Josef Marksteiner

Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Gratz, Styria, Austria

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Publications (186)484 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Einleitung: Patienten im akuten Alkoholentzug weisen neben einer Reihe an Beeinträchtigungen auch eine Störung ihrer zirkadianen Rhythmik auf. Aus Grundlagenstudien ist hinlänglich bekannt, dass die Lichttherapie diese positiv beeinflussen bzw. normalisieren kann. Durch die Erfassung der motorischen Aktivität, unter Berücksichtigung des Schlaf-/Wachrhythmus kann das Ausmaß des Regulierungseffektes der Lichttherapie eingeschätzt werden. Ziel dieser Pilotstudie war es demnach, den Einfluss der Lichttherapie auf die motorische Aktivität im Alkoholentzug zu erfassen. Methode 23 stationäre Patienten im akuten Alkoholentzug wurden randomisiert der Teilnahme an der Lichttherapie bzw. der Kontrollbedingung zugeordnet. Die Studienteilnahme umfasste 11 Tage. An fünf aufeinander folgenden Tagen innerhalb dieses Zeitraums kam die Lichttherapie zur Anwendung. Während des gesamten Zeitraums wurde die motorische Aktivität mittels eines Aktigraphen erfasst. Ergebnisse In beiden Gruppen zeigte sich im gesamten Zeitraum des akuten Alkoholentzugs eine deutliche Steigerung der motorischen Aktivität. Im direkten Gruppenvergleich zeigten sich nach Abschluss der LT signifikante Unterschiede im tageszeitabhängigen Verlauf. Die Experimentalgruppe wies eine signifikante Steigerung der motorischen Aktivität am späten Nachmittag sowie eine signifikant niedrigere motorische Aktivität in der zweiten Nachthälfte auf. Zusammenfassend konnte nach Abschluss der Intervention eine positive Wirkung der Lichttherapie festgestellt werden. Die Lichttherapie trägt maßgeblich zur Regulation der motorischen Aktivität bei. Durch die lichttherapievermittelte Verstärkung des natürlichen Schlaf-/Wachrhythmus profitieren Patienten im Alkoholentzug von dieser Intervention.
    DGPPN Kongress Berlin; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Einleitung: Patienten im akuten Alkoholentzug weisen neben einer Reihe an vegetativen Symptomen häufig psychische Beeinträchtigungen und eine Veränderung des Stresshormons Cortisol auf. Ziel dieser Pilotstudie war es den Verlauf der vorhandenen psychischen und körperlichen Beeinträchtigungen im Alkoholentzug zu erfassen. Die Lichttherapie wurde als therapieunterstützende Intervention eingesetzt. Methode: 30 stationäre Patienten im akuten Alkoholentzug wurden randomisiert der Teilnahme an der Lichttherapie bzw. der Kontrollbedingung zugeordnet. Vor und nach einer fünftägigen täglichen Anwendung der Lichttherapie wurden der Cortisolspiegel im Speichel (Cortisol-Awakening-Response CAR), die Entzugssymptomatik (CIWA) sowie psychometrische Variablen (BDI, STAI) quantifiziert. Ergebnisse: Im Verlauf des Alkoholentzugs verbesserte sich sowohl körperliche als auch psychische Symptomatik signifikant. Es zeigte sich außerdem eine signifikante Korrelation zwischen der Höhe des morgendlichen Cortisolspiegels vor und der Schwere der Entzugserscheinung nach Abschluss der Lichttherapie. Diese Veränderungen erwiesen sich als unabhängig von der Teilnahme an der Lichttherapie. Zusammenfassend wurde in dieser Studie der morgendliche Cortisolwert zu Beginn der Intervention als prädiktiver Parameter für die Schwere der Alkoholentzugssymptomatik nach Abschluss der Lichttherapie identifiziert. Es zeigte sich, dass vor allem ein niedrigerer Ausgangscortisolwert zu einer schnelleren Remission der Alkohlentzugssymptomatik beiträgt.
    DPGGN Kongress Berlin; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Einleitung: Es existieren nur wenige Untersuchungen, die explizit den Zusammenhang von elterlichen Verhaltensweisen in der Kindheit und zwanghafter Persönlichkeitsstörung untersuchen. Einige Studien konnten zeigen, dass die ausgeprägte Kontrolle der Eltern im Widerstreit mit den Autonomiebestrebungen des Kindes steht. Mittelpunkt dieser Untersuchung war es die Unterschiede der erinnerten Kindheitserfahrungen von PatientInnen mit einer zwanghaften Persönlichkeitsstörung und gesunder Personen mit Hilfe des SASB-Kurzform-Fragebogens zu erfassen. Methode: Aus den Daten der HELIOS Klinik Bad Grönenbach wurden die PatientInnen ausgewählt, die eine zwanghafte Persönlichkeitsstörung (N=84) als Diagnose hatten. Diesen wurde eine unabhängig erhobene Kontrollgruppe (N=79) ohne psychiatrische Diagnose gegenüber gestellt. Die erinnerten Eltern-Kind-Interaktionen wurden mit Hilfe des SASB Kurzform-Fragebogens erfasst, der Bindungsstil konnte über den RQ-2 Beziehungsstilfragebogen bestimmt werden. Ergebnisse: PatientInnen mit einer zwanghaften Persönlichkeitsstörung erinnerten sich an signifikant weniger Zuneigung in den Eltern-Kind-Interaktionen als die Kontrollgruppe. Sie nahmen die Mutter zudem als kontrollierender und übermäßig beschützender wahr. Die Gruppen unterschieden sich außerdem im herabsetzenden bzw. bestrafenden und vernachlässigenden Verhalten der Eltern. Die PatientInnen mit einer zwanghaften Persönlichkeitsstörung reagierten auf diese Verhaltensweisen mit sich abschotten und distanzieren. Zudem war die Störungsgruppe signifikant unsicherer gebunden als die Kontrollgruppe und wies eine signifikant negativere Selbst- und Fremdrepräsentanz als gesunde Personen auf. Zusammenfassend ist erkennbar, dass sich die Kindheitserfahrungen von Personen mit einer zwanghaften Persönlichkeitsstörung von denen gesunder ProbandInnen unterscheiden. Besonders das kontrollierende und wenig liebevolle Verhalten der Mutter scheint ein Aspekt der multifaktoriellen Genese einer zwanghaften Persönlichkeitsstörung sein. In weiteren Untersuchungen müsste erforscht werden, inwieweit die entdeckten Eltern-Kind-Interaktionen und Bindungsstile für das Störungsbild charakteristisch sind.
    DPGGN Kongress Berlin; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To record and measure the nature and severity of stigma and discrimination experienced by people during a first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of major depressive disorder.
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry 10/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patient dependence has rarely been studied in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective: To identify factors which predict patient dependence in mild-to-moderate AD. Methods: We studied 398 non-institutionalized AD patients (234 females) of the ongoing Prospective Registry on Dementia (PRODEM) in Austria. The Dependence Scale (DS) was used to assess patient dependence. Patient assessment comprised functional abilities, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive functions. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of patient dependence. Results: AD patients were mildly-to-moderately impaired (mean scores and SDs were: CDR 0.84 ± 0.43; DAD 74.4 ± 23.3, MMSE = 22.5 ± 3.6). Psychopathology and caregiver burden were in the low range (mean NPI score 13.2, range 0 to 98; mean ZBI score 18, range 0-64). Seventy five percent of patients were classified as having a mild level of patient dependence (DS sum score 0 to 6). Patient dependence correlated significantly and positively with age, functional measures, psychopathology and depression, disease duration, and caregiver burden. Significant negative, but low correlations were found between patient dependence, cognitive variables, and global cognition. Activities of daily living, patient age, and disease severity accounted for 63% of variance in patient dependence, whereas cognitive variables accounted for only 11%. Conclusion: Dependence in this cohort was mainly related to age and functional impairment, and less so to cognitive and neuropsychiatric variables. This differs from studies investigating patients in more advanced disease stages which found abnormal behavior and impairments of cognition as main predictors of patient dependence.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In Western cultures it has often been assumed that the experience of happy or sad emotions while listening to music is clearly correlated to the key (mode) and the tempo of the musical piece. Recent studies point towards more complex dependencies, but knowledge in this line of research is still very limited, especially regarding the experience of music for persons with memory-related disorders such as dementia. Objective: This pilot study explores the emotional content of music for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compares them to healthy subjects. Methods: A new test was specifically designed for this study and presented to 10 patients with MCI diagnosis, 10 with AD diagnosis and 23 controls. The test comprised musical stimuli consisting of chords and short musical pieces in major and minor mode with variable note density (number of notes per second). Results: In the current study no significant correlation between key and the attribution of 'happy' or 'sad' judgements to a musical piece could be found in all groups. Note density, however, was shown to exhibit a strong influence on happy/sad judgements in all groups. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the note density of a musical piece is much more important for happy/sad judgements than the key. Furthermore, the diagnosis MCI and early AD had no influence on the attribution of emotional expressions to musical pieces, corroborating recent findings of spared memory for music in these patient groups. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gerontology 05/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Peter Mikosch, Josef Marksteiner
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may represent an early stage of dementia conferring a particularly high annual risk of 15-20% of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent findings suggest that not only gray matter (GM) loss but also a decline in white matter (WM) integrity may be associated with imminent conversion from MCI to AD.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e106062. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether the serial position effects in memory can differentiate patients with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy controls and patients with different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The serial position effects was tested with the CERAD word list task in 184 persons (39 healthy control subjects, 15 amnestic MCI single domain subjects, 23 amnestic MCI multiple domain subjects, 31 nonamnestic MCI subjects, 45 early or mild AD patients, and 31 moderate AD patients). Results: With progression of dementia, memory deficits increased and the impairment in the primacy effect during the learning trials advanced, whereas the recall of recent items was less impaired. The serial position profile of nonamnestic MCI patients resembled that of healthy control subjects, whereas amnestic MCI patients showed poorer performance in all 3 positions but no significant difference as a function of serial word position. Conclusion: Analyses of the serial position effect may be a useful complement to clinical neuropsychological measures for distinguishing amnestic MCI patients from normal aging and patients with different stages of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 01/2014; 37(1-2):19-26. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alkoholkonsum kann zu einer akuten Intoxikation mit entsprechender klinischer Symptomatik führen. Im ersten Stadium der Alkoholintoxikation kommt es zur Exzitation mit Enthemmungen, verlängerten Reaktionszeiten und verminderter Schmerzwahrnehmung, sowie zu nachweisbaren Veränderungen der kognitiven Leistungen insbesondere zu einer Beeinträchtigung der Gedächtnisleistungen. Jedoch sind die kognitiven Folgen einer Intoxikation in den allermeisten Fällen reversibel sofern keine Alkoholabhängigkeit besteht. Durch chronischen Alkoholkonsum ergeben sich erhebliche neuropsychologische Defizite. Insbesondere zeigen Alkoholkranke eine deutliche Dysfunktionalität in der sozialen Kognition sowie Defizite in exekutiven Funktionen wie in Problemlösefähigkeiten und Abstraktion, beim Entscheidungstreffen, Planen und Organisieren aber auch Beeinträchtigung der Handlungskontrolle und Inhibierung. Bei etwa 50 % der Alkoholabhängigen sind Einbußen der Kognition mit einer zerebralen Atrophie in der Bildgebung des Gehirns vergesellschaftet. Es zeigen sich auch geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede, sowohl auf akute Alkoholintoxikation, als auch bei chronischem Alkoholkonsum reagieren Frauen vulnerabler mit Entwicklung dauerhafter Schäden.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease. Cerebrovascular changes often accompany AD-related pathology. Despite a considerable progress in the diagnostic accuracy of AD, no blood biomarkers have been established so far. The aim of the present study was to search for changes in plasma levels of 27 vascular-related proteins of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. In a sample of 80 participants we showed that out of these 27 proteins, eight proteins were slightly changed (up to 1.5x) in AD (alpha2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, plasminogen activator inhibitor, RAGE, Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases -1 and Trombospondin -2), one marker (serum amyloid A) was enhanced up to 6x but with a very high variance. However, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was significantly enhanced both in MCI and AD patients (1.9x). In a second analysis of a sample of 110 subjects including younger healthy controls, we confirmed that NT-proBNP has the potential to be a stable candidate protein for both diagnosis and AD disease progression.
    Experimental gerontology 12/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Austria, geriatric psychiatry is referred to as geriatric psychiatry or psychiatry of old age. It is recognized as a subspecialty of psychiatry focusing on the study, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in humans with old age. The age limits vary between 60 and 65 years. In this review, we report the current status of geriatric psychiatry based on data sources published by government agencies or public health bodies, as well as telephone surveys of respective institutions or specific questionnaires. Overall, in Austria there is only one department for geriatric psychiatry. Several psychogeriatric units are located in Departments of Psychiatry. So far, no board certification has been established for geriatric psychiatry. An education on geriatrics for physicians in internal medicine, neurology, physical medicine and general rehabilitation or psychiatrist also includes courses for geriatric psychiatry. Patients suffering from various types of dementia constitute the largest group of psychogeriatric patients. Patients with dementia, however, are also treated by neurologists or general practitioners. To further promote education, medical trainings or research in the field of geriatric psychiatric, Austria should strive for close European co-operations, especially with countries with a comparable health system.
    Geriatric Mental Health Care. 12/2013;
  • Josef Marksteiner, Christian Humpel
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    ABSTRACT: A marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a high sensitivity and specificity would facilitate a diagnosis at early stages. Blood platelets may be of particular interest in search of biomarkers, because they express amyloid-precursor protein (APP), and display a dysfunctional processing in AD. The aim of the present study is to establish and validate an assay for secreted amyloid-precursor protein (sAPP)-α and -β in platelets of AD and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) subjects, compared to healthy young and old controls. Freshly isolated platelet extracts (25 μg) were incubated with or without recombinant BACE1 (β-secretase, 8U) at 37°C and low pH and the levels of sAPP-α and sAPP-β were measured by specific ELISAs. Our data show that sAPP-α levels were not different between AD, MCI and control subjects. However, sAPP-β levels in MCI and AD were significantly elevated relative to controls. When recombinant BACE1 was added, no changes were seen in sAPP-α levels, but the processed sAPP-β levels were again markedly increased. The sAPP-β processing was specific and selective after 2.5 hours at 37°C, and was possibly mediated by exogenous BACE1, because it was blocked by a BACE1 inhibitor and BACE1 enzyme levels were enhanced in AD patients. Our data reveal that quantitive analysis of platelet sAPP-β assay by ELISA may be a novel diagnostic biomarker for MCI and AD.
    Current neurovascular research 08/2013; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Increased activity of L-type Ca2+ channels has been implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously we detected CaV1.2 α1-subunit-positive expression in reactive astrocytes surrounding the plaques of 12 month-old transgenic mice overexpressing hAβPP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations. Here we examined whether increased CaV1.2 α1-subunit expression precedes plaque formation or is specifically associated with the increased amyloid-β (Aβ) load in the plaques. Quantitative RT-PCR expression profiling of all high voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunits (α1, β, and α2δ) revealed no difference in the hippocampi of 2, 4, and 11 month-old wild type (wt) and transgenic (tg) mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that expression of CaV1.2 α1-subunit, but not of the auxiliary β4 Ca2+ channel subunit, specifically associated with Aβ-positive plaques in brains of 11 month tg mice. No difference in CaV1.2 α1-subunit labeling was found in 2 and 4 month-old wt and tg mice prior to plaque formation. The CaV1.2 α1-subunit-positive cells in 11 month-old tg mice also labeled with GFAP, but not with the microglia marker Iba1. In contrast, GFAP-positive cells induced by injection of quinolinic acid did not reveal any CaV1.2 α1-subunit immunoreactivity. Together these results indicate that the expression of CaV1.2 α1-subunits in reactive astrocytes in the tg AD mouse model is related to the increased amyloid-β load in the plaques rather than caused by effects on gene regulation or mechanisms preceding the manifestation of AD as seen by plaque formation.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 07/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tryptophan depletion (TD) is an established method to influence the serotonergic system and mood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TD under different ambient light conditions, measured through serotonin-associated plasma levels and a visual analog scale (VAS), on healthy females. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy female s-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) were administered a TD under dim light conditions (75lx). A sub-group of 8 participants repeated the procedure randomized in two additional light conditions (585lx and 1530lx respectively). Prior to, and 5h following administration of TD, various variables (serotonin-associated plasma levels, VAS) were measured. Due to not normal distributed data, non-parametric statistical tests were used. RESULTS: Overall analysis showed a significant mood lowering effect of TD. Moreover, TD decreased all measured serotonin-associated plasma levels significantly. Significant differences in varying light conditions were found for the VAS and plasma tryptophan, with the greatest effect of TD in the 75lx condition. CONCLUSION: Results of our study showed an influence of even slight differences in ambient light intensity on the effect of TD concerning mood as well as on the serotonergic system.
    Psychiatry research. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Few studies have investigated in detail which factors influence activities of daily (ADL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective: To assess the influence of cognitive, gender, and other factors on ADL in patients with mild to moderate AD. Methods: This study is part of the Prospective Registry on Dementia in Austria (PRODEM) project, a multicenter dementia research project. A cohort of 221 AD patients (130 females; means: age 76 years, disease duration 34.4 months, MMSE 22.3) was included in a cross-sectional analysis. Everyday abilities were assessed with the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale, and cognitive functions with the CERAD plus neuropsychological test battery. Two models of multiple linear regressions were performed to find factors predicting functional decline, one entering demographical and disease related factors, and a joint model combining demographical and disease variables with neuropsychological scores. Results: Non-cognitive factors explained 18%, whereas the adding of neuropsychological variables explained 39% of variance. Poor figural and verbal memory, constructional abilities, old age, longer disease duration, depression, and male gender were independent risk factors for reduced ADL. Instrumental and basic ADL were predicted by similar factors, except gender (predicting only instrumental ADL) and phonological fluency (predictor of basic ADL). Conclusion: In addition to demographical factors, disease duration, and depression, neuropsychological variables are valuable predictors of the functional status in AD in an early disease stage.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 02/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.
    Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation: Organ der Gesellschaft Österreichischer Nervenärzte und Psychiater 01/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Study Context: Explicit memory for music was investigated by using a new test with 24 existing and 3 newly composed pieces. Methods: Ten patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 10 patients with early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were compared with 23 healthy subjects, in terms of verbal memory of music by the identification of familiar music excerpts and the discrimination of distortion and original timbre of musical excerpts. Results: MCI and Alzheimer's patients showed significantly poorer performances in tasks requiring verbal memory of musical excerpts than the healthy participants. For discrimination of musical excerpts, MCI and AD patients surprisingly performed significantly better than the healthy comparison subjects. Conclusion: Our results support the notion of a specialized memory system for music.
    Experimental Aging Research 01/2013; 39(5):536-64. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of cognitive, functional and behavioral factors, co-morbidities as well as caregiver characteristics on driving cessation in dementia patients. The study cohort consists of those 240 dementia cases of the ongoing prospective registry on dementia in Austria (PRODEM) who were former or current car-drivers (mean age 74.2 (±8.8) years, 39.6% females, 80.8% Alzheimer's disease). Reasons for driving cessation were assessed with the patients' caregivers. Standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate patient- and caregiver characteristics. Cognitive functioning was determined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the CERAD neuropsychological test battery and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), activities of daily living (ADL) by the Disability Assessment for Dementia, behavior by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and caregiver burden by the Zarit burden scale. Among subjects who had ceased driving, 136 (93.8%) did so because of "Unacceptable risk" according to caregiver's judgment. Car accidents and revocation of the driving license were responsible in 8 (5.5%) and 1(0.7%) participant, respectively. Female gender (OR 5.057; 95%CI 1.803-14.180; p = 0.002), constructional abilities (OR 0.611; 95%CI 0.445-0.839; p = 0.002) and impairment in Activities of Daily Living (OR 0.941; 95%CI 0.911-0.973; p<0.001) were the only significant and independent associates of driving cessation. In multivariate analysis none of the currently proposed screening tools for assessment of fitness to drive in elderly subjects including the MMSE and CDR were significantly associated with driving cessation. The risk-estimate of caregivers, but not car accidents or revocation of the driving license determines if dementia patients cease driving. Female gender and increasing impairment in constructional abilities and ADL raise the probability for driving cessation. If any of these factors also relates to undesired traffic situations needs to be determined before recommendations for their inclusion into practice parameters for the assessment of driving abilities in the elderly can be derived from our data.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52710. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
484.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
      • • Social Psychology
      • • Institute of Psychology
      • • Section for Biological Psychology
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 2013
    • Windsor Regional Hospital
      Windsor, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2013
    • Medizinische Universität Innsbruck
      • • Univ.-Klinik für Neurologie
      • • Univ.-Klinik für Allgemeine und Sozialpsychiatrie
      • • Department für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
      • • Univ.-Klinik für Radiologie
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 1988–2013
    • University of Innsbruck
      • • Institut für Psychologie
      • • Institute of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2012
    • Fachhochschule für Gesundheit Gera
      Gera, Thuringia, Germany
    • Medical University of Graz
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 2011
    • Wiener Krankenanstaltenverbund
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2003
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Anatomy
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 1989
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany