Juan Antonio Padilla-Sánchez

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (6)18.71 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The determination of compounds showing a very low molecular weight (i.e. < 200 Da) can be complicated when low-resolution mass spectrometry is used in the selected-reaction monitoring mode, since the possible number of product ions is reduced and the obtained reactions are not selective enough to overcome background noise and/or matrix interferences. In this study, the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry based on Exactive Orbitrap was applied for the determination of a group of polar organophosphonate pesticides and transformation products (TPs), which show the aforementioned features, in agricultural soils. Namely, glyphosate, glufosinate, ethephon and their TPs, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid, N-acetyl-glufosinate and 2-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid were analyzed. The [M-H](-) ions 168.00564, 180.04202, 142.96593, 110.00016, 151.01547, 222.05259 and 124.99982 were used, respectively, for the detection and identification of the compounds. Confirmation was carried out by using accurate mass measurements of ion fragments for each compound, from neutral losses of CO(2) , H(2) O and H(2) CO (formaldehyde). Furthermore, the recently reported tool, relative isotopic mass defect (RΔm), was also used to support the confirmation protocol. The optimized method was fully validated at low levels, including the estimation of a not commonly used parameter: the limit of confirmation (LOC). This LOC is expressed as the lowest concentration of compound that can be confirmed using a fragment or the RΔm, and it ranged from 10 to 50 µg kg(-1) for all compounds. All the data was obtained in a single injection. Finally, the method was applied to real soil samples, and glyphosate and AMPA were found at 265 µg kg(-1) and 105 µg kg(-1) , respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 11/2012; 47(11):1458-65. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study of pesticide transformation products (TPs) was carried out in soils of agricultural areas working under integrated pest management programs (IPMs). Bupirimate and cyromazine were the pesticides detected in soils after an initial pre-screening. The aim of this work was the identification of relevant TPs of these two pesticides. Soil samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using a mixture of ethyl acetate/methanol (3:1, v/v), and analyzed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). For confirmation purposes, tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2) ) experiments were carried out using QTOF-MS, obtaining specific fragment structures of the pesticides and their degradates. Retention times and exact masses of the protonated molecules were used for the identification of the pesticides bupirimate (m/z 317.1642) and cyromazine (m/z 167.1040) and their respective TPs, namely ethirimol (m/z 210.1601) and melamine (m/z 127.0727). A novel strategy using pseudo-MS(3) experiments was developed to confirm the structure of bupirimate TP (ethirimol). This strategy consists of generating the particular TP in the ion source, via collision-induced fragmentation, and then performing MS/MS to the fragment ion formed in-source. Ethirimol and melamine were identified as degradation products of bupirimate and cyromazine, respectively. The study was applied to the analysis of 15 agricultural soil samples finding bupirimate and ethirimol in seven samples, cyromazine in one sample and melamine in four samples.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 05/2012; 26(9):1091-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new procedure has been proposed for the determination of biopesticides (nicotine, sabadine, veratridine, rotenone, azadirachtin, cevadine, deguelin, spynosad D, and pyrethrins) and piperonyl butoxide in agricultural soils. Several extraction procedures such as solid-liquid extraction using mechanical shaking, sonication, pressurized liquid extraction, and modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) have been tested, obtaining better results when QuEChERS procedure without further cleanup steps was applied. The determination of the compounds was carried out by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using methanol and aqueous solution of ammonium formate 5 mM as mobile phase. The method was validated for all compounds at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg/kg and recoveries ranged from 68 to 116%, except for nicotine and sabadine, with recoveries lower than 50%. Precision was estimated through intra- and inter-day studies, obtaining intra-day precision lower than 20% for most of the compounds, and inter-day precision was lower than 25%. Limits of detection and quantification were also estimated, obtaining limits of quantification equal or lower than 10 μg/kg. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 20 real agricultural soil samples and no biopesticide residues were found over the limit of quantification.
    Journal of Separation Science 04/2012; 35(7):861-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive survey of the occurrence and fate of pesticides and organic contaminants in soils from an intensive agricultural area devoted to horticultural production in plastic-based greenhouses has been performed to determine if the operation under integrated pest management practices has contributed to reduce the levels of these compounds. Almería province (south-eastern Spain) was selected for the case study. 38 agricultural soil samples (each sample corresponds to an independent private greenhouse) of areas working under integrated pest management (IPM) programs have been analyzed in order to evaluate their contamination fate. Sampling was designed to cover an area of about 400 km(2). Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phenolic compounds and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were monitored. The obtained results were compared to other studies reported in Spain and Europe. Among relevant persistent pesticides, DDTs and endosulfans were mainly found and the results indicated historical application, although recent application of endosulfan was rarely detected. PAHs were also found but to a lesser extent and derived from pyrogenic sources. DEHP levels were considerably higher in comparison to the other monitored analytes. The evaluation revealed that despite the use of IPM programs, pesticide and organic contaminants are still being detected in this type of agricultural soil, although at relatively low concentration levels. In general, the contamination rate was similar or lower in comparison to other agricultural areas from nearby regions or countries. However, further monitoring studies should be carried out to establish the possible reduction in contamination by the selected compounds.
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 02/2012; 14(4):1182-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An analytical methodology has been developed for the simultaneous extraction of 13 phenolic compounds, including chlorophenols (CPs), nitrophenols (NTPs), cresols and alkylphenols (APs) in different types of wastewater (WW) effluents. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method has been optimized prior to the determination by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Due to the complexity of the matrix, a comparison study of matrix-matched-calibration (MMC) and standard addition calibration (SAC) was carried out for quantification purposes. The optimized procedure was validated using the SAC approach since it provided the most adequate quantification results (in terms of recovery and precision values). Recoveries were in the range 60-135% (0.5 μg L(-1)), 70-115% (1 μg L(-1)), and 78-120% (5 μg L(-1)), with precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) ≤ 30% (except for 2-nitrophenol) involving intra-day and inter-day precision studies. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were also evaluated, and LOQs ranged from 0.03 μg L(-1) to 2.5 μg L(-1). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 8 real WW effluent samples, finding some phenolic compounds (e.g. 2-chlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and 4-tert-octylphenol) at concentrations higher than the established LOQs.
    Talanta 10/2011; 85(5):2397-404. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the different physico-chemical properties of phenols, the development of a methodology for the simultaneous extraction and determination of phenolic compounds belonging to several families, such as chlorophenols (CPs), alkylphenols (APs), nitrophenols (NTPs) and cresols is difficult. This study shows the development and validation of a method for the analysis of 13 phenolic compounds (including CPs, APs, NTPs and cresols) in agricultural soils. For this purpose, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS)-based procedure was developed, validated and applied to the analysis of real samples. A derivatization step prior to the final determination by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a triple quadrupole analyzer operating in tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS/MS) was performed by using acetic acid anhydride (AAA) and pyridine (Py). The optimized procedure was validated, obtaining average extraction recoveries in the range 69-103% (10microgkg(-1)), 65-98% (50microgkg(-1)), 76-112% (100microgkg(-1)) and 76-112% (300microgkg(-1)), with precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD)< or =22% (except for 4-chlorophenol) involving intra-day and inter-day studies. Furthermore, 15 real soil samples were analyzed by the proposed method in order to assess its applicability. Some phenolic compounds (e.g. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol or 4-tert-octylphenol) were found in the samples at trace levels (<10microgkg(-1)).
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2010; 1217(36):5724-31. · 4.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

35 Citations
18.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • Department of Chemistry
      Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2010–2012
    • Universidad de Almería
      • Research Centre for Agricultural and Food Biotechnology (BITAL)
      Unci, Andalusia, Spain