Jeanine M Parisi

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (39)80.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology and Aging 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/pag0000042 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the association of experiencing death, trauma, and abuse during childhood with depressive symptoms and quality of life at mid-life among incarcerated men and to understand how current social support and coping strategies mediate the impact of childhood trauma histories on mental health. Study participants were 192 male inmates in a maximum security prison. Participants completed measures of adverse childhood experiences related to death, trauma, and abuse, and depressive symptoms and quality of life. Data were analyzed using multiple mediation modeling. Men who reported having experienced adverse childhood experiences reported more depressive symptoms and lower quality of life than their counterparts. The results showed that in models both unadjusted and adjusted for age, race, education, number of years served, and whether the inmate had a life sentence, the association between adverse childhood experiences and quality of life were partially explained by the total of the indirect effects (point estimate = -.5052; CI.95 = -1.0364, -.0429 and point estimate = -.7792; CI.95 = -1.6369, -.0381), primarily via social support. However, the associations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms were not explained by social support and coping. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with deleterious mental health effects in later life. Social support and coping partially mediate the association between adverse childhood experiences and quality of life. The high prevalence of childhood trauma among aging prison inmates warrants attention to increasing social support mechanisms to improve mental health.
    Aging and Mental Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/13607863.2015.1033681 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a substantial interest in identifying interventions that can protect and buffer older adults from atrophy in the cortex and particularly, the hippocampus, a region important to memory. We report the 2-year effects of a randomized controlled trial of an intergenerational social health promotion program on older men's and women's brain volumes. The Brain Health Study simultaneously enrolled, evaluated, and randomized 111 men and women (58 interventions; 53 controls) within the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial to evaluate the intervention impact on biomarkers of brain health at baseline and annual follow-ups during the 2-year trial exposure. Intention-to-treat analyses on cortical and hippocampal volumes for full and sex-stratified samples revealed program-specific increases in volumes that reached significance in men only (P's ≤ .04). Although men in the control arm exhibited age-related declines for 2 years, men in the Experience Corps arm showed a 0.7% to 1.6% increase in brain volumes. Women also exhibited modest intervention-specific gains of 0.3% to 0.54% by the second year of exposure that contrasted with declines of about 1% among women in the control group. These findings showed that purposeful activity embedded within a social health promotion program halted and, in men, reversed declines in brain volume in regions vulnerable to dementia. NCT0038. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.12.005 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Being and feeling generative, defined as exhibiting concern and behavior to benefit others, is an important developmental goal of midlife and beyond. Although a growing body of evidence suggests mental and physical health benefits of feeling generative in later life, little information exists as to the modifiability of generativity perceptions. The present study examines whether participation in the intergenerational civic engagement program, Experience Corps (EC), benefits older adults' self-perceptions of generativity. Levels of generativity were compared in older adults randomized to serve as EC volunteers or controls (usual volunteer opportunities) in the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial at 4-, 12-, and 24-month evaluation points over the 2-year trial. Analyses utilized intention-to-treat and complier average causal effects (CACE) analyses which incorporate degree of intervention exposure in analytic models. Participants randomized to the EC group had significantly higher levels of generative desire and perceptions of generative achievement than controls at each follow-up point; CACE analyses indicate a dose-response effect with a greater magnitude of intervention effect with greater exposure to the EC program. Results provide the first-ever, large-scale experimental demonstration that participation in an intergenerational civic engagement program can positively alter self-perceptions of generativity in older adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbv005 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the impact of the Experience Corps(®) (EC) program on school climate within Baltimore City public elementary schools. In this program, teams of older adult volunteers were placed in high intensity (>15 h per week), meaningful roles in public elementary schools, to improve the educational outcomes of children as well as the health and well-being of volunteers. During the first year of EC participation, school climate was perceived more favorably among staff and students in EC schools as compared to those in comparison schools. However, with a few notable exceptions, perceived school climate did not differ for staff or students in intervention and comparison schools during the second year of exposure to the EC program. These findings suggest that perceptions of school climate may be altered by introducing a new program into elementary schools; however, research examining how perceptions of school climate are impacted over a longer period is warranted.
    Prevention Science 02/2015; 16(5). DOI:10.1007/s11121-015-0550-2 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While a training model of cognitive intervention targets the improvement of particular skills through instruction and practice, an engagement model is based on the idea that being embedded in an intellectually and socially complex environment can impact cognition, perhaps even broadly, without explicit instruction. We contrasted these 2 models of cognitive enrichment by randomly assigning healthy older adults to a home-based inductive reasoning training program, a team-based competitive program in creative problem solving, or a wait-list control. As predicted, those in the training condition showed selective improvement in inductive reasoning. Those in the engagement condition, on the other hand, showed selective improvement in divergent thinking, a key ability exercised in creative problem solving. On average, then, both groups appeared to show ability-specific effects. However, moderators of change differed somewhat for those in the engagement and training interventions. Generally, those who started either intervention with a more positive cognitive profile showed more cognitive growth, suggesting that cognitive resources enabled individuals to take advantage of environmental enrichment. Only in the engagement condition did initial levels of openness and social network size moderate intervention effects on cognition, suggesting that comfort with novelty and an ability to manage social resources may be additional factors contributing to the capacity to take advantage of the environmental complexity associated with engagement. Collectively, these findings suggest that training and engagement models may offer alternative routes to cognitive resilience in late life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology and Aging 11/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1037/a0038244 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experience Corps® (EC) was designed to simultaneously increase cognitive, social, and physical activity through high-intensity volunteerism in elementary school classrooms. It is, therefore, highly likely that EC participation may alter pre-existing patterns of lifestyle activity. This study examined the impact of "real-world" volunteer engagement on the frequency of participation in various lifestyle activities over a 2-year period. Specifically, we examined intervention-related changes on reported activity levels at 12 and 24 months post-baseline using Intention-to-Treat (ITT) and Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) analyses, which account for the amount of program exposure. ITT analyses indicated that, compared to the control group, EC participants reported modest increases (approximately half a day/month) in overall activity level, especially in intellectual and physical activities 12 months post-baseline. Increases in activity were not found at the 24-month assessment. CACE models revealed similar findings for overall activity as well as for intellectual and physical activities at 12 months. Additionally, CACE findings suggested modest increases in social activity at 12 months and in intellectual and passive activities at 24 months post-baseline. This community-based, health promotion intervention has the potential to impact lifestyle activity, which may lead to long-term increases in activity and to other positive cognitive, physical, and psychosocial health outcomes.
    Journal of Urban Health 11/2014; 92(1). DOI:10.1007/s11524-014-9918-z · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We studied the association between insomnia symptoms and late-life functioning, including physical capacity, limitations in household activities, and participation in valued activities. METHODS: Participants were 6,050 adults independent in self-care activities from a representative sample of older Medicare beneficiaries. They completed objective measures of physical capacity and self-report measures of insomnia symptoms, help and difficulty with household activities, and participation in valued activities. RESULTS: After adjustment, insomnia symptoms were associated with a greater odds of receiving help or having difficulty with selected household activities (laundry, shopping), greater odds of help or difficulty with ≥1 household activity [1 symptom vs. 0, odds ratio (OR)=1.27, p < .05; 2 symptoms vs. 0, OR = 1.35, p < .01), and of restricted participation in specific valued activities (attending religious services, going out for enjoyment) and in ≥1 valued activity (1 symptom vs. 0, OR = 1.29, p < .05; 2 symptoms vs. 0, OR = 1.50, p < .01). There was no independent association between insomnia symptoms and physical capacity. DISCUSSION: Among older adults, insomnia symptoms are associated with a greater odds of limitation in household activities and of restricted participation in valued activities. Insomnia interventions may improve functioning and quality of life among elders.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 11/2014; 69(Suppl 1):S35-41. DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbu116 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE; Ball et al., 2002; Jobe et al., 2001; Willis et al., 2006), we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a 10-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ≥9 on the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Radloff, 1977). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate posttraining gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology and Aging 09/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1037/a0037670 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.
    International Psychogeriatrics 09/2014; 27(02):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S1041610214001823 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between lifestyle activities and incident depressive symptoms was examined within the Women's Health and Aging Study II. Measures of activity and depressive symptoms were collected on four occasions, spanning six-years. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effects of baseline activity on depressive symptoms over time. Overall, activity was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. When specific activity domains were examined, greater participation in creative activities was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms (hazard ratio = 0.92; CI 95% 0.87, 0.98). Further longitudinal research between diverse activities and incident depressive symptoms is warranted.
    Activities Adaptation & Aging 03/2014; 38(1):1-10. DOI:10.1080/01924788.2014.878871
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    ABSTRACT: Experience Corps (EC) represents a high-intensity, intergenerational civic engagement activity where older adults serve as mentors and tutors in elementary schools. Although high-intensity volunteer opportunities are designed to enhance the health and well being of older adult volunteers, little is known about the negative and positive aspects of volunteering unique to intergenerational programs from the volunteer's perspective. Stressors and rewards associated with volunteering in EC were explored in 8 focus group discussions with 46 volunteers from EC Baltimore. Transcripts were coded for frequently expressed themes. Participants reported stressors and rewards within 5 key domains: intergenerational (children's problem behavior, working with and helping children, observing/facilitating improvement or transformation in a child, and developing a special connection with a child); external to EC (poor parenting and children's social stressors); interpersonal (challenges in working with teachers and bonding/making social connections); personal (enjoyment, self-enhancement/achievement, and being/feeling more active); and structural (satisfaction with the structural elements of the EC program). Volunteers experienced unique intergenerational stressors related to children's problem behavior and societal factors external to the EC program. Overall, intergenerational, interpersonal, and personal rewards from volunteering, as well as program structure may have balanced the stress associated with volunteering. A better understanding of stressors and rewards from high-intensity volunteer programs may enhance our understanding of how intergenerational civic engagement volunteering affects well being in later life and may inform project modifications to maximize such benefits for future volunteers and those they serve.
    The Gerontologist 03/2014; DOI:10.1093/geront/gnu011 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomised controlled trial in order to test (1) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (2) the predictors of these age-related declines and (3) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, were White, had more years of formal education, were male and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech.
    Memory 12/2013; 22(8). DOI:10.1080/09658211.2013.861916 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Marriage is associated with better physical and mental health, but less is known about its effects on cognitive health. We investigated the association between marital status and both cognitive and functional performance in older adults. Methods. We analyzed baseline data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE; n=2,802) study, a multi-site randomized controlled trial of cognitive training to improve or maintain cognitive function and daily living skills. We examined cross-sectional associations between marital status (i.e., married, widowed, divorced, single) and cognitive measures (i.e., memory, reasoning, and processing speed) and functional performance (activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)) using multiple linear regressions. The standardized effect sizes were calculated based on the standard deviation of the married individuals (reference group). Results. After accounting for demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, and cardiovascular risk factors, married individuals had significantly better performance than non-married individuals (i.e., divorced, widowed, single) on measures of memory and functional ability. On tests of memory, effect sizes ranged from 0.08-0.18 for episodic memory and 0.10-0.15 for prose memory. Further, the significant association between marital status and everyday functioning was driven by differences in IADLs (effect sizes ranged from 0.72 0.74). However, marital status was not associated with measures of reasoning or processing speed. Conclusion. Marriage may protect against cognitive and functional impairment in later life. Research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the observed associations.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between personality domains and 11-year cognitive decline in a sample from a population-based study. METHOD: Data from Waves 3 (1993-1996) and 4 (2003-2004) of the Baltimore cohort of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study were used for analyses. The sample included 561 adults (mean age ± SD: 45.2 ± 10.78 years) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised prior to Wave 4. Participants also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and immediate and delayed word recall tests at Wave 3, and at Wave 4, 10.9 ± 0.6 years later. RESULTS: In models adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, demographic characteristics, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use, each 10-point increase in Neuroticism T-scores was associated with a 0.15-point decrease in MMSE scores (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30, -0.01), whereas each 10-point increase in Conscientiousness T-scores was associated with a 0.18-point increase on the MMSE (B = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) and a 0.21-point increase in immediate recall (B = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.41) between baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that greater Neuroticism is associated with decline, and greater Conscientiousness is associated with improvement in performance on measures of general cognitive function and memory in adults. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which personality traits in midlife are associated with clinically significant cognitive outcomes in older adults, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to identify potential mediators of the association between personality and cognitive trajectories.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2013; 22(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jagp.2012.12.217 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Data from the memory training arm (n = 629) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial were examined to characterize change in memory performance through 5 years of follow-up as a function of memory training, booster training, adherence to training, and other characteristics. RESULTS: Latent growth model analyses revealed that memory training was associated with improved memory performance through Year 5 but that neither booster training nor training adherence significantly influenced this effect. Baseline age was associated with change in memory performance attributable to the passage of time alone (i.e., to aging). Higher education and better self-rated health were associated with greater change in memory performance after training. DISCUSSION: These findings confirm that memory training can aid in maintaining long-term improvements in memory performance. Booster training and adherence to training do not appear to attenuate rates of normal age-related memory decline.
    Journal of Aging and Health 10/2012; 25(8). DOI:10.1177/0898264312461937 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although educational attainment has been consistently related to cognition in adulthood, the mechanisms are still unclear. Early education, and other social learning experiences, may provide the skills, knowledge, and interest to pursue intellectual challenges across the life course. Therefore, cognition in adulthood might reflect continued engagement with cognitively complex environments. Using baseline data from the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, multiple mediation models were applied to examine the combined and unique contributions of intellectual, social, physical, creative, and passive lifestyle activities on the relationship between education and cognition. Separate models were tested for each cognitive outcome (i.e., reading ability, processing speed, memory). With the exception of memory tasks, findings suggest that education-cognition relations are partially explained by frequent participation in intellectual activities. The association between education and cognition was not completely eliminated, however, suggesting that other factors may drive these associations.
    Journal of aging research 08/2012; 2012:416132. DOI:10.1155/2012/416132
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40588. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040588 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experience Corps(®) places teams of trained volunteers in elementary school classrooms to promote academic achievement in children, and serve as a health promotion intervention for older adults. Prior to randomization, individuals reported participation in several activities of varying cognitive, physical, and social demands. Maintaining an active lifestyle, particularly in intellectually demanding activities, was associated with physical, mental, and cognitive health in adulthood. Establishing how individuals allocated their time before randomization to this program provides insight to prevalent health behaviors for at-risk older adults, and can provide the basis for examining intervention-related changes in lifestyle as a result of volunteer participation.
    Activities Adaptation & Aging 07/2012; 36(3):242-260. DOI:10.1080/01924788.2012.702306
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses of individual differences in change may be unintentionally biased when versions of a neuropsychological test used at different follow-ups are not of equivalent difficulty. This study's objective was to compare mean, linear, and equipercentile equating methods and demonstrate their utility in longitudinal research. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE, N = 1,401) study is a longitudinal randomized trial of cognitive training. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 819) is an observational cohort study. Nonequivalent alternate versions of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) were administered in both studies. Using visual displays, raw and mean-equated AVLT scores in both studies showed obvious nonlinear trajectories in reference groups that should show minimal change and poor equivalence over time (ps ≤ .001), and raw scores demonstrated poor fits in models of within-person change (root mean square errors of approximation, RMSEAs > 0.12). Linear and equipercentile equating produced more similar means in reference groups (ps ≥ .09) and performed better in growth models (RMSEAs < 0.05). Equipercentile equating is the preferred equating method because it accommodates tests more difficult than a reference test at different percentiles of performance and performs well in models of within-person trajectory. The method has broad applications in both clinical and research settings to enhance the ability to use nonequivalent test forms.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 04/2012; 34(7):758-72. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2012.681628 · 2.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

374 Citations
80.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009–2015
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Educational Psychology
      Urbana, Illinois, United States