J Allainguillaume

University of the West of England, Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (28)112.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: DNA- and RNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were used with Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) primers designed from conserved regions of the six published genomic sequences of CSSV to investigate whether the virus is transmissible from infected trees through cross-pollination to seeds and seedlings. Pollen was harvested from CSSV infected cocoa trees and used to cross-pollinate flowers of healthy cocoa trees (recipient parents) to generate enough cocoa seeds for the PCR screening. Adequate precautions were taken to avoid cross-contamination during duplicated DNA extractions and only PCR results accompanied by effective positive and negative controls were scored. Results from the PCR analyses showed that samples of cocoa pod husk, mesocarp and seed tissues (testa, cotyledon and embryo) from the cross-pollinations were PCR negative for CSSV DNA. Sequential DNA samples from new leaves of seedlings resulting from the cross-pollinated trees were consistently PCR negative for presence of portions of CSSV DNA for over 36 months after germination. A reverse transcription-PCR analysis performed on the seedlings showed negative results, indicating absence of functional CSSV RNA transcripts in the seedlings. None of the seedlings exhibited symptoms characteristic of the CSSV disease, and all infectivity tests on the seedlings were also negative. Following these results, the study concluded that although CSSV DNA was detected in pollen from CSSV infected trees, there was no evidence of pollen transmission of the virus through cross-pollination from infected cocoa parents to healthy cocoa trees.
    Plant Pathology 04/2013; 62(2). · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 01/2013; 280(1754):20122854. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that present pathogen-derived antigens to T-cells, initiating the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. Although populations with low MHC diversity tend to be more susceptible to pathogens, some bottlenecked populations persist and even increase in numbers despite low MHC diversity. Thus, the relative importance of MHC diversity versus genome-wide variability for the long-term viability of populations after bottlenecks and/or under high inbreeding is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that genome-wide inbreeding (estimated using microsatellites) should be more critical than MHC diversity alone in determining pathogen resistance in the self-fertilizing fish Kryptolebias marmoratus by analysing MHC diversity and parasite loads in natural and laboratory populations with different degrees of inbreeding. Both MHC and neutral diversities were lost after several generations of selfing, but we also found evidence of parasite selection acting on MHC diversity and of non-random loss of alleles, suggesting a possible selective advantage of those individuals with functionally divergent MHC, in accordance with the hypothesis of divergent allele advantage. Moreover, we found that parasite loads were better explained by including MHC diversity in the model than by genome-wide (microsatellites) heterozygosity alone. Our results suggest that immune-related overdominance could be the key in maintaining variables rates of selfing and outcrossing in K. marmoratus and other mixed-mating species.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 10/2012; · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first national DNA barcode resource that covers the native flowering plants and conifers for the nation of Wales (1143 species). Using the plant DNA barcode markers rbcL and matK, we have assembled 97.7% coverage for rbcL, 90.2% for matK, and a dual-locus barcode for 89.7% of the native Welsh flora. We have sampled multiple individuals for each species, resulting in 3304 rbcL and 2419 matK sequences. The majority of our samples (85%) are from DNA extracted from herbarium specimens. Recoverability of DNA barcodes is lower using herbarium specimens, compared to freshly collected material, mostly due to lower amplification success, but this is balanced by the increased efficiency of sampling species that have already been collected, identified, and verified by taxonomic experts. The effectiveness of the DNA barcodes for identification (level of discrimination) is assessed using four approaches: the presence of a barcode gap (using pairwise and multiple alignments), formation of monophyletic groups using Neighbour-Joining trees, and sequence similarity in BLASTn searches. These approaches yield similar results, providing relative discrimination levels of 69.4 to 74.9% of all species and 98.6 to 99.8% of genera using both markers. Species discrimination can be further improved using spatially explicit sampling. Mean species discrimination using barcode gap analysis (with a multiple alignment) is 81.6% within 10×10 km squares and 93.3% for 2×2 km squares. Our database of DNA barcodes for Welsh native flowering plants and conifers represents the most complete coverage of any national flora, and offers a valuable platform for a wide range of applications that require accurate species identification.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e37945. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia.
    Molecular Ecology Resources 01/2011; 11(1):219-22. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aplochiton zebra (peladila, zebra trout) is a galaxiid fish endemic to Patagonia and the Falklands Islands, where populations are threatened by salmonid introductions. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers that can be used for assessing the genetic variation and conservation status of this species. The variability of these markers was assessed in six rivers in Chilean Patagonia. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 80 per locus and observed heterozygosities varied between 0.168 and 0.910. A protocol for multiplexing these markers is described.
    Molecular Ecology Notes. 01/2011; 11:219-222.
  • Elliott LJ, Mason DC, Allainguillaume J, Wilkinson MJ
    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 01/2010; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the current Higher Education climate, there is a pressing need to integrate research and teaching in the student learning experience. In order to create synergy between research and teaching activities, to the benefit of students and instructors, we provided students with the opportunity to participate in a high profile collaboration between two scientific institutions. We planned and developed an integrated module leading the student through all the steps necessary in a large-scale, collaborative research project. Student feedback resulting from the intervention showed impressive levels of improvement in general appreciation of the course. Students also suggested that they would have liked a longer module, despite the intensive workload they experienced. All areas explored (general knowledge, research-based evaluation criteria, group and individual work) showed improvements in student evaluation after the module. We conclude that a residential, integrated experience of scientific research, from initial data collection to presentation at a scientific conference, can produce significant positive, active learning experiences to the students. A double bonus comes from the benefits towards research, both by compilation of data and long-term collaboration opportunities.
    Bioscience Education e-Journal 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Biocontainment methods for genetically modified crops closest to commercial reality (chloroplast transformation, male sterility) would be compromised (in absolute terms) by seed-mediated gene flow leading to chloroplast capture. Even in these circumstances, however, it can be argued that biocontainment still represses transgene movement, with the efficacy depending on the relative frequency of seed- and pollen-mediated gene flow. In this study, we screened for crop-specific chloroplast markers from rapeseed (Brassica napus) amongst sympatric and allopatric populations of wild B. oleracea in natural cliff-top populations and B. rapa in riverside and weedy populations. We found only modest crop chloroplast presence in wild B. oleracea and in weedy B. rapa, but a surprisingly high incidence in sympatric (but not in allopatric) riverside B. rapa populations. Chloroplast inheritance models indicate that elevated crop chloroplast acquisition is best explained if crop cytoplasm confers selective advantage in riverside B. rapa populations. Our results therefore imply that chloroplast transformation may slow transgene recruitment in two settings, but actually accelerate transgene spread in a third. This finding suggests that the appropriateness of chloroplast transformation for biocontainment policy depends on both context and geographical location.
    New Phytologist 07/2009; 183(4):1201-11. · 6.74 Impact Factor
  • Nadia Haider, Joel Allainguillaume, Mike J Wilkinson
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental concerns over the cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) crops largely centre on the ecological consequences following gene flow to wild relatives. One attractive solution is to deploy biocontainment measures that prevent hybridization. Chloroplast transformation is the most advanced biocontainment method but is compromised by chloroplast capture (hybridization through the maternal lineage). To date, however, there is a paucity of information on the frequency of chloroplast capture in the wild. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) frequently hybridises with wild Brassica rapa (AA, as paternal parent) and yields B. rapa-like introgressed individuals after only two generations. In this study we used chloroplast CAPS markers that differentiate between the two species to survey wild and weedy populations of B. rapa for the capture of B. napus chloroplasts. A total of 464 B. rapa plants belonging to 14 populations growing either in close proximity to B. napus (i.e. sympatric <5 m) or else were allopatric from the crop (>1 km) were assessed for chloroplast capture using PCR (trnL-F) and CAPS (trnT-L-Xba I) markers. The screen revealed that two sympatric B. rapa populations included 53 plants that possessed the chloroplast of B. napus. In order to discount these B. rapa plants as F(1) crop-wild hybrids, we used a C-genome-specific marker and found that 45 out of 53 plants lacked the C-genome and so were at least second generation introgressants. The most plausible explanation is that these individuals represent multiple cases of chloroplast capture following introgressive hybridisation through the female germ line from the crop. The abundance of such plants in sympatric sites thereby questions whether the use of chloroplast transformation would provide a sufficient biocontainment for GM oilseed rape in the United Kingdom.
    Current Genetics 02/2009; 55(2):139-50. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High resolution descriptions of plant distribution have utility for many ecological applications but are especially useful for predictive modeling of gene flow from transgenic crops. Difficulty lies in the extrapolation errors that occur when limited ground survey data are scaled up to the landscape or national level. This problem is epitomized by the wide confidence limits generated in a previous attempt to describe the national abundance of riverside Brassica rapa (a wild relative of cultivated rapeseed) across the United Kingdom. Here, we assess the value of airborne remote sensing to locate B. rapa over large areas and so reduce the need for extrapolation. We describe results from flights over the river Nene in England acquired using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) imagery, together with ground truth data. It proved possible to detect 97% of flowering B. rapa on the basis of spectral profiles. This included all stands of plants that occupied >2m square (>5 plants), which were detected using single-pixel classification. It also included very small populations (<5 flowering plants, 1-2m square) that generated mixed pixels, which were detected using spectral unmixing. The high detection accuracy for flowering B. rapa was coupled with a rather large false positive rate (43%). The latter could be reduced by using the image detections to target fieldwork to confirm species identity, or by acquiring additional remote sensing data such as laser altimetry or multitemporal imagery. BBSRC
    01/2009;
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    A K Quainoo, A C Wetten, J Allainguillaume
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    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to determine whether cocoa swollen shoot virus is transmitted by seeds, to improve the robustness of quarantine procedures for international exchange and long term conservation of cocoa germplasm. PCR/capillary electrophoresis, using cocoa swollen shoot virus primers designed from the most conserved regions of the six published cocoa genome sequences, allowed the detection of cocoa swollen shoot virus in all the component parts of cocoa seeds from cocoa swollen shoot virus-infected trees. PCR/capillary electrophoresis revealed the presence of cocoa swollen shoot virus in seedlings raised from seeds obtained from cocoa swollen shoot virus-infected trees. The high frequency with which the virus was transmitted through the seedlings suggested that cocoa swollen shoot virus is transmitted by seeds. This has serious implications for cocoa germplasm conservation and distribution.
    Journal of Virological Methods 07/2008; 150(1-2):45-9. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    A K Quainoo, A C Wetten, J Allainguillaume
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations were undertaken on the use of somatic embryogenesis to generate cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) disease free clonal propagules from infected trees. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) capillary electrophoresis revealed the presence of CSSV in all the callus tissues induced from the CSSV-infected Amelonado cocoa trees (T1, T2 and T4). The virus was transmitted to primary somatic embryos induced from the infected callus tissues at the rate of 10 (19%), 18 (14%) and 16 (15%) for T1, T2 and T4, respectively. Virus free primary somatic embryos from the infected callus tissues converted into plantlets tested CSSV negative by PCR/capillary electrophoresis 2 years after weaning. Secondary somatic embryos induced from the CSSV-infected primary somatic embryos revealed the presence of viral fragments at the rate of 4 (4%) and 9 (9%) for T2 and T4, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed 23 of the 24 secondary somatic embryos contained no detectable virus. Based on these findings, it is proposed that progressive elimination of the CSSV in infected cocoa trees occurred from primary embryogenesis to secondary embryogenesis.
    Journal of Virological Methods 05/2008; 149(1):91-6. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    C J Allender, J Allainguillaume, J Lynn, G J King
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    ABSTRACT: Diversity in the chloroplast genome of 171 accessions representing the Brassica 'C' (n = 9) genome, including domesticated and wild B. oleracea and nine inter-fertile related wild species, was investigated using six chloroplast SSR (microsatellite) markers. The lack of diversity detected among 105 cultivated and wild accessions of B. oleracea contrasted starkly with that found within its wild relatives. The vast majority of B. oleracea accessions shared a single haplotype, whereas as many as six haplotypes were detected in two wild species, B. villosa Biv. and B. cretica Lam.. The SSRs proved to be highly polymorphic across haplotypes, with calculated genetic diversity values (H) of 0.23-0.87. In total, 23 different haplotypes were detected in C genome species, with an additional five haplotypes detected in B. rapa L. (A genome n = 10) and another in B. nigra L. (B genome, n = 8). The low chloroplast diversity of B. oleracea is not suggestive of multiple domestication events. The predominant B. oleracea haplotype was also common in B. incana Ten. and present in low frequencies in B. villosa, B. macrocarpa Guss, B. rupestris Raf. and B. cretica. The chloroplast SSRs reveal a wealth of diversity within wild Brassica species that will facilitate further evolutionary and phylogeographic studies of this important crop genus.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 03/2007; 114(4):609-18. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the environmental risks of gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives has traditionally emphasized recipients yielding most hybrids. For GM rapeseed (Brassica napus), interest has centred on the 'frequently hybridizing' Brassica rapa over relatives such as Brassica oleracea, where spontaneous hybrids are unreported in the wild. In two sites, where rapeseed and wild B. oleracea grow together, we used flow cytometry and crop-specific microsatellite markers to identify one triploid F1 hybrid, together with nine diploid and two near triploid introgressants. Given the newly discovered capacity for spontaneous introgression into B. oleracea, we then surveyed associated flora and fauna to evaluate the capacity of both recipients to harm cohabitant species with acknowledged conservational importance. Only B. oleracea occupies rich communities containing species afforded legislative protection; these include one rare micromoth species that feeds on B. oleracea and warrants further assessment. We conclude that increased attention should now focus on B. oleracea and similar species that yield few crop-hybrids, but possess scope to affect rare or endangered associates.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 01/2007; 273(1605):3111-5. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fitness of hybrids between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives influences the likelihood of ecological harm. We measured fitness components in spontaneous (non-GM) rapeseed x Brassica rapa hybrids in natural populations. The F1 hybrids yielded 46.9% seed output of B. rapa, were 16.9% as effective as males on B. rapa and exhibited increased self-pollination. Assuming 100% GM rapeseed cultivation, we conservatively predict < 7000 second-generation transgenic hybrids annually in the United Kingdom (i.e. approximately 20% of F1 hybrids). Conversely, whilst reduced hybrid fitness improves feasibility of bio-containment, stage projection matrices suggests broad scope for some transgenes to offset this effect by enhancing fitness.
    Molecular Ecology 04/2006; 15(4):1175-84. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. There is concern over the possibility of unwanted environmental change following transgene movement from genetically modified (GM) rapeseed Brassica napus to its wild and weedy relatives. 2. The aim of this research was to develop a remote sensing-assisted methodology to help quantify gene flow from crops to their wild relatives over wide areas. Emphasis was placed on locating sites of sympatry, where the frequency of gene flow is likely to be highest, and on measuring the size of rapeseed fields to allow spatially explicit modelling of wind-mediated pollen-dispersal patterns. 3. Remote sensing was used as a tool to locate rapeseed fields, and a variety of image-processing techniques was adopted to facilitate the compilation of a spatially explicit profile of sympatry between the crop and Brassica rapa. 4. Classified satellite images containing rapeseed fields were first used to infer the spatial relationship between donor rapeseed fields and recipient riverside B. rapa populations. Such images also have utility for improving the efficiency of ground surveys by identifying probable sites of sympatry. The same data were then also used for the calculation of mean field size. 5. This paper forms a companion paper to Wilkinson et al. (2003), in which these elements were combined to produce a spatially explicit profile of hybrid formation over the UK. The current paper demonstrates the value of remote sensing and image processing for large-scale studies of gene flow, and describes a generic method that could be applied to a variety of crops in many countries. 6. Synthesis and applications. The decision to approve or prevent the release of a GM cultivar is made at a national rather than regional level. It is highly desirable that data relating to the decision-making process are collected at the same scale, rather than relying on extrapolation from smaller experiments designed at the plot, field or even regional scale. It would be extremely difficult and labour intensive to attempt to carry out such large-scale investigations without the use of remote-sensing technology. This study used rapeseed in the UK as a model to demonstrate the value of remote sensing in assembling empirical information at a national level.
    Journal of Applied Ecology 12/2004; 41(6):1174 - 1184. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measures blocking hybridization would prevent or reduce biotic or environmental change caused by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives. The efficacy of any such measure depends on hybrid numbers within the legislative region over the life-span of the GM cultivar. We present a national assessment of hybridization between rapeseed (Brassica napus) and B. rapa from a combination of sources, including population surveys, remote sensing, pollen dispersal profiles, herbarium data, local Floras, and other floristic databases. Across the United Kingdom, we estimate that 32,000 hybrids form annually in waterside B. rapa populations, whereas the less abundant weedy populations contain 17,000 hybrids. These findings set targets for strategies to eliminate hybridization and represent the first step toward quantitative risk assessment on a national scale.
    Science 11/2003; 302(5644):457-9. · 31.20 Impact Factor
  • Science. 01/2003; 302:457-459.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major environmental concerns over genetically modified (GM) crops relates to transgene movement into wild relatives. The pattern of hybridization ultimately affects the scale and rapidity of ecological change and the feasibility of containment. A new procedure for quantifying hybrid formation over large areas is described. Remote sensing was used to identify possible sites of sympatry between Brassica napus and its progenitor species across 15 000 km2 of south-east England in 1998. Two sympatric populations with B. rapa and one with B. oleracea were found over the entire survey area. Every newly recruited plant in these populations in 1999 was screened for hybrid status using flow cytometry and molecular analyses. One hybrid was observed from the 505 plants screened in the B. rapa populations but none of the nine B. oleracea recruits were hybrids. Measures to minimize gene flow are suggested, and a procedure for the post-release evaluation and containment of GM cultivars is proposed.
    Molecular Ecology 08/2000; 9(7):983-91. · 6.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

338 Citations
112.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • University of the West of England, Bristol
      • Department of Applied Sciences
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2009
    • University of Reading
      • • School of Biological Sciences
      • • Environmental Systems Science Centre (ESSC)
      Reading, England, United Kingdom