Joseph Zabner

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (169)1098.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is initiated by defective host defense that predisposes airways to bacterial infection. Advanced CF is characterized by a deficit in mucociliary transport (MCT), a process that traps and propels bacteria out of the lungs, but whether this deficit occurs first or is secondary to airway remodeling has been unclear. To assess MCT, we tracked movement of radiodense microdisks in airways of newborn piglets with CF. Cholinergic stimulation, which elicits mucus secretion, substantially reduced microdisk movement. Impaired MCT was not due to periciliary liquid depletion; rather, CF submucosal glands secreted mucus strands that remained tethered to gland ducts. Inhibiting anion secretion in non-CF airways replicated CF abnormalities. Thus, impaired MCT is a primary defect in CF, suggesting that submucosal glands and tethered mucus may be targets for early CF treatment.
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 08/2014; 345(6198):818-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Asthma is a disease of acute and chronic inflammation in which cytokines play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promote fibrotic airway remodeling, a major contributor to disease severity. Improved understanding is needed because current therapies are inadequate for suppressing development of airway fibrosis. IL-13 is known to stimulate respiratory epithelial cells to produce TGFβ, but the mechanism through which this occurs is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a critical signaling intermediary between IL-13 or allergen stimulation and TGFβ dependent airway remodeling. Methods We used cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and an in vivo mouse model of allergic asthma to map a pathway where allergens enhanced mitochondrial ROS, which is an essential upstream signal for TGFβ activation and enhanced collagen production and deposition in airway fibroblasts. Results We show that mitochondria in airway epithelium are an essential source of ROS that activate TGFβ expression and activity. TGFβ from airway epithelium stimulates collagen expression in fibroblasts, contributing to an early fibrotic response to allergen exposure in cultured human airway cells and in ovalbumin-challenged mice. Treatment with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO significantly attenuated mitochondrial ROS, TGFβ, and collagen deposition in OVA-challenged mice and in cultured human epithelial cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that mitochondria are a critical source of ROS for promoting TGFβ activity that contributes to airway remodeling in allergic asthma. Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants may be a novel approach for future asthma therapies.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2014; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disrupted HCO3(-) transport and reduced airway surface liquid (ASL) pH in cystic fibrosis (CF) may initiate airway disease. We hypothesized that ASL pH is reduced in neonates with CF. In neonates with and without CF, we measured pH of nasal ASL. We also measured nasal pH in older children and adults. In neonates with CF, nasal ASL (pH5.2±0.3) was more acidic than in non-CF neonates (pH6.4±0.2). In contrast, nasal pH of CF children and adults was similar to values measured in people without CF. At an age when infection, inflammation and airway wall remodeling are minimal, neonates with CF had an acidic nasal ASL compared to babies without CF. The CF:non-CF pH difference disappeared in older individuals, perhaps because secondary manifestations of disease increase ASL pH. These results aid understanding of CF pathogenesis and suggest opportunities for therapeutic intervention and monitoring of disease.
    Journal of cystic fibrosis: official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society 01/2014; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a protein found associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL), thought to prevent oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This enzyme has been implicated in lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. Anoxia-reoxygenation and oxidative stress are important elements in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. However, the role of PON1 in anoxia-reoxygenation or anoxic injury is unclear. We hypothesize that PON1 prevents anoxia-reoxygenation injury. We set out to determine whether PON1 expression in Drosophila melanogaster protects against anoxia-reoxygenation (A-R) induced injury. Wild type (WT) and transgenic PON1 flies were exposed to anoxia (100% Nitrogen) for different time intervals (from 1 to 24 hours). After the anoxic period, flies were placed in room air for reoxygenation. Activity and survival of flies was then recorded. Within 5 minutes of anoxia, all flies fell into a stupor state. After reoxygenation, survivor flies resumed activity with some delay. Interestingly, transgenic flies recovered from stupor later than WT. PON1 transgenic flies had a significant survival advantage after A-R stress compared with WT. The protection conferred by PON1 expression was present regardless of the age or dietary restriction. Furthermore, PON1 expression exclusively in CNS conferred protection. Our results support the hypothesis that PON1 has a protective role in anoxia-reoxygenation injury, and its expression in the CNS is sufficient and necessary to provide a 100% survival protection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84434. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Massively parallel DNA sequencing data suggest the presence of a diverse bacterial community in healthy lungs, yet dogma dictates that immune mechanisms keep lungs sterile. Whether all bacterial DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) corresponds to live bacteria or equals diversity in lung parenchyma is unknown. We developed a DNase treatment-based method for bacterial DNA processing that discerns between intact cell DNA and DNA from bacteria with damaged cell walls. We investigated bacterial DNA load and diversity in transoral BAL samples and in transbronchial BAL and lung tissue samples obtained under sterile conditions in 6-week-old pigs. We hypothesized that bacterial DNA would correspond to dead bacteria and/or sample contamination from mouth bacteria and that lung tissue would be sterile. In both transoral and transbronchial BAL samples, DNase-resistant DNA was about 35% of total DNA. Most 16s rRNA gene sequences corresponded to the order Sphingobacteriales and to the families Mycoplasmataceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, with variable proportions and DNase sensitivity in each compartment. We were unable to culture bacteria from distal lung samples, and DNase-resistant DNA corresponded to approximately 4% of the total bacterial DNA load. Most 16s rRNA gene sequences corresponded to the Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae families with similar proportions in DNase-untreated and -treated samples. These data suggest that normal distal lungs in pigs are mostly sterile and that antimicrobial mechanisms tend to keep the airways free from frequently inhaled and aspirated bacteria, but a low biomass of intact bacteria may persist in airways sampled by BAL. Careful consideration of these factors is therefore important when studying bacterial communities present in diseased lungs and comparing them to healthy lungs.
    Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 01/2014; 11(Supplement_1):S72.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to asthma, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms connecting increased ROS with characteristic features of asthma. We show that enhanced oxidative activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (ox-CaMKII) in bronchial epithelium positively correlates with asthma severity and that epithelial ox-CaMKII increases in response to inhaled allergens in patients. We used mouse models of allergic airway disease induced by ovalbumin (OVA) or Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp) and found that bronchial epithelial ox-CaMKII was required to increase a ROS- and picrotoxin-sensitive Cl(-) current (ICl) and MUC5AC expression, upstream events in asthma progression. Allergen challenge increased epithelial ROS by activating NADPH oxidases. Mice lacking functional NADPH oxidases due to knockout of p47 and mice with epithelial-targeted transgenic expression of a CaMKII inhibitory peptide or wild-type mice treated with inhaled KN-93, an experimental small-molecule CaMKII antagonist, were protected against increases in ICl, MUC5AC expression, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Our findings support the view that CaMKII is a ROS-responsive, pluripotent proasthmatic signal and provide proof-of-concept evidence that CaMKII is a therapeutic target in asthma.
    Science translational medicine 07/2013; 5(195):195ra97. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human lungs are constantly exposed to bacteria in the environment, yet the prevailing dogma is that healthy lungs are sterile. DNA sequencing-based studies of pulmonary bacterial diversity challenge this notion. However, DNA-based microbial analysis currently fails to discern between DNA from live bacteria and bacteria that have been killed by lung immune mechanisms, potentially causing overestimation of bacterial abundance and diversity. We investigated whether bacterial DNA recovered from lungs represents live or dead bacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung samples in young healthy pigs. Live bacterial DNA was DNase I-resistant and became DNase I sensitive upon human antimicrobial-mediated killing in vitro. We determined live and total bacterial DNA load in porcine BAL and lung tissue by comparing DNase I treated vs. untreated samples. In contrast to BAL, we were unable to culture bacteria from most lung homogenates. Surprisingly, total bacterial DNA was abundant in both BAL and lung homogenates. In BAL, 63% was DNase I sensitive. In 6 out of 11 lung homogenates, all bacterial DNA was DNase I sensitive suggesting predominance of dead bacteria; in the remaining homogenates, 94% was DNase I sensitive and bacterial diversity determined by 16s rRNA gene sequencing was similar in DNase I-treated and untreated samples.Healthy pig lungs are mostly sterile yet contain abundant DNase I-sensitive DNA from inhaled and aspirated bacteria killed by pulmonary host defense mechanisms. This approach and conceptual framework will improve analysis of the lung microbiome in disease.
    Applied and environmental microbiology 07/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The airway mucosa and the alveolar surface form dynamic interfaces between the lung and the external environment. The epithelial cells lining these barriers elaborate a thin liquid layer containing secreted peptides and proteins that contribute to host defense and other functions. The goal of this study was to develop and apply methods to define the proteome of porcine lung lining liquid, in part, by leveraging the wealth of information in the Sus scrofa database of Ensembl gene, transcript, and protein model predictions. We developed an optimized workflow for detection of secreted proteins in porcine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in methacholine-induced tracheal secretions (airway surface liquid, ASL). We detected 674 and 3858 unique porcine-specific proteins in BAL and ASL, respectively. This proteome was composed of proteins representing a diverse range of molecular classes and biological processes, including host defense, molecular transport, cell communication, cytoskeletal, and metabolic functions. Specifically, we detected a significant number of secreted proteins with known or predicted roles in innate and adaptive immunity, microbial killing, or other aspects of host defense. In greatly expanding the known proteome of the lung lining fluid in the pig, this study provides a valuable resource for future studies using this important animal model of pulmonary physiology and disease.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 05/2013; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs spontaneously develop sinus and lung disease resembling human CF. The CF pig presents a unique opportunity to use gene transfer to test hypotheses to further understand the pathogenesis of CF sinus disease. In this study, we investigated the ion transport defect in the CF sinus and found that CF porcine sinus epithelia lack cyclic AMP (cAMP)-stimulated anion transport. We asked whether we could restore CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) current in the porcine CF sinus epithelia by gene transfer. We quantified CFTR transduction using an adenovirus expressing CFTR and green fluorescent protein (GFP). We found that as little as 7% of transduced cells restored 6% of CFTR current with 17-28% of transduced cells increasing CFTR current to 50% of non-CF levels. We also found that we could overcorrect cAMP-mediated current in non-CF epithelia. Our findings indicate that CF porcine sinus epithelia lack anion transport, and a relatively small number of cells expressing CFTR are required to rescue the ion transport phenotype. These studies support the use of the CF pig as a preclinical model for future gene therapy trials in CF sinusitis.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.49.
    Molecular Therapy 03/2013; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, it is first necessary to identify markers of human lung epithelial progenitor/stem cells and to better understand the potential for differentiation into distinct lineages. Here we investigated integrin α6β4 as an epithelial progenitor cell marker in the human distal lung. We identified a subpopulation of α6β4(+) cells that localized in distal small airways and alveolar walls and were devoid of pro-surfactant protein C expression. The α6β4(+) epithelial cells demonstrated key properties of stem cells ex vivo as compared to α6β4(-) epithelial cells, including higher colony forming efficiency, expression of stem cell-specific transcription factor Nanog, and the potential to differentiate into multiple distinct lineages including basal and Clara cells. Co-culture of α6β4(+) epithelial cells with endothelial cells enhanced proliferation. We identified a subset of adeno-associated virus (AAVs) serotypes, AAV2 and AAV8, capable of transducing α6β4(+) cells. In addition, reconstitution of bronchi epithelial cells from CF patients with only 5% normal α6β4(+) epithelial cells significantly rescued defects in Cl(-) transport. Therefore, targeting the α6β4(+) epithelial population via either gene delivery or progenitor cell-based reconstitution represents a potential new strategy to treat CF lung disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83624. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infections, and one of its main components is particulate matter (PM), which is comprised of a number of particles that contain iron, such as coal fly ash (CFA). Since free iron concentrations are extremely low in airway surface liquid (ASL), we hypothesize that CFA impairs antimicrobial peptides (AMP) function and can be a source of iron to bacteria. We tested this hypothesis by instilling mice with (PA01) and CFA and determine the percentage of bacterial clearance. In addition, we tested bacterial clearance in cell culture by exposing primary human airway epithelial cells to PA01 and CFA and determining the AMP activity and bacterial growth . We report that CFA is a bioavailable source of iron for bacteria. We show that CFA interferes with bacterial clearance and in primary human airway epithelial cultures. Also, we demonstrate that CFA inhibits AMP activity , which we propose as a mechanism of our cell culture and results. Furthermore, PA01 uses CFA as an iron source with a direct correlation between CFA iron dissolution and bacterial growth. CFA concentrations used are very relevant to human daily exposures, thus posing a potential public health risk for susceptible subjects. Although CFA provides a source of bioavailable iron for bacteria, not all CFA particles have the same biological effects, and their propensity for iron dissolution is an important factor. CFA impairs lung innate immune mechanisms of bacterial clearance, specifically AMP activity. We expect that identifying the PM mechanisms of respiratory infections will translate into public health policies aimed at controlling, not only concentration of PM exposure, but physicochemical characteristics that will potentially cause respiratory infections in susceptible individuals and populations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57673. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory infections are responsible for more than 4 million deaths each year. Neutrophils play an essential role in the innate immune response to lung infection. These cells have an armamentarium of pattern recognition molecules and antimicrobial agents that identify and eliminate pathogens. In the setting of infection, neutrophil triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) amplifies inflammatory signaling. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TREM-1 also plays an important role in transepithelial migration of neutrophils into the airspace. We developed a TREM-1/3-deficient mouse model of pneumonia and found that absence of TREM-1/3 markedly increased mortality following Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge. Unexpectedly, TREM-1/3 deficiency resulted in increased local and systemic cytokine production. TREM-1/3-deficient neutrophils demonstrated intact bacterial killing, phagocytosis, and chemotaxis; however, histologic examination of TREM-1/3-deficient lungs revealed decreased neutrophil infiltration of the airways. TREM-1/3-deficient neutrophils effectively migrated across primary endothelial cell monolayers but failed to migrate across primary airway epithelia grown at the air-liquid interface. These data define a new function for TREM-1 in neutrophil migration across airway epithelial cells and suggest that it amplifies inflammation through targeted neutrophil migration into the lung.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 12/2012; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic sinusitis is nearly universal in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is accompanied by sinus hypoplasia (small sinuses). However, whether impaired sinus development is a primary feature of loss of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or a secondary consequence of chronic infection remains unknown. Our objective was to study the early pathogenesis of sinus disease in CF. Animal/basic science research. Sinus development was studied in a porcine CF model. Porcine sinus epithelia expressed CFTR and exhibited transepithelial anion transport. Disruption of the CFTR gene eliminated both. Sinuses of newborn CF pigs were not infected and showed no evidence of inflammation, yet were hypoplastic at birth. Older CF pigs spontaneously developed sinus disease similar to that seen in humans with CF. These results define a role for CFTR in sinus development and suggest the potential of the CF pig as a genetic model of CF-sinus disease in which to test therapeutic strategies to minimize sinus-related CF morbidity.
    The Laryngoscope 06/2012; 122(9):1898-905. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (T2AECs) cultured at the air-liquid interface. CFTR was distributed exclusively to the apical surface of cultured T2AECs. Alveolar epithelia from CFTR(-/-) pigs failed to increase liquid absorption in response to agents that increase cAMP, whereas cAMP-stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(+/-) epithelia was similar to that in CFTR(+/+) epithelia. Expression of recombinant CFTR restored stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs but had no effect on CFTR(+/+) epithelia. In ex vivo studies of nonperfused lungs, stimulated liquid absorption was defective in CFTR(-/-) alveolar epithelia but similar between CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(+/-) epithelia. When epithelia were studied at the air-liquid interface, elevating cAMP levels increased subphase liquid height in CFTR(+/+) but not in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR is required for maximal liquid absorption under cAMP stimulation, but it is not the rate-limiting factor. Furthermore, our data define a role for CFTR in liquid secretion by T2AECs. These insights may help to develop new treatment strategies for pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, diseases in which lung liquid transport is disrupted.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 05/2012; 303(2):L152-60. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In airway epithelia, the kinetics of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) transgene expression is slow. This has negative practical implications for research, as well as for translation into therapy. The DNA minor groove-binding agent Hoechst-33342 has been shown to enhance AAV transgene expression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of Hoechst-related augmentation of AAV-mediated transgene expression. We investigated the effect of Hoechst-33342 on HT1080, COS-7, mouse and human airway epithelia transduced with different AAV serotypes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). We exposed cells to increasing concentrations of Hoechst-33342 at different time points. We evaluated the effect on second-strand DNA synthesis using AAV with a self-complementary genome. We also investigated the effect on expression from transfected plasmids with and without AAV2 inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We found that Hoechst-33342 significantly accelerated AAV transgene expression for all serotypes tested. Hoechst-33342 only had an effect when the treatment was given during or after transduction, even 120 days post-transduction, suggesting an effect on transgene expression regulation. Hoechst-33342 increased transgene expression when cells were transduced with a self-complementary AAV with the cytomegalovirus promoter, although there was no effect on cells transduced with conventional single-stranded AAV encoding the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. Finally, Hoechst-33342 increases gene expression from transfected plasmids regardless of the presence of AAV2 ITRs. Hoechst dramatically augments and accelerates AAV-mediated transgene expression in airway epithelia without altering AAV-mediated gene transfer. Hoechst activation of the cytomegalovirus promoter is seen in plasmids, although it is drastically enhanced in the context of AAV.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 05/2012; 14(6):366-73. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xylitol, a potential cystic fibrosis treatment, lowers the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and enhances innate immunity of human airways. The study objective was to evaluate the potential toxicity/recovery from a 14-consecutive day (7 days/week), facemask inhalation administration of nebulized xylitol solution in Beagle dogs. Aerosolized xylitol was generated through three Aerotech II nebulizers operating at approximately 40 psi driving pressure. Test article groups were exposed to the same concentration of aerosolized xylitol for 1, 0.5, or 0.25 h for the high, mid, and low exposures, respectively. A control group was exposed for 1 h to a nebulized normal saline solution. Animals were sacrificed the day following the last exposure or subsequently after 14 non-exposure days. Study endpoints included clinical observations, body weights, ophthalmology, and physical examinations, food consumption, clinical pathology, urinalyses, organ weights, and histopathology. Mean xylitol aerosol concentrations for all groups were approximately 3.5 mg/l. Mean total deposited doses to the pulmonary region were estimated as 21, 11, and 5 mg/kg, for the high-, mid-, and low-exposure groups, respectively. All dogs survived to the scheduled necropsy. No treatment-related findings were observed due to xylitol exposure in any end point examined. Lung findings (mild interstitial infiltration, macrophage hyperplasia, alveolitis, and bronchitis) were consistent among exposed and control groups. No exposure-related effect of xylitol in any parameter assessed was seen during or after the 14-day exposure in Beagle dogs. The No Observed Effect Level was the high-exposure level and suggests that inhaled xylitol is safe for clinical administration.
    Inhalation Toxicology 05/2012; 24(6):365-72. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Although bacterial lung infection and the resulting inflammation cause most of the morbidity and mortality, how the loss of CFTR function first disrupts airway host defence has remained uncertain. To investigate the abnormalities that impair elimination when a bacterium lands on the pristine surface of a newborn CF airway, we interrogated the viability of individual bacteria immobilized on solid grids and placed onto the airway surface. As a model, we studied CF pigs, which spontaneously develop hallmark features of CF lung disease. At birth, their lungs lack infection and inflammation, but have a reduced ability to eradicate bacteria. Here we show that in newborn wild-type pigs, the thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) rapidly kills bacteria in vivo, when removed from the lung and in primary epithelial cultures. Lack of CFTR reduces bacterial killing. We found that the ASL pH was more acidic in CF pigs, and reducing pH inhibited the antimicrobial activity of ASL. Reducing ASL pH diminished bacterial killing in wild-type pigs, and, conversely, increasing ASL pH rescued killing in CF pigs. These results directly link the initial host defence defect to the loss of CFTR, an anion channel that facilitates HCO(3)(-) transport. Without CFTR, airway epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion is defective, the ASL pH falls and inhibits antimicrobial function, and thereby impairs the killing of bacteria that enter the newborn lung. These findings suggest that increasing ASL pH might prevent the initial infection in patients with CF, and that assaying bacterial killing could report on the benefit of therapeutic interventions.
    Nature 01/2012; 487(7405):109-13. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonases (PON) are a family of proteins (PON1, 2 and 3) with multiple enzymatic activities. PON1 interferes with homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria and with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in humans and mice. PON1 gene mutations have been linked to multiple traits, including aging, and diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous and gastrointestinal system. The overlapping enzymatic activities in the PON family members and high linkage disequilibrium rates within their polymorphisms confound animal and human studies of PON1 function. In contrast, arthropods such as Drosophila melanogaster have no PON homologs, resulting in an ideal model to study interactions between PON genotype and host phenotypes. We hypothesized that expression of PON1 in D. melanogaster would alter ROS. We found that PON1 alters expression of multiple oxidative stress genes and decreases superoxide anion levels in normal and germ-free D. melanogaster. We also found differences in the composition of the gut microbiota, with a remarkable increase in levels of Lactobacillus plantarum and associated changes in expression of antimicrobial and cuticle-related genes. PON1 expression directly decreased superoxide anion levels and altered bacterial colonization of the gut and its gene expression profile, highlighting the complex nature of the interaction between host genotype and gut microbiota. We speculate that the interaction between some genotypes and human diseases may be mediated by the presence of certain gut bacteria that can induce specific immune responses in the gut and other host tissues.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43777. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The surface of the airways that conduct gases into and out of the lungs has components that protect the host from inhaled and aspirated pathogens. The thin (4-7 µm height) layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) that lines the airways has physicochemical properties that are important for normal function of these antimicrobial components. Among these properties, low glucose concentration is required for normal antimicrobial activity. Current methods for assessing the ASL have important flaws (temporal resolution, dilution factors, collection volume), which have been a recurring obstacle for understanding diseases in which ASL composition is abnormal. To circumvent these problems, microelectrodes coated with ZnO nanorods and immobilized glucose oxidase was used to determine glucose concentration in ASL of well-differentiated cultures of human airway epithelia. The sensor responded to glucose linearly over a concentration range of 0.128 to 8 mM and the effects of electroactive interferents were minimal. The measured concentration of glucose in ASL was consistent with values previously reported. This method confirms the presence of a transepithelial glucose concentration gradient in human airway epithelia and is an important step towards characterizing the physicochemical properties of ASL and understanding diseases caused by changes in ASL composition.
    Journal of analytical & bioanalytical techniques. 08/2011; S7(2).

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,098.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • University of Iowa
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1993–2012
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Wright State University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Dayton, OH, United States
  • 2007
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Genetic Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2001
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States