[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bloodstream infection surveillance system proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was prospectively conducted in a pediatric hemodialysis unit. Thirty patients were included; 73% had a catheter for vascular access at enrollment. Vascular access infection rate was 21.1 per 100 patient-months, well above those observed in adult patient surveys. Staphylococcus aureus was most frequently isolated (23%).
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 05/2012; 33(5):521-3. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most frequent causes of pediatric acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to report the clinic and microbiologic features associated with 13 post-diarrheal HUS cases identified in pediatric intensive care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2001 to August 2005. Epidemiologic, clinic, and laboratorial information, along with fecal and serum samples, were collected for identifying the genetic sequences of Stx and for studying antibodies directed against LPS O26, O111 and O157. STEC was isolated from three patients, and serotypes O26:H11, O157:H7 and O165:H- were identified. In nine patients, high levels of IgM against LPS O111 (n=2) and O157 (n=7) were detected. Dialysis was required in 76.9% of the patients; arterial hypertension was present in 61.5%, neurological complications were observed in 30.7%, and only one patient died. During a 5-year follow-up period, one patient developed chronic kidney disease. The combined use of microbiologic and serologic techniques provided evidence of STEC infection in 92.3% of the HUS cases studied, and the importance of O157 STEC as agents of HUS in São Paulo has not been previously highlighted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study set out to compare total and acyl ghrelin levels in children with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing conservative treatment (n = 19) with children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (n = 24), and with healthy controls (n = 20). The relationship between ghrelin levels and parameters of renal function, nutritional status, and selective hormones were investigated. ESRD patients had higher total ghrelin levels than those with mild CKD or control individuals. However, acyl ghrelin did not differ between groups, indicating that the excess circulating ghrelin was desacylated. Since desacyl ghrelin has been shown to inhibit appetite, increased levels might contribute to protein-energy wasting in pediatric renal patients. When all 43 renal patients were combined, multiple regression analysis found age and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be significant negative predictors of total ghrelin. Acyl ghrelin was influenced negatively by age and positively by energy intake. Acyl to total ghrelin ratio related positively to GFR and energy intake. The results indicate that total but not acyl ghrelin is influenced by low GFR in children with CKD and suggests that ghrelin activation may be impaired in these patients. Since energy intake is a positive predictor of acyl ghrelin, the physiological control of ghrelin secretion appears to be altered in pediatric renal patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lowe Syndrome, or Oculocerebrorenal Dystrophy (OCRL), has a recessive inheritance linked to X chromosome. It presents cataracts and glaucoma, delay in neuropsychomotor development, cognitive deficits, and renal Fanconi syndrome.
Describe five patients with OCRL, attended at Tubulopathy outpatient clinic.
We performed a retrospective assessment of 5 male patient clinical charts of OCRL patients.
Mean age at first consultation was 76.5 and mean follow up interval was 30.5 months (8-53 months). Symptoms and clinical signs included cataracts and nystagmus. Neuropsychomotor development and weight and height deficits were present in whole cases, as well as polyuria, polydipsia, and intestinal constipation, metabolic acidosis, phosphaturia, bicarbonaturia, proteinuria, hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria. Nephrocalcinosis was identified in one, renal lithiasis in three, and reduced kidney size in two patients. We found pathological fractures and rachitism in two, bone rarefaction and delay of bone age in all of the patients. One patient presented a reduction in the rhythm of glomerular filtration. Therapeutically, all patients received alkali, phosphorus and vitamin D reposition in addition to a dietary orientation adequate to their needs.
This study emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and medico-nutritional followup, to avoid complications related to metabolic disturbances.
Orgão oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia 06/2010; 32(2):216-22.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar vertebrae (L(1)-L(4)) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis, and its results were compared with bone biopsy and biochemical parameters. Biopsy specimens provided evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease in eight cases (40%), and low bone turnover in 12 (60%). For BMD, expressed as Z-scores relative to normal, median Z-scores were -1.05 (range -2.36 to 1.06) for hyperparathyroid patients and -1.05 (range -4.40 to -0.03) for low bone turnover patients, with no statistical differences between groups (P = 0.512). In relation to BMD, of the whole sample, five (25%) had a Z-score under -2.0. When it was corrected for height, BMD was in the normal range. Additionally, there were no significant differences in single samples of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) between groups with high or low bone turnover. Assessment of nutritional status, through height/age, showed that ten patients had Z-scores below -2.0 (median -2.12, range -7.13 to 0.73). In conclusion, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) seems to have a high prevalence among CKD pediatric patients, although only approximately a quarter of them developed changes in BMD. In children with CKD, measurements of bone mineral density may not be used for classification of various forms of ROD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome in infancy and childhood is known to be associated with a hypercoagulable state and thromboembolic complications, but cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CST) is a very rare and serious one, with only a few isolated reports in the literature. A case is presented of a 9-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome that acutely developed signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension syndrome. CST was diagnosed on cranial CT and MRI and he gradually recovered after treatment with anticoagulants. The diagnosis of CST should be considered in any patient with nephrotic syndrome who develops neurologic symptoms. The discussion of this case, coupled with a review of the literature, emphasizes that early diagnosis is essential for institution of anticoagulation therapy and a successful outcome. This report also illustrates the difficulties that may be encountered in managing such a patient.
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 01/2004; 61(4):1026-9. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the case of a patient with Joubert syndrome associated with renal impairments. Case description: A 2 month-old patient was admit- ted with hypotonia and hyperpneia. At the physical exam, besides irregular breathing pattern, abnormal eye move- ments and arterial hypertension without abnormalities in cardiac or pulmonary sounds were observed. At the initial clinical and laboratorial investigations, cardiac and pulmo- nary causes were excluded. The diagnostic hypothesis was: neurological illness associated with renal disease. Labo- ratorial analysis showed respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia, with normal renal function. In the magnetic resonance, images of neurological alterations were compatible with the "molar tooth sign", frequently associated with Joubert syndrome. Renal investigation was performed and cystic images in renal parenchyma were found. Comments: Cardiac and pulmonary illness are frequently associated with clinical manifestations such as tachypnea and metabolic alterations. Nevertheless, neurological investigation may be necessary, since some diseases that affect the central nervous system may manifest these signs and symptoms. Association between renal alterations and central nervous system malformations are frequent in sev- eral diseases and should be investigated. Joubert syndrome and its associated disorders are characterized by aplasia of the cerebellar vermis, ataxia, abnormal eye movements and irregular breathing pattern with psychomotor and mental delay. The most frequent renal problems associated with the disease are renal cysts and nephronophtisis that can progress to end-stage renal failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the presence of osteodystrophy in children with chronic kidney disease, comparing results of bone biopsy with biochemical and hormonal parameters of bone meta- bolism, and to evaluate the nutritional status of these children. Methods: Sixteen patients (nine males) with creatinine clearance