Jon Park

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (33)106.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The biomechanical study was performed to investigate the effect of a novel pedicle screw anchor in increasing the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Methods: Ten lumbar vertebral bodies with a weighted average T-score of -2.13 were used. Pedicle screws of 4.5 mm diameter and 25 mm length were inserted in to one pedicle randomly and matched with an anchor in the corresponding pedicle. Fatigue testing was performed by applying an axial load of ±200N to the screw tulip, along the axis of the rod, at a rate of 0.5 Hz for 1,000 cycles. After fatigue loading was completed, all screws underwent axial pullout testing at a rate of 0.1 mm/sec until failure. A paired two sample for means t-test was performed to determine a significant difference between the two groups (p ≤ 0.05). Results: Following fatigue testing, the axial displacement at the 1,000 cycle point for the anchor and non-anchor group was 1.4 ± 0.7mm and 2.9 ± 1.2mm, respectively. The anchor group had significantly lower axial displacement compared to the non-anchor group (p ≤ 0.01). The group with the anchor reached an average maximum load of 702 ± 373N. The average yield load for the non-anchor group was 421 ± 293N. The anchor group yield load was significantly greater than the non-anchor group (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: A novel anchor for standard pedicle screws resulted in significantly less axial movement during fatigue and a greater failure force compared a screw with no anchor. The anchor may provide a stronger bone-to-screw interface, than a non-anchor screw, without the complications of cement augmentation.
    World Neurosurgery 03/2015; 83(6). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2015.01.057 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vertebrae with low bone mineral densities pull-out strength is often poor, thus various substances have been used to fill screw holes prior to screw placement for corrective spine surgery. We performed biomechanical cadaveric studies to compare non-augmented pedicle screws versus hydroxyapatite-, calcium phosphate- or polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screws for screw-tightening torques and pull-out strengths in spine procedures requiring bone screw insertion. Seven human cadaveric T10-L1 spines with 28 vertebral bodies were examined by x-ray to exclude bony abnormalities. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans evaluated bone mineral densities. Twenty of 28 vertebrae underwent ipsilateral fluoroscopic placement of 6-mm holes augmented with hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate or polymethylmethacrylate, followed by transpedicular screw placements. Controls were pedicle screw placements in the contralateral hemivertebrae without augmentation. All groups were evaluated for axial pull-out strength using a biomechanical loading frame. Mean pedicle screw axial pull-out strength compared to controls increased by 12.5% in hydroxyapatite augmented hemivertebrae (P = 0.600) and by 14.9% in calcium phosphate augmented hemivertebrae (P = 0.234) but the increase was not significant for either method. Pull-out strength of polymethylmethacrylate versus hydroxyapatite augmented pedicle screws was 60.8% higher (P = 0.028). Hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate augmentation in osteoporotic vertebrae showed a trend toward increased pedicle screw pull-out strength over controls. Pedicle screw pull-out force of polymethylmethacrylate in the insertion stage was higher than that of hydroxyapatite. However, hydroxyapatite is likely a better clinical alternative to polymethylmethacrylate, as hydroxyapatite augmentation, unlike polymethylmethacrylate augmentation, stimulates bone growth and can be revised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    World Neurosurgery 03/2015; 83(6). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2015.01.056 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transarticular facet screws restore biomechanical stability to the cervical spine when posterior cervical anatomy has been compromised. This study compares this more-recent, less-invasive and more brief transarticular facet screw system without rods to the lateral mass screw system with rods. Six human cervical spines were obtained from cadavers. Transarticular facet screws without rods were inserted bilaterally into the inferior articular facets at the C5-C6 levels and at the C5-C6-C7 levels. Lateral mass screws with rods were inserted bilaterally at the same levels using Magerl's technique. All specimens underwent range of motion testing by a material testing machine for flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Both fixation methods, non-rod transarticular facet screws and lateral mass screws with rods, reduced all ranges of motion and increased spinal stiffness. No statistically significant differences between the two stabilization methods were found in range of motion measurements for one-level insertions. At two-level insertions, however, ROM for the non-rod transarticular facet screw group was significantly increased for flexion-extension and lateral bending. Non-rod transarticular facet screws and lateral mass screws with rods had similar biomechanical stability in single-level insertions. In two-level insertions, non-rod transarticular facet screws are a valid option in cervical spine repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    World Neurosurgery 12/2014; 83(4). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.12.008 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    Wonjae Lee · Curtis W Frank · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: The temporospatial regulation of axon outgrowth is useful for guiding de novo connectivity or re-connectivity of neurons in neurological injury or disease. Here we report the successful construction of a biocompatible guidance device, in which a linear propagation of IGF-1 gradient sequentially directs axon outgrowth. We observe the extensive in vitro axonal extension over 5 mm with a desired growth rate of ∼1 mm/day.
    Advanced Materials 08/2014; 26(29). DOI:10.1002/adma.201305995 · 17.49 Impact Factor
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    Jon Park · Jun Jae Shin · Jesse Lim ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was designed to compare two-level cervical disc surgery (two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion [ACDF] or disc arthroplasty) and hybrid surgery (ACDF/arthroplasty) in terms of postoperative adjacent-level intradiscal pressure (IDP) and facet contact force (FCF). Methods Twenty-four cadaveric cervical spines (C3-T2) were tested in various modes, including extension, flexion, and bilateral axial rotation, to compare adjacent-level IDP and FCF after specified treatments as follows: 1) C5-C6 arthroplasty using ProDisc-C and C6-C7 ACDF, 2) C5¬-C6 ACDF and C6-C7 arthroplasty using ProDisc-C, 3) two-level C5-¬C6/C6-C7 disc arthroplasties, and 4) two-level C5-C6/C6-C7 ACDF. IDPs were recorded at anterior, central, and posterior disc portions. Results Following two-level cervical arthrodesis (ACDF), IDP increased significantly at the anterior annulus of distal adjacent-level disc during flexion and axial rotation and at the center of proximal adjacent-level disc during flexion. On the other hand, following cervical specified treatments including disc arthroplasty (two-level disc arthroplasties and hybrid surgery), IDP decreased significantly at the anterior annulus of distal adjacent-level disc during flexion and extension and unchanged at the center of proximal adjacent-level disc during flexion. Two-level cervical arthrodesis also tended to adversely impact facet loads, raising distal rather than proximal adjacent-level FCF. Conclusion Both hybrid surgery and two-level arthroplasties seem to offer significant advantages over two-level arthrodesis by reducing IDP at adjacent levels and approximating FCF of an intact spine. These findings suggest that cervical arthroplasties and hybrid surgery are an alternative to reduce intradiscal pressure and facet loads at adjacent levels.
    World Neurosurgery 06/2014; 82(6). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.06.013 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object: Several controversial issues arise in the management of unstable hangman's fractures. Some surgeons perform external reduction and immobilize the patient's neck in a halo vest, while others perform surgical reduction and internal fixation. The nonsurgical treatments with rigid collar or halo vest immobilization present problems, including nonunion, pseudarthrosis, skull fracture, and scalp laceration and may also fail to achieve anatomical realignment of the local C2-3 kyphosis. With recent advances in surgical technique and technology, surgical intervention is increasingly performed as the primary treatment in high cervical fractures. The outcomes of such surgeries are often superior to those of conservative treatment. The authors propose that surgical intervention as a primary management for hangman's fracture may avoid risks inherent in conservative management when severe circumferential discoligamentous instability is present and may reduce the risk of catastrophic results at the fracture site. The purposes of this study were to assess fracture healing following expedient reduction and surgical fixation and to propose a guideline for treatment of unstable hangman's fractures. Methods: From April 2006 to December 2011, the authors treated 105 patients with high cervical fractures. This study included 23 (21.9%) of these patients (15 men and 8 women; mean age 46.4 years) with Type II, IIa, and III hangman's fractures according to the Levine and Edwards classification. The patient's age, sex, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, neurological status, and complications were ascertained. The authors retrospectively assessed the clinical outcome (Neck Disability Index), radiological findings (disc height, translation, and angulation), and bony healing. Results: The average follow-up period was 28.9 months (range 12-63.2 months). The overall average Neck Disability Index score at the time of this study was 6.6 ± 2.3. The average duration of hospitalization was 20.3 days, and fusion was achieved in all cases by 14.8 ± 1.6 weeks after surgery, as demonstrated on dynamic radiographs and cervical 3D CT scans. The mean pretreatment translation was 6.9 ± 3.2 mm, and the mean postoperative translation was 1.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean reduction 5.2 ± 3.1 mm). The initial angulation was 4.7° ± 5.3° and the postoperative angulation was 2.5° ± 1.8° (mean reduction 6.1° ± 5.3°). The preoperative and postoperative values for translation and angulation differed significantly (p < 0.05). The overall C2-3 disc height was 6.7 ± 1.2 mm preoperatively, whereas 3 months after surgery it was 6.4 ± 1.1 mm. These values did not differ significantly (p = 0.0963). Conclusions: The authors observed effective reduction and bony healing in cases of unstable hangman's fractures after fixation, and all patients experienced favorable clinical outcomes with neck pain improvement. The protocols allowed for physiological reconstruction of the fractured deformities and avoided external fixation. The authors suggest that posterior reduction and screw fixation should be used as a primary treatment to promote stability of hangman's fracture in the presence of discoligamentous instability or combined fractures.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 09/2013; 19(5). DOI:10.3171/2013.8.SPINE12948 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Study Design. An experimental study of radiofrequency ablation of spine in an ex vivo bovine and in vivo swine animal model.Objective. To study the feasibility of radiofrequency ablation for spine tumors close to the spinal cord, to examine the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation, and to suggest quantitative guidelines for clinical application.Summary of Background Data. Radiofrequency ablation has received increased attention as an effective and minimally invasive method for treating soft tissue tumors. However, there is currently only anecdotal evidence to support radiofrequency ablation of spinal tumors and only a few experimental studies have been conducted.Methods. We performed ex vivo experiments by producing 10 radiofrequency ablation zones in extracted bovine spines and an in vivo study by producing eight radiofrequency ablation zones in a swine spine using internally cooled electrodes. The volume and diameter of ablation zones were evaluated and analyzed by the corresponding energy and ablation times.Results. In the ex vivo study, the average diameters of the ablation zones were 3.05 cm, 1.85 cm, and 1.26 cm, for the D1, D2, and D3 zones, respectively, and the average ablation volume was 4.19 cm. In the in vivo study, the average diameters were 2.51 cm, 2.05 cm, and 1.28 cm, respectively, and the ablation volume was 6.80 cm. The ablation zones demonstrated a positive correlation with ablation time, but the coefficients were 0.942 ex vivo and 0.257 in vivo. The temperature in the ex vivo study was inversely proportional to distance, with a maximal temperature of 63.7°C at 10 mm; however, the maximum temperature was 38.2°C in the in vivo study.Conclusion. This study demonstrated that sufficient radiofrequency ablation zone volume could be induced, which suggests that radiofrequency ablation is feasible and safe for application to human spinal tumors with predictability.
    Spine 05/2013; 38(18). DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31829c2e12 · 2.30 Impact Factor

  • 01/2013; DOI:10.7759/cureus.83
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    Wonjae Lee · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: The spatial cell distribution is one of the critical features for governing cellular interactions and their consequent behaviors. Here we suggest a novel method of building a hierarchical cellular structure by stacking cell-attached microplate structures with specific configurations within hydrogel layers. This method is applied to the reconstruction of the 3D architecture of a liver lobule and the development of an experimental model of the various phases of cancer angiogenesis.
    Advanced Materials 10/2012; 24(39):5339-44. DOI:10.1002/adma.201200687 · 17.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Closed C2 fractures commonly occur after falls or other trauma in the elderly and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controversy exists as to best treatment practices for these patients. To compare outcomes for elderly patients with closed C2 fractures by treatment modality. We retrospectively reviewed 28 surgically and 28 nonsurgically treated cases of closed C2 fractures without spinal cord injury in patients aged 65 years of age or older treated at Stanford Hospital between January 2000 and July 2010. Comorbidities, fracture characteristics, and treatment details were recorded; primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and complication rates; secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and long-term survival. Surgically treated patients tended to have more severe fractures with larger displacement. Charlson comorbidity scores were similar in both groups. Thirty-day mortality was 3.6% in the surgical group and 7.1% in the nonsurgical group, and the 30-day complication rates were 17.9% and 25.0%, respectively; these differences were not statistically significant. Surgical patients had significantly longer lengths of hospital stay than nonsurgical patients (11.8 days vs 4.4 days). Long-term median survival was not significantly different between groups. The 30-day mortality and complication rates in surgically and nonsurgically treated patients were comparable. Elderly patients faced relatively high morbidity and mortality regardless of treatment modality; thus, age alone does not appear to be a contraindication to surgical fixation of C2 fractures.
    Neurosurgery 12/2011; 70(5):1055-9; discussion 1059. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182446742 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Sang Ki Chung · Jong Tae Park · Jesse Lim · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: Study Design. Biomechanical study of a posterior reduction and stabilization of a Jefferson C1 burst fracture using mono-versus poly-axial screws. Objective. To introduce a new motion-preserving surgical method for reduction and stabilization of an isolated Jefferson fracture and investigate its effectiveness with a biomechanical study. Summary of Background Data. Jefferson fractures have been treated conservatively by immobilization, traction, or surgical fusion of C1-C2 or occiput-to-C2. Conservative treatment usually requires prolonged immobilization with a cumbersome external brace. Surgical fusion, however, eliminates the important range of motion (ROM) of C1-C2 or occiput-to-C2. Methods. Six occiput-to-C3 cadaveric specimens were tested biomechanically. After creating a Jefferson fracture, bilateral atlantal lateral mass screws were inserted on the posterior aspect of each specimen. The screws were connected with a rod and nuts. The posterior distance and the anterior distance were measured to evaluate the magnitude of reduction and resistance to loading after instrumentation placement. Measurements were performed after mono-and poly-axial head screw insertion, and then using destabilized specimens. ROM was also measured after applying a 1.5 Nm moment to six cardinal directions before the trauma, after mono-and poly-axial screw fixation and in destabilized specimens. Results. The posterior distances after mono-axial and poly-axial screw fixations were significantly reduced compared with that of the destabilized atlas. In the specimens reduced with mono-and poly axial screws, the averages were 50.2 and 50.2 mm, and in the destabilized specimen, the average was 54 mm. The anterior distance was also decreased by mono-axial screw fixation compared with the anterior distance for the destabilized specimen but was similar to that of poly-axial screw fixation. The ROMs in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were greatest in the destabilized model, followed by poly-axial and then mono-axial fixation. Conclusions. The current study shows that the posterior screw and rod fixation of a Jefferson fracture is feasible and effective in providing immediate reduction and stabilization especially with the mono-axial screw system.
    Spine 03/2011; 36(5):E301-6. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31820644cd · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A biomechanical in vitro study using human cadaveric spine. To compare the biomechanical stability of pedicle screws versus various established posterior atlantoaxial fixations used to manage atlantoaxial instability. Rigid screw fixation of the atlantoaxial complex provides immediate stability and excellent fusion success though has a high risk of neurovascular complications. Some spine surgeons thus insert shorter C2 pedicle or pars/isthmus screws as alternatives to minimize the latter risks. The biomechanical consequences of short pedicle screw fixation remain unclear, however. Seven human cadaveric cervical spines with the occiput attached (C0-C3) had neutral zone (NZ) and range of motion (ROM) evaluated in three modes of loading. Specimens were tested in the following sequence: initially (1) the intact specimens were tested, after destabilization of C1-C2, then the specimens underwent (2) C1 lateral mass and C2 short pedicle screw fixation (PS-S), (3) C1 lateral mass and C2 long pedicle screw fixation (PS-L), (4) C1 lateral mass and C2 intralaminar screw fixation (ILS), (5) Sonntag's modified Gallie fixation (MG) and (6) C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation with posterior wiring (TAS 1 MG). (7) The destabilized spine was also tested. All instrumented groups were significantly stiffer in NZ and ROM than the intact spines, except in lateral bending, which was statistically significantly increased in the TAS 1 MG group. The MG group's NZ and ROM values were statistically significantly weaker than those of the PS-S, PS-L, and the ROM values of the TAS 1 MG groups. The ILS group's NZ values were higher than those of the TAS 1 MG group and for ROM, than that of the PS-S and PS-L groups. In flexion, the NZ and ROM values of the TAS 1 MG group were significantly less than those of the PS-S, PS-L, ILS, and MG groups. In axial rotation, the NZ and ROM values of the MG group were statistically significantly higher than those of the PS-S, PS-L, ISL and TAS 1 MG groups. The TAS 1 MG procedures provided the highest stability. The MG method alone may not be adequate for atlantoaxial arthrodesis, because it does not provide sufficient stability in lateral bending and rotation modes. The C2 pedicle screw and C2 ILS techniques are biomechanically less stable than the TAS 1 MG. In the C1 lateral mass-C2 pedicle screw fixation, the use of a short pedicle screw may be an alternative when other screw fixation techniques are not feasible.
    Spine 03/2011; 36(6):E401-7. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31820611ba · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Goel technique, in which C1-2 intraarticular spacers are used, may be performed to restore stability to a disrupted atlantoaxial complex in conjunction with the Harms technique of placing polyaxial screws and bilateral rods. However, it has yet to be determined biomechanically whether the addition of the C1-2 joint spacers increases the multiaxial rigidity of the fixation construct. The goal of this study was to quantify changes in multiaxial rigidity of the combined Goel-Harms technique with the addition of C1-2 intraarticular spacers. Seven cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-C2) were submitted to nondestructive flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation tests in a material testing machine spine tester. The authors applied 1.5 Nm at a rate of 0.1 Nm/second and held it constant for 10 seconds. The specimens were loaded 3 times, and data were collected on the third cycle. Testing of the specimens was performed for the following groups: 1) intact (I); 2) with the addition of C-1 lateral mass/C-2 pedicle screws and rod system (I+SR); 3) with C1-2 joint capsule incision, decortication (2 mm on top and bottom of each joint [that is, the C-1 and C-2 surface) and addition of bilateral C1-2 intraarticular spacers at C1-2 junction to the screws and rods (I+SR+C); 4) after removal of the posterior rods and only the bilateral spacers in place (I+C); 5) after removal of spacers and further destabilization with simulated odontoidectomy for a completely destabilized case (D); 6) with addition of posterior rods to the destabilized case (D+SR); and 7) with addition of bilateral C1-2 intraarticular spacers at C1-2 junction to the destabilized case (D+SR+C). The motion of C-1 was measured by a 3D motion tracking system and the motion of C-2 was measured by the rotational sensor of the testing system. The range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) across C-1 and C-2 were evaluated. For the intact spine test groups, the addition of screws/rods (I+SR) and screws/rods/cages (I+SR+C) significantly reduced ROM and NZ compared with the intact spine (I) for flexion-extension and axial rotation (p < 0.05) but not lateral bending (p > 0.05). The 2 groups were not significantly different from each other in any bending mode for ROM and NZ, but in the destabilized condition the addition of screws/rods (D+SR) and screws/rods/cages (D+SR+C) significantly reduced ROM and NZ compared with the destabilized spine (D) in all bending modes (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the addition of the C1-2 intraarticular spacers (D+SR+C) significantly reduced ROM (flexion-extension and axial rotation) and NZ (lateral bending) compared with the screws and rods alone (D+SR). Study result indicated that both the Goel and Harms techniques alone and with the addition of the C1-2 intraarticular spacers to the Goel-Harms technique are advantageous for stabilizing the atlantoaxial segment. The Goel technique combined with placement of a screw/rod construct appears to result in additional construct rigidity beyond the screw/rod technique and appears to be more useful in very unstable cases.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 02/2011; 14(5):639-46. DOI:10.3171/2011.1.SPINE10446 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective chart review. To identify predictors of 30-day complications after the surgical treatment of spinal metastasis. Surgical treatment of spinal metastasis is considered palliative with the aim of reducing or delaying neurologic deficit. Postoperative complication rates as high as 39% have been reported in the literature. Complications may impact patient quality of life and increase costs; therefore, an understanding of which preoperative variables best predict 30-day complications will help risk-stratify patients and guide therapeutic decision making and informed consent. We retrospectively reviewed 200 cases of spinal metastasis surgically treated at Stanford Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine which preoperative variables were independent predictors of 30-day complications. Sixty-eight patients (34%) experienced one or more complications within 30 days of surgery. The most common complications were respiratory failure, venous thromboembolism, and pneumonia. On multivariate analysis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score was the most significant predictor of 30-day complications. Patients with a Charlson score of two or greater had over five times the odds of a 30-day complication as patients with a score of zero or one. After adjusting for demographic, oncologic, neurologic, operative, and health factors, Charlson score was the most robust predictor of 30-day complications. A Charlson score of two or greater should be considered a surgical risk factor for 30-day complications, and should be used to risk-stratify surgical candidates. If complications are anticipated, medical staff can prepare in advance, for instance, scheduling aggressive ICU care to monitor for and treat complications. Finally, Charlson score should be controlled for in future spinal metastasis outcomes studies and compared to other comorbidity assessment tools.
    Spine 02/2011; 36(19):E1274-80. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e318206cda3 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biological attempts at disc regeneration are promising; however, disc degeneration is closely related to other predisposing factors such as alteration of disc height, intradiscal pressure, load distribution, and motion. The restoration of the physiological status of the affected spinal segment is thus necessary prior to attempts at disc regeneration. Dynamic stabilization systems now offer the potential of a mechanical approach to intervertebral disc regeneration. The authors used decompression and placement of the BioFlex dynamic stabilization device to treat a young male patient with disc degeneration. This patient underwent follow-up, and he was found to gradually improve both neurologically and radiographically. On MR imaging performed 1 year postoperatively, he had an increase in disc height and disc rehydration. This case and the concept of disc rehydration are presented in this paper.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 11/2010; 13(5):576-80. DOI:10.3171/2010.5.SPINE08418 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Bo Young Cho · Jesse Lim · Hong Bo Sim · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: The study design was that of an in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. The objective of this study was the biomechanical analysis of the range of motion (ROM) of a 2-level intact spine control versus total, then operative- and adjacent-segment ROM after (1) 2-level ProDisc-C placement (PP), (2) anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDFs), and (3) hybrid constructs of both. Follower load and multidirectional testing were performed in each instance. With in vivo cervical arthroplasties gaining in popularity, limited biomechanical data are available, which highlight changes in the adjacent-level biomechanics after multilevel procedures. Biomechanical testing for ROM was performed using 7 cadaveric C4-T1 spine specimens. Moments up to 2 Nm with a 100 N follower load were applied in flexion/extension (F/E), right and left lateral bending (LB), and right and left axial rotation (AR). Specimens were tested in the intact state and then with a combination of ProDisc-C arthroplasty and ACDF at C5-C6 and C6-C7. In the 2-level PP group, the increase in ROM in F/E, LB, and AR of C4-T1 occurs due to an increased ROM at the operative level. The ROM of the level adjacent to the operative levels showed no significant change, except at C4-C5 in LB. For the latter level, the ROM of C4-C5 in each direction showed increases for each parameter. In the 2-level fusion C5-C6 and C6-C7 fusion (FF) group, the ROM in F/E, LB, and AR of C4-T1 was decreased because of a decrease in ROM primarily at the fused levels, and the ROM of adjacent levels was increased. In the ProDisc-C/Fusion (PF) and Fusion/ProDisc-C (FP) groups undergoing placements of a 1-level ProDisc-C/1-level fusion with cage and plate, both groups showed no significant ROM change of C4-T1 when compared with the control and no significant change at adjacent levels, with the exception of C4-C5 in LB. (1) Two-level ACDFs decrease whereas 2-level PPs increase the entire C4-T1 ROM. (2) ACDF/ProDisc-C hybrid operations do not alter the C4-T1 ROM. (3) For the ACDF/ProDisc-C hybrid operative groups, the combined ROM of the operative levels showed no significant difference when compared with that of the intact spine. (4) Regarding adjacent-level ROM, a 2-level ACDF increases ROM, but 2-level ProDisc-C and hybrid ACDF/PPs do not show significant change except for LB at C4-C5. (5) When the segmental distribution of C4-T1 ROM is plotted as the percentage of total motion, it demonstrates that for PF and FP groups, the combined ROM of the C5-C6 and C6-C7 operative levels are similar to that of the intact spine in EF and LB. For the PP group, the combined ROM of the operative levels increased, whereas the combined ROM for the FF group is decreased. The decrease or increase of the adjacent C4-C5 or C7-T1 level ROM compensates for the operative levels.
    Spine 09/2010; 35(19):1769-76. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181c225fa · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) have been frequently undertaken for lumbar arthrodesis. These procedures use different approaches and cage designs, each of which could affect spine stability, even after the addition of posterior pedicle screw fixation. The objectives of this biomechanical study were to compare PLIF and TLIF, each accompanied by bilateral pedicle screw fixation, with regard to the stability of the fused and adjacent segments. Fourteen human L2-S2 cadaveric spine specimens were tested for 6 different modes of motion: flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation using a load control protocol (LCP). The LCP for each mode of motion utilized moments up to 8.0 Nm at a rate of 0.5 Nm/second with the application of a constant compression follower preload of 400 N. All 14 specimens were tested in the intact state. The specimens were then divided equally into PLIF and TLIF conditions. In the PLIF Group, a bilateral L4-5 partial facetectomy was followed by discectomy and a single-level fusion procedure. In the TLIF Group, a unilateral L4-5 complete facetectomy was performed (and followed by the discectomy and single-level fusion procedure). In the TLIF Group, the implants were initially positioned inside the disc space posteriorly (TLIF-P) and the specimens were tested; the implants were then positioned anteriorly (TLIF-A) and the specimens were retested. All specimens were evaluated at the reconstructed and adjacent segments for range of motion (ROM) and at the adjacent segments for intradiscal pressure (IDP), and laminar strain. At the reconstructed segment, both the PLIF and the TLIF specimens had significantly lower ROMs compared with those for the intact state (p < 0.05). For lateral bending, the PLIF resulted in a marked decrease in ROM that was statistically significantly greater than that found after TLIF (p < 0.05). In flexion-extension and rotation, the PLIF Group also had less ROM, however, unlike the difference in lateral bending ROM, these differences in ROM values were not statistically significant. Variations in the position of the implants within the disc space were not associated with any significant differences in ROM values (p = 0.43). Analyses of ROM at the adjacent levels L2-3, L3-4, and L5-S1 showed that ROM was increased to some degree in all directions. When compared with that of intact specimens, the ROMs were increased to a statistically significant degree at all adjacent segments in flexion-extension loads (p < 0.05); however, the differences in values among the various operative procedures were not statistically significant. The IDP and facet contact force for the adjacent L3-4 and L5-S1 levels were also increased, but these values were not statistically significantly increased from those for the intact spine (p > 0.05). Regarding stability, PLIF provides a higher immediate stability compared with that of TLIF, especially in lateral bending. Based on our findings, however, PLIF and TLIF, each with posterolateral fusions, have similar biomechanical properties regarding ROM, IDP, and laminar strain at the adjacent segments.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 06/2010; 12(6):700-8. DOI:10.3171/2009.12.SPINE09123 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Seoung Woo Park · T Jesse Lim · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: Interspinous process implants are becoming more common for the treatment of lumber disc degeneration. The authors undertook this study to evaluate the effect of the In-Space interspinous spacer on the biomechanics of the lumbosacral spine. Seven L2-S1 cadaver spines were physiologically loaded in extension, flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes. The range of motion (ROM) and intervertebral disc pressure (DP) at the level implanted with an In-Space device and at adjacent levels were measured under 4 experimental conditions. Biomechanical testing was carried out on 7 sequentially prepared specimens in the following states: 1) the intact L2-S1 cadaver spine and 2) the L2-S1 cadaver specimen implanted with an In-Space interspinous spacer at L3-4 (Group 1), 3) after an additional L3-4 discectomy (with the In-Space interspinous spacer still in place) (Group 2), and finally, 4) after removal of the In-Space interspinous spacer, leaving only the discectomized (that is, destabilized) spine model (Group 3). The extension ROM at the implanted level after experimental conditions 2 and 3 above was statistically significantly reduced. An increase of ROM at the adjacent levels compensated for the reduction at the implanted level. However, there was no statistically significant change in ROM in any of the other modes of motion at any of the levels studied. Likewise, the DP reduction at L3-4 during extension was statistically significant, but in all other modes of motion, there was no statistically significant change in DP at any measured level. The In-Space interspinous spacer statistically significantly reduced the ROM of the L3-4 motion segment in Groups 1 and 2 (extension: 67%, p = 0.018 and 70%, p = 0.018; flexion: 72%, p = 0.028 and 80%, p = 0.027). After placement of the In-Space interspinous spacer, the DP was decreased at L3-4 in extension for Groups 1 and 2 in the posterior anular region (63%, p = 0.028; 59%, p = 0.043), Group 2 in the center region (73%, p = 0.028), and Groups 1 and 2 in the anterior anular region (57%, p = 0.018; 60%, p = 0.018). The In-Space interspinous spacer both stabilizes the spine and reduces the intervertebral DP at the instrumented level during extension. The biomechanics for other modes of motion and at the adjacent levels are not affected statistically significantly, however. The device thus performed as intended. It significantly stabilized the motion segments at the instrumented level, but not at the segment adjacent to the instrumented level.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 05/2010; 12(5):560-9. DOI:10.3171/2009.11.SPINE08668 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    Bo Young Cho · Judith A Murovic · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to correlate the degree of L4-5 spondylolisthesis on plain flexion-extension radiographs with the corresponding amount of L4-5 facet fluid visible on MR images. Patients underwent evaluation at the Neurosurgical Spine Clinics of Stanford University Medical Center and National Health Insurance Medical Center (Goyang, South Korea) between January 2006 and December 2007. Only patients who were diagnosed with L4-5 degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and who had both lumbosacral flexion-extension radiographs and MR images available for review were eligible for this study. Each patient's dynamic motion index (DMI) was measured using the lateral lumbosacral plain radiograph and was the percentage of the degree of anterior slippage seen on flexion versus that seen on extension. Axial T2-weighted MR images of the L4-5 facet joints obtained in each patient was analyzed for the amount of facet fluid, using the image showing the widest portion of the facets. The facet fluid index was calculated from the ratio of the sum of the amounts of facet fluid found in the right plus left facets over the sum of the average widths of the right plus left facet joints. Fifty-four patients with L4-5 DS were included in this study. Of these 54 patients, facet fluid was noted on MR images in 29 patients (53.7%), and their mean DMI was 6.349 +/- 2.726. Patients who did not have facet fluid on MR imaging had a mean DMI of 1.542 +/- 0.820; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a positive linear association between the facet fluid index and the DMI in the group of patients who exhibited facet fluid on MR images (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.560, p < 0.01). In the subgroup of 29 patients with L4-5 DS who showed facet fluid on MR images, flexion-extension plain radiographs in 10 (34.5%) showed marked anterolisthesis, while the corresponding MR images did not. There is a linear correlation between the degree of segmental motion seen on flexion-extension plain radiography in patients with DS at L4-5 and the amount of L4-5 facet fluid on MR images. If L4-5 facet fluid in patients with DS is seen on MR images, a corresponding anterolisthesis on weight-bearing flexion-extension lateral radiographs should be anticipated. Obtaining plain radiographs will aid in the diagnosis of anterolisthesis caused by an L4-5 hypermobile segment, which may not always be evident on MR images obtained in supine patients.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 11/2009; 11(5):614-9. DOI:10.3171/2009.6.SPINE08413 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Chanjong Yoo · Stephen I Ryu · Jon Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is a retrospective chart review. This study assesses single-stage thoracic vertebrectomy with circumferential reconstruction and stabilization. Preoperative and postoperative thoracic kyphotic angles and other outcomes are analyzed. Pathologic and traumatic thoracic vertebral body fracture deformity can be corrected by an anterior vertebral body corpectomy and reconstruction. If the pathology is primarily posterior, then laminectomy and posterolateral instrumentation may be preferred. In some patients, simultaneous anterior and posterior correction of instability and fracture is necessary and is now possible with a single-stage Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) technique with similar results to the traditional 2-stage approach. Thirty patients who underwent 31 single-stage thoracic vertebrectomies with circumferential reconstructions for thoracic spine fractures between 2004 and 2006 at SUMC were retrospectively reviewed. All surgeries were performed prone; operative technical details are reported. The preoperative and postoperative thoracic kyphotic angles were measured by Cobb angle evaluation using lateral chest plain films and magnetic resonance imaging. Other outcome measures evaluated included operative time, blood loss, neurologic and functional outcomes, postoperative pain, and treatment complications. The mean follow-up was 17.21 months (range: 9 to 30 mo) and preoperative kyphosis was 20.4 degrees (range: 6.0 to 57.9 degrees). The average postoperative kyphosis was 8.3 degrees (range: 1.8 to 2.67 degrees) and correction of kyphosis was 16.2 degrees (range: 6 to 30 degrees). The median estimated blood loss was 1411.67 mL (range: 300 to 4000 mL) and mean operating time was 4.8 hours (range: 2.8 to 8.6 h). Complications included 2 hardware failures requiring revision, 2 infections, and 1 dural laceration. Pain, Frankel Grade, and functional status were improved in all, except 1 preoperatively bedridden patient. Thoracic kyphotic correction is possible through a prone single-stage simultaneous anterior vertebrectomy and posterior reconstruction. Sufficient anterior and posterior correction of instability and fracture using the SUMC technique is possible with similar results to the traditional 2-stage approach.
    Journal of spinal disorders & techniques 10/2009; 22(7):492-501. DOI:10.1097/BSD.0b013e31818f0ec3 · 2.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

295 Citations
106.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2009-2014
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Palo Alto, California, United States