[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CPCRA 064 study examined the effect of structured treatment interruption (STI) of up to 4 months followed by salvage treatment in patients failing therapy with multi-drug resistant HIV. We examined the relationship between the reversion rate of major reverse transcriptase (RT) resistance-associated mutations and change in viral replication capacity (RC). The dataset included 90 patients with RC and genotypic data from virus samples collected at 0 (baseline), 2 and 4 months of STI.
Rapid shift towards wild-type RC was observed during the first 2 months of STI. Median RC increased from 47.5% at baseline to 86.0% at 2 months and to 97.5% at 4 months. Between baseline and 2 months of STI, T215F had the fastest rate of reversion (41%) and the reversion of E44D and T69D was associated with the largest changes in RC. Among the most prevalent RT mutations, M184V had the fastest rate of reversion from baseline to 2 months (40%), and its reversion was associated with the largest increase in RC. Most rates of reversion increased between 2 months and 4 months, but the change in RC was more limited as it was already close to 100%. The highest frequency of concurrent reversion was found for L100I and K103N. Mutagenesis tree models showed that M184V, when present, was overall the first mutation to revert among all the RT mutations reported in the study.
Longitudinal analysis of combined phenotypic and genotypic data during STI showed a large amount of variability in prevalence and reversion rates to wild-type codons among the RT resistance-associated mutations. The rate of reversion of these mutations may depend on the extent of RC increase as well as the co-occurring reversion of other mutations belonging to the same mutational pathway.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e14638. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0014638 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective was to assess HIV-1 susceptibility to the protease inhibitor (PI) tipranavir and other antiretroviral (ARV) agents among treatment-experienced patients (TEP). Secondarily, clinicians' use of resistance testing was examined.
UTILIZE was an observational study conducted at 40 sites in the United States. Patients currently failing a PI-based regimen were randomized to receive either a genotype (GT) or combined phenotype-genotype test (PGT) and a treatment decision was made at the second study visit.
246 patients enrolled, 236 had resistance test results, and 139 (59%) had evidence of HIV-1 resistance to >or=1 PI. Among these 139 patients, more than 50% had viruses that remained sensitive to tipranavir and darunavir, whereas susceptibility to other PIs was markedly lower (<22%). Increasing prior PI exposure was associated with reduced susceptibility to most ARV agents. After obtaining resistance test results, 83% of patients changed therapy. Newly available or investigational ARVs were used frequently. The reason investigators most often cited for changing therapy was the patient resistance test results (82%) and the most common reason for not changing therapy was the inability to construct an active regimen. The majority of patients who exhibited PI resistance received two or more active agents in the new regimen.
Overall, 59% of TEPs failing a PI-based regimen had HIV-1 with PI resistance. The majority of these patients' viruses remained sensitive to either tipranavir or darunavir. Investigators used results from resistance assays to construct a new regimen, frequently with newer agents. In PI-experienced patients, tipranavir and darunavir remain the most likely available active PIs.
Current HIV research 03/2010; 8(4):347-54. DOI:10.2174/157016210791208677 · 1.76 Impact Factor