Jong Won Park

Keimyung University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (67)133.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of peritoneal dialysate when performing bioimpedance analysis may affect body composition measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dialysate on body composition measurements in Asians. Forty-one patients undergoing maintenance peritoneal dialysis in our hospital peritoneal dialysis unit were included in this study. Dialysate was drained from the abdomen prior to measurement, and bioimpedance analysis was performed using multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis, with each subject in a standing position (D-). Dialysate was then administered and the measurement was repeated (D+). The presence of peritoneal dialysate led to an increase in intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), and total body water (D-: 20.33 ± 3.72 L for ICW and 13.53 ± 2.54 L for ECW; D+: 20.96 ± 3.78 L for ICW and 14.10 ± 2.59 L for ECW; P < 0.001 for both variables). Total and trunk oedema indices were higher in the presence of peritoneal dialysate. In addition, the presence of peritoneal dialysate led to an overestimation of mineral content and free fat mass (FFM) for the total body; but led to an underestimation of body fat (D-: 45.80 ± 8.26 kg for FFM and 19.30 ± 6.27 kg for body fat; D+: 47.51 ± 8.38 kg for FFM and 17.59 ± 6.47 kg for body fat; P < 0.001 for both variables). Our results demonstrate that the presence of peritoneal dialysate leads to an overestimation of FFM and an underestimation of fat mass. An empty abdomen is recommended when evaluating body composition using bioimpedance analysis.
    Nephrology 11/2014; 19(11). · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone purified from the Indian medicinal plant, Withania somnifera. Withaferin A has been shown to inhibit the proliferation, metastasis, invasion and angiogenesis of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated whether withaferin A induces apoptosis in the human head and neck cancer cells, AMC-HN4. Withaferin A markedly increased the sub-G1 cell population and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are markers of apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk (z-VAD), markedly inhibited the withaferin A-induced apoptosis. However, the withaferin A-induced increase in the expression of COX-2 was not affected by treatment with z-VAD. Furthermore, withaferin A upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, reduced the withaferin A-induced production of prostaglandin E2. However, treatment with NS-398 did not affect the sub-G1 population and the cleavage of PARP. In addition, the withaferin A-induced apoptosis was independent of reactive oxygen species production. Thiol donors [N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dithiothreitol (DTT)] reversed withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Therefore, our data suggest that withaferin A induces apoptosis through the mechanism of thiol oxidation in head and neck carcinoma cells.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 10/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Program trading has been identified as a mechanism that links the futures and spot markets. It has also been identified as a potential cause of market instability leading to regulations on program trading during volatile markets. Program trading halts provide a natural experiment to test the hypothesis that program trading is an important mechanism that maintains relative market pricing. This study is the first to analyze the effect of removing all program trades on the connectedness of the spot and futures markets during large market moves. The Korean regulatory environment has several unique properties that lend itself to such a study. Overall, we provide evidence that (i) the basis is unaffected when program trading is eliminated during large market moves, (ii) arbitrage exists and appears to be able to identify uninformed price moves, (iii) the data do not support the argument that halts provide a time-out period in order for markets to reevaluate information, and (iv) there are costs associated with imposing trading halt regulations on financial markets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark
    Journal of Futures Markets 08/2014; · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to measure the difference of ionized calcium between heparinized whole blood and serum. We recruited 107 maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients from our hospital HD unit. The clinical and laboratory data included ionized calcium in serum and in whole blood (reference, 4.07 to 5.17 mg/dL). The level of ionized calcium in serum was higher than that in whole blood (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed that difference for ionized calcium was 0.5027. For the difference, the nonstandardized β was -0.4389 (p < 0.001) and the intercept was 2.2418 (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the distribution of categories of ionized calcium level between two methods (κ, 0.279; p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that whole blood ionized calcium is underestimated compared with serum ionized calcium. Positive difference increases as whole blood ionized calcium decreases. Therefore, significant hypocalcemia in whole blood ionized calcium should be verified by serum ionized calcium.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2014; 29(2):226-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of paricalcitol for the prevention of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Materials and Methods: Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were cultured in media containing transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) with or without paricalcitol. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. In the control group, the catheter was inserted but no dialysate was infused. The peritoneal dialysis (PD) group was infused with a conventional 4.25% dialysis solution. The paricalcitol group was infused with 4.25% dialysis solution and cotreated with paricalcitol. Results: Exposure of HPMCs to TGF-β1 decreased the protein level of the epithelial cell marker and increased the expression levels of the mesenchymal markers. Cotreatment with paricalcitol increased the protein levels of the epithelial cell marker and decreased those of mesenchymal markers compared with their levels in cells treated with TGF-β1 alone. Exposure of HPMCs to TGF-β1 significantly increased the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. Cotreatment with paricalcitol significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 compared with that of cells treated with TGF-β1 alone. After 8 weeks of experimental PD in rats, the thickness of the peritoneal membrane in the PD group was significantly increased compared with that of the control group. Cotreatment with paricalcitol decreased peritoneal thickness. Conclusion: The present study showed that paricalcitol attenuates the TGF-β1-induced EMT in peritoneal mesothelial cells. We suggest that paricalcitol may preserve peritoneal mesothelial cells during PD and could thus be of value for the success of long-term PD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Nephron Experimental Nephrology 01/2014; 126(1):1-7. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Jong Won Park, Seok Hui Kang, Jun Young Do
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Changes in peritoneal membrane characteristics including epithelial-mesenchymal transition are an important problem in the maintenance of peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study reports a 3-year follow-up assessment of the effects of low-glucose degradation products (GDP) solution, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Materials and Methods. Adult patients who received continuous ambulatory PD between April 2001 and March 2007 were identified, and those who maintained on PD with the same solution for more than 3 years were included. Patients with an initial effluent score of 3 (fibroblastoid cells dominant in overnight effluent dialysate) were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups according to the dialysate: standard and low-GDP. The following were measured: cancer antigen-125, cell score, normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance, dialysate-plasma creatinine and sodium ratios, and residual renal function. Cell score and peritoneal equilibration test were measured at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the initiation of PD. Results. Fifty patients were in the standard group and 76 in the low-GDP group. No significant difference in dialysate-plasma creatinine ratio was detected at baseline and at the end-point of follow-up between the two groups. Dialysate-plasma sodium ratio decreased significantly at the end-point of follow-up in the low-GDP group. Initial and follow-up cancer antigen-125 levels were higher in the low-GDP group. Multivariable analysis showed that low-GDP was associated with a higher cell score 3-free survival rate. Conclusions. The present study shows that a low-GDP solution may be associated with preserving the mesothelial cell and peritoneal membrane characteristics.
    Iranian journal of kidney diseases 01/2014; 8(1):58-64. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The seven mitochondrial DNA regions (ND2, ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND6, ND1 and 12SrRNA) of Haliotis discus hannai were examined to estimate the availability as a genetic marker for the study of population genetic. The region with the highest genetic variation was ND4 (Haplotype diversity = 1.0000, Nucleotide diversity = 0.0108). On the other hand, ND2 and ND1 regions have significantly appeared genetic divergence between clusters (divergence of 90% and 87%). Also, pairwise between clusters within ND2 and ND1 regions showed high values; 0.4061 (P = 0.0000), 0.4805 (P = 0.0000) respectively. Therefore we can infer that it is the most efficient and accurate way to analyze the region of ND4 with the highest variation in addition to the regions of ND2 and ND1, which formed clusters with high bootstrap value, for study of population genetic structure in this species.
    The Korean Journal of Malacology. 12/2013; 29(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of three different diets (formulated diet, FD; Undaria pinnatifida, UP; Laminaria japonica, LJ) on growth in the Haliotis discus hannai for 90 days was investigated. The shell length of UP ( mm) and LJ ( mm) were significantly faster than those of FD ( mm) (P < 0.05). However, shell breadth and total weight were no significant difference among three diets. On the other hand, the weight gain of FD (16.65% for 0-45day and 25.71% for 45-90day) tend to have higher than those of UP (14.57% and 23.30%) and LJ (12.65% and 24.51%). This results shows that seaweed diets (UP and LJ) help the shell growth of abalone and formulated diet (FD) help the weight gain of abalone. Therefore, the growth of shell and muscle will depend on different diets.
    The Korean Journal of Malacology. 09/2013; 29(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate regression equations correcting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the clinical significance of the corrected eGFRs calculated using these equations. Patients and Methods: The authors determined how well corrected eGFR values calculated using regression equations predict residual renal function (RRF). Results: RRF values were correlated with all eGFR values of nonanuric patients of both genders. Peritoneal creatinine clearance values were not correlated with eGFRs in anuric patients of either gender. In males, eGFR biases ranged from -5.66 to -3.25, and in females, from -5.96 to -3.21. However, these biases decreased when eGFR values were transformed to corrected eGFR values. The area under the curve of the corrected eGFR values was acceptable for a diagnosis of RRF loss. Conclusion: Corrected eGFR values obtained using these methods may provide an alternative means of predicting RRF without 24-hour urine collection.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 09/2013; 123(3-4):229-237. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in body composition in accordance with residual renal function (RRF). Two hundred forty-four patients with more than 1 year of follow-up were enrolled. The mean value of RRF at peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiation and 1 year after PD initiation was used as an indicator of the time-averaged RRF (TA-RRF). The patients were divided into 3 groups with respect to the tertile of the TA-RRF level: low tertile (n = 81), middle tertile (n = 82), and high tertile (n = 81). Body composition measurement was determined from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance analysis. This analysis was performed at PD initiation and 1 year after PD initiation. Multivariate analysis showed that the high TA-RRF tertile was associated with an increase in lean mass index. Fat mass index in all tertiles and bone mineral content index in the middle and high TA-RRF tertiles were increased, but no significant difference were observed in these changes among the 3 tertiles. The edema index decreased over the 1-year PD period. The high TA-RRF tertile was associated with a lower edema index. Although there was no statistical significance, the increase in fat mass/lean mass ratio (FM/LM) attenuated as the grade of TA-RRF tertile increased. The increase in fat mass index was similar to the trend in FM/LM. TA-RRF was associated with an increase in total lean mass and a decrease in edema index.
    Journal of Renal Nutrition 06/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) might be a useful screening tool for malnutrition in dialysis patients. However, data concerning the GNRI as a prognostic factor in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are scarce. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records at Yeungnam University Hospital in Korea to identify all adults (>18 years) who received PD; 486 patients were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: The initial low, middle, and high GNRI tertiles included 162, 166, and 158 patients respectively. Significant correlations were noted between the initial GNRI and body mass index, creatinine, albumin, arm circumference, fat mass index, and comorbidities. The cut-off value for the time-averaged GNRI over 1 year was 96.4, and the sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of a decline in lean mass were 77.1% and 40.0% respectively. A multivariate analysis adjusted for age, risk according to the Davies comorbidity index, and C-reactive protein showed that an low initial GNRI tertile was associated with mortality in PD patients. CONCLUSIONS: The GNRI is a simple method for predicting nutrition status and clinical outcome in PD patients.
    Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Preservation of residual renal function (RRF) is a major issue for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Whether proteinuria is associated with a decline in RRF in patients on PD remains unclear. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the medical records at the Yeungnam University Hospital in Korea and identified patients who started PD between June 1995 and August 2011. A total of 147 non-diabetic patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 3 groups with respect to the tertile of initial proteinuria level: Low (n = 49; <320 mg/day), Middle (n = 49; 320-822 mg/day), and High groups (n = 49; >822 mg/day). Results: The mean patient age was 50.2 ± 15.0 years in the Low tertile, 50.2 ± 15.4 years in the Middle tertile, and 49.0 ± 15.1 years in the High tertile. Decline in RRF during follow-up period was greater in the High tertile than that in the other tertiles (P = 0.001). The proportion of patients with RRF >50% of baseline at 24 months after the initiation of PD was 83% in the Low tertile, 66% in the Middle tertile, and 40% in the High tertile (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis after adjusting for initial RRF, age, gender, underlying disease of end-stage renal disease except diabetes mellitus, PD modality, use of icodextrin, PD-associated peritonitis, and tertile of the initial proteinuria level revealed that High tertile of the initial proteinuria level was associated with a decline in RRF (hazard ratios: 2.442 for the Middle tertile, P = 0.007 ; 3.713 for the Low tertile, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that proteinuria may be is associated with a rapid decline in RRF in non-diabetic patients on PD, although the potential role of additional factors should be further investigated in prospective studies.
    Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 01/2013; 37(2-3):199-210. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • The Korean Journal of Malacology. 12/2012; 28(4):343-347.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There are few reports on the nutritional status changes and residual renal function (RRF) according to proteinuria levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: A total of 388 patients on PD were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups with respect to initial proteinuria: the A (n = 119; <500 mg/day), B (n = 218; 500--3,500 mg/day), and C groups (n = 51; >3,500 mg/day). RESULTS: The patients with higher proteinuria levels had a higher incidence of male sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), and icodextrin use than those with lower proteinuria levels. Although initial peritoneal albumin loss in C group was lower than that detected in the other groups, no significant difference was observed in peritoneal albumin loss among the 3 groups at the end of follow-up period. At the time of PD initiation, the Geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was lower in the C group than in the other 2 groups. However, at the end of the follow-up period, there was no significant difference in GNRI between the 3 groups. The GNRI increased, and the proteinuria level or RRF decreased more in the C group than in the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in lean mass index or fat mass index change from the time of PD initiation to the end of the follow-up period. However, fat mass index and nPNA showed greater increases in the C group. The multivariate analysis revealed that proteinuria was negatively correlated with GNRI at the time of PD initiation and at the end of the follow-up period. The initial RRF and proteinuria were negatively correlated with the RRF decline during the follow-up. CONCLUSION: The attenuation of the nephrotic proteinuria, along with the RRF decline, was associated with the prevention of the malnutrition.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2012; 13(1):171. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Changes in the difference between bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measurements according to edema is an important issue for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients to identify all adults who had undergone PD and composition measurements by both BIA and DXA techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate any change in the difference between BIA and DXA body composition measurements according to edema. Results: We identified 409 patients whose body compositions were measured by both techniques one or more times, for a total of 1,109 pairs of measurements. The measurements were divided into 4 quartiles on the basis of the edema index. Significant correlations and intraclass correlations were noted between the two methods for lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), and bone mineral content. Simple linear regression analyses using DXA measurements for the prediction of body compositions by BIA showed that non-standardized-βs of total LM decreased as the grade of edema index increased (from 1.008 to 0.949), whereas non-standardized-βs of total FM increased as the grade of edema index increased (from 1.034 to 1.162). Bias for total LM changed from positive to negative, and this negative bias amplified as the grade of edema index escalated (from 0.406 kg to -2.276 kg). A positive bias was observed for total FM in the 1st quartile, and this positive bias increased with an increase in the grade of edema index (from 0.594 kg to 2.863 kg). Conclusion: LM measured by DXA is overestimated in PD patients with edema compared to the measurements by BIA. However, FM and bone mineral content measured by BIA are is overestimated in PD patients, compared to the measurements by DXA, especially in patients with worsening edema. The difference between the two techniques grows more prominent as the grade of edema increases. A combination of two methods will allow clinicians to conduct more accurate body composition assessments for PD patients with edema.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2012; · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: There are few reports on the incidence, etiology, and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with hyponatremia. METHODS: We identified all adults (>18-years-of-age) who received PD between May 2001 and March 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of hyponatremia (<135 mmol/L) during follow-up. Total body water (TBW) was obtained from bioimpedance analysis. Appropriate water gain was defined as more than 3.6% increase of the mean TBW during normonatremia in the same patient. Etiologies of hyponatremia were divided into two classes according to TBW. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty seven patients were enrolled in this study. Ninety nine had normonatremia and 288 developed hyponatremia during follow-up. Among 241 episodes with simultaneous bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement, there were 71 cases with appropriate water gain and 170 cases with non-appropriate water gain. Low residual renal function and long duration of PD were associated with development of hyponatrema by appropriate water gain. On multivariate analysis, old age (≥65-years-of-age), hypoalbuminemia (<35 g/L), low residual renal function (<2 mL/min), and a high comorbid condition were associated with mortality in the PD patients. The patients with intermediate and high Davies index had an odds ratio of 3.25 for development of hyponatremia during follow-up period (95% confidence interval, 2.025-5.215; P <0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hyponatremia increases along with the increased comorbidity status. The comorbidity conditions may be more important than hyponatremia per se for predicting mortality. Additionally, the preservation of residual renal function may play a role in preventing hyponatremia.
    Nephrology 11/2012; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of triethylsilylethynyl anthracene (TESAN) derivatives, end-capped with bithiophene and thienothiophene, were synthesized by Suzuki coupling. The thermal, optical, electrochemical, and crystalline properties of the TESAN derivatives were reported and correlated with charge transport behavior measured via both a thin film transistor and a single crystal transistor. The TESAN derivative substituted with bithiophene exhibited more efficient π electron delocalization over the molecule compared to the derivative substituted with fused thienothiophene, and consequently gave the highest FET mobility, 1.28 cm2 V−1 s−1, from single crystal transistors with negligible hysteresis and almost zero turn-on voltage. The discrepancy of charge carrier mobility between the thin film transistor and single crystal transistor and the solvent annealing effects are discussed in conjunction with morphological and structural analyses.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 11/2012; 22(47):24924-24929. · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the clinical relevance of limb/trunk lean mass ratio (LTLM) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 534 CAPD patients. Body compositions were measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry apparatus. RESULTS: In males, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sarcopenia were 70.3% and 85.9%, respectively. Respective values in females were 62.3% and 83.8%. The initial low LTLM tertile was associated with mortality in male CAPD patients and in female CAPD patients. Among patients who maintained CAPD for a year, the maintenance of low LTLM tertile was associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: LTLM is associated with other lean mass indices, nutritional status, and mortality in CAPD patients. Therefore, LTLM is a novel marker that is useful for the prediction of the nutritional status and mortality in patients with CAPD.
    Journal of Renal Nutrition 11/2012; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance and usefulness of the Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) as a prognostic and nutritional indicator in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the initial OPNI score: group A (n = 186, < 40), group B (n = 150, 40-45), and group C (n = 186, > 45). Group A was associated with a higher grade according to the Davies risk index than the other groups. Serum creatinine and albumin levels, total lymphocyte count, and fat mass increased with an increase in OPNI. According to the edema index, the correlation coefficient for OPNI was -0.284 and for serum albumin was -0.322. Similarly, according to the C-reactive protein (CRP), the correlation coefficient for OPNI was -0.117 and for serum albumin was -0.169. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, Davies risk index, CRP, and edema index revealed that the hazard ratios for low OPNI, serum albumin, and CRP were 1.672 (P = 0.003), 1.308 (P = 0.130), and 1.349 (P = 0.083), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the OPNI is a simple method that can be used for predicting the nutritional status and clinical outcome in PD patients.
    Journal of Korean medical science 11/2012; 27(11):1354-8. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Seok Hui Kang, Dong Shik Lee, Jong Won Park
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    ABSTRACT: A 60-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to nausea and poor oral intake. He had received distal pancreatectomy due to a traffic accident 15 years ago, and therefore, had a midline abdominal scar. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) was selected for renal replacement therapy. PD catheter was inserted by a surgical method with left paramedian incision under local anesthesia. Initially, dialysate flow was good, but outflow failure developed on postoperative day nine. Even after the use of laxatives and a fibrinolytic agent to correct the catheter obstruction, the problem was not resolved. Therefore, we performed an open laparotomy. When PD catheter was examined during laparotomy, a single thick band (0.6 cm × 36 cm), without blood vessels was wrapped around it. One of the ends of this band originated from the jejunum and the other was attached on the most proximal side hole of the catheter. A band was removed surgically, and then the PD catheter was repositioned in the abdominal cavity. On post-revision Day 7, PD started again and dialysate flow was good. The pathologic finding was consistent with mesothelial cell lining sheet. Considering its location and the history of a major abdominal operation, the adhesive band or sheet may be the cause in this case.
    Clinical nephrology 10/2012; · 1.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

218 Citations
133.66 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Keimyung University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Yeungnam University
      • Division of Internal Medicine
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Seoul
      • Department of Business Administration
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Clean Energy Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea National Open University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • International Christian University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2012
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hallym University Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Good Samsun Hospital
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Cheju Halla University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2000
    • Inha University
      • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea