[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-presented peptides can be derived from both exogenous (extracellular) and endogenous (biosynthesized) sources of antigen. Although several endogenous antigen-processing pathways have been reported, little is known about their relative contributions to global CD4(+) T cell responses against complex antigens. Using influenza virus for this purpose, we assessed the role of macroautophagy, a process in which cytosolic proteins are delivered to the lysosome by de novo vesicle formation and membrane fusion. Influenza infection triggered productive macroautophagy, and autophagy-dependent presentation was readily observed with model antigens that naturally traffic to the autophagosome. Furthermore, treatments that enhance or inhibit macroautophagy modulated the level of presentation from these model antigens. However, validated enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays of influenza-specific CD4(+) T cells from infected mice using a variety of antigen-presenting cells, including primary dendritic cells, revealed no detectable macroautophagy-dependent component. In contrast, the contribution of proteasome-dependent endogenous antigen processing to the global influenza CD4(+) response was readily appreciated. The contribution of macroautophagy to the MHC class II-restricted response may vary depending upon the pathogen.
Journal of Virology 07/2011; 85(13):6453-63. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation, the transfer of Ag from an infected cell to a professional APC, have been studied in great detail. Much less is known about the equivalent process for MHC class II-restricted presentation. After infection or transfection of class II-negative donor cells, we observed minimal transfer of a proteasome-dependent "class I-like" epitope within the influenza neuraminidase glycoprotein but potent transfer of a classical, H-2M-dependent epitope within the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. Additional experiments determined transfer to be exosome-mediated and substantially enhanced by the receptor binding activity of incorporated HA. Furthermore, a carrier effect was observed in that incorporated HA improved exosome-mediated transfer of a second membrane protein. This route of Ag presentation should be relevant to other enveloped viruses, may skew CD4(+) responses toward exosome-incorporated glycoproteins, and points toward novel vaccine strategies.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2010; 185(11):6608-16. · 5.52 Impact Factor