine kinetics were checked, and subjective global assessment (SGA) was performed. New-onset cardiovascular events were evaluated during the study period. Based on the median level of OPG, patients were classified as lower OPG (LO) group (n = 88) and higher OPG (HO) group (n = 88).
A total of 176 patients (age 52.0 ± 11.8 years, male 50.6%, duration of PD 105.3 ± 67.2 months) were recruited and followed. In HO group, age, hs-CRP level and Charlson's comorbidity indices were higher, whereas serum albumin level, %LBM and SGA score were significantly lower than LO group. OPG levels were positively correlated with inflammatory markers, whereas negatively correlated with nutritional status. Cardiovascular events occurred in 51 patients during the study period. Newly developed cardiovascular events were significantly common in HO group (n = 36, 40.9%) than LO group (n = 15, 17%, p = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that higher OPG level (per 1-SD increase in OPG, HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03-2.00; p = 0.034) was a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events even after adjustments for demographic and biochemical parameters.
OPG was significantly correlated with markers of systemic inflammation and malnutrition and was a significant predictor of CVD in PD patients. These findings suggest OPG might be a prognostic indicator of MIA syndrome in prevalent PD patients.