Jianzhu Chen

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (139)1100.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite responsible for the most lethal form of malaria, an infectious disease that causes a large proportion of childhood deaths and poses a significant barrier to socioeconomic development in many countries. Although antimalarial drugs exist, the repeated emergence and spread of drug-resistant parasites limit their useful lifespan. An alternative strategy that could limit the evolution of drug-resistant parasites is to target host factors that are essential and universally required for parasite growth. Host-targeted therapeutics have been successfully applied in other infectious diseases but have never been attempted for malaria. Here, we report the development of a recombinant chimeric antibody (Ab-1) against basigin, an erythrocyte receptor necessary for parasite invasion as a putative antimalarial therapeutic. Ab-1 inhibited the PfRH5-basigin interaction and potently blocked erythrocyte invasion by all parasite strains tested. Importantly, Ab-1 rapidly cleared an established P. falciparum blood-stage infection with no overt toxicity in an in vivo infection model. Collectively, our data demonstrate that antibodies or other therapeutics targeting host basigin could be an effective treatment for patients infected with multi-drug resistant P. falciparum. © 2015 Zenonos et al.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2015; 212(9). DOI:10.1084/jem.20150032 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease, causing nearly 400 million infections yearly. Currently there are no approved therapies. Antibody epitopes that elicit weak humoral responses may not be accessible by conventional B cell panning methods. To demonstrate an alternative strategy to generating a therapeutic antibody, we employed a non-immunodominant, but functionally relevant, epitope in domain III of the E protein, and engineered by structure-guided methods an antibody directed to it. The resulting antibody, Ab513, exhibits high-affinity binding to, and broadly neutralizes, multiple genotypes within all four serotypes. To assess therapeutic relevance of Ab513, activity against important human clinical features of dengue was investigated. Ab513 mitigates thrombocytopenia in a humanized mouse model, resolves vascular leakage, reduces viremia to nearly undetectable levels, and protects mice in a maternal transfer model of lethal antibody-mediated enhancement. The results demonstrate that Ab513 may reduce the public health burden from dengue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.057 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recall responses by memory CD8 T cells are impaired in the absence of CD4 T cells. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, the molecular basis is still largely unknown. Using a local influenza virus infection in the respiratory tract and the lung of CD4(-/-) mice, we show that memory CD8 T cell impairment is limited to the lungs and the lung-draining lymph nodes, where viral Ags are unusually persistent and abundant in these mice. Persistent Ag exposure results in prolonged activation of the AKT-mTORC1 pathway in Ag-specific CD8 T cells, favoring their development into effector memory T cells at the expense of central memory T cells, and inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin largely corrects the impairment by promoting central memory T cell development. The findings suggest that the prolonged AKT-mTORC1 activation driven by persistent Ag is a critical mechanism underlying the impaired memory CD8 T cell development and responses in the absence of CD4 T cells. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500451 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HCV infection affects millions of people worldwide, and many patients develop chronic infection leading to liver cancers. For decades, the lack of a small animal model that can recapitulate HCV infection, its immunopathogenesis and disease progression has impeded the development of an effective vaccine and therapeutics. We aim to provide a humanised mouse model for the understanding of HCV-specific human immune responses and HCV-associated disease pathologies. Recently, we have established human liver cells with a matched human immune system in NOD-scid Il2rg(-/-) (NSG) mice (HIL mice). These mice are infected with HCV by intravenous injection, and the pathologies are investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that HIL mouse is capable of supporting HCV infection and can present some of the clinical symptoms found in HCV-infected patients including hepatitis, robust virus-specific human immune cell and cytokine responses as well as liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Similar to results obtained from the analysis of patient samples, the human immune cells, particularly T cells and macrophages, play critical roles during the HCV-associated liver disease development in the HIL mice. Furthermore, our model is demonstrated to be able to reproduce the therapeutic effects of human interferon alpha 2a antiviral treatment. The HIL mouse provides a model for the understanding of HCV-specific human immune responses and HCV-associated disease pathologies. It could also serve as a platform for antifibrosis and immune-modulatory drug testing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Gut 07/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307856 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host specific pathogens like Plasmodium (P.) falciparum that causes human malaria. Existing mouse models of P. falciparum infection require repeated injections of human red blood cells (RBCs). In addition, clodronate lipsomes and anti-neutrophil antibodies are injected to suppress the clearance of human RBCs by the residual immune system of the immunodeficient mice. Engraftment of NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice with human hematopoietic stem cells leads to reconstitution of human immune cells. Although human B cell reconstitution is robust and T cell reconstitution is reasonable in the recipient mice, human RBC reconstitution is generally poor or undetectable. The poor reconstitution is mainly the result of a deficiency of appropriate human cytokines that are necessary for the development and maintenance of these cell lineages. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human erythropoietin and interleukin-3 into humanized mice by hydrodynamic tail-vein injection resulted in significantly enhanced reconstitution of erythrocytes. With this improved humanized mouse, here we show that P. falciparum infects de novo generated human RBCs, develops into schizonts and causes successive reinvasion. We also show that different parasite strains exhibit variation in their ability to infect these humanized mice. Parasites could be detected by nested PCR in the blood samples of humanized mice infected with P. falciparum K1 and HB3 strains for 3 cycles, whereas in other strains such as 3D7, DD2, 7G8, FCR3 and W2mef parasites could only be detected for 1 cycle. In vivo adaptation of K1 strain further improves the infection efficiency and parasites can be detected by microscopy for 3 cycles. The parasitemia ranges between 0.13 and 0.25% at the first cycle of infection, falls between 0.08 and 0.15% at the second cycle, and drops to barely detectable levels at the third cycle of infection. Compared to existing mouse models, our model generates human RBCs de novo and does not require the treatment of mice with immunomodulators.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6-6):e0129825. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129825 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine should target tubercle bacilli with various metabolic states and confer long-term protective immunity. In this study, we constructed a novel multi-stage TB subunit vaccine based on fusion protein ESAT6-Ag85B-MPT64(190-198)-Mtb8.4-HspX (LT69 for short) which combined early expressed antigens and latency-associated antigen. The fusion protein was mixed with an adjuvant being composed of N, N'-dimethyl-N, N'-dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C) to construct subunit vaccine, whose immunogenicity and protective ability were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that LT69 had strong immunogenicity and high protective effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv aerosol challenge. Low-dose (2 μg) of LT69 generated long-term immune memory responses and provided effective protection, which was even higher than traditional vaccine BCG did at 30 weeks post the last vaccination. In conclusion, multistage subunit vaccine LT69 showed high and long-term protection against M. tuberculosis infection in mice, whose effect could be enhanced by using a relative low dosage of antigen.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0130641. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130641 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) is essential for endosome biogenesis and reorganization and serves as a receptor for both β-glucocerebrosidase and enterovirus 71. However, little is known about its function in innate immune cells. In this study, we show that, among human peripheral blood cells, SCARB2 is most highly expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and its expression is further upregulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation. Knockdown of SCARB2 in pDC cell line GEN2.2 dramatically reduces CpG-induced type I IFN production. Detailed studies reveal that SCARB2 localizes in late endosome/lysosome of pDCs, and knockdown of SCARB2 does not affect CpG oligodeoxynucleotide uptake but results in the retention of TLR9 in the endoplasmic reticulum and an impaired nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 7. The IFN-I production by TLR7 ligand stimulation is also impaired by SCARB2 knockdown. However, SCARB2 is not essential for influenza virus or HSV-induced IFN-I production. These findings suggest that SCARB2 regulates TLR9-dependent IFN-I production of pDCs by mediating endosomal translocation of TLR9 and nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 7. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402312 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of N-alkylated polyethylenimines (PEIs) were covalently attached to glass-slide surfaces, and their virucidal efficacies against three different strains of influenza viruses were examined quantitatively. The anti-influenza activities of the modified surfaces varied widely, with the most potent, immobilized N,N-hexyl,methyl-PEI and N,N-dodecyl,methyl-PEI, reducing the viral titer by over three logs (i.e., > 99.9%). While the virucidal activities of the glass surfaces derivatized with N-alkylated PEIs displayed no discernible correlation with such surface properties as hydrophobicity, charge, protein affinity, roughness, adhesive interactions, and polymer-chain extension lengths, they exhibited a marginal correlation with the surface density of quaternary ammonium group as titrated by means of fluorescein binding. However, this correlation markedly improved (to the correlation coefficient of 0.97 with a two-tailed p value of 0.044) when the titration was instead carried out using a macromolecular conjugate, the dye coupled to the protein lysozyme, suggesting that the critical determinant of the virucidal activity is the density of the immobilized quaternary ammonium groups accessible to influenza virions.
    Biomacromolecules 12/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1021/bm5015427 · 5.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Influenza virus infection causes significantly higher levels of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Studies have shown that impaired immunity in the elderly contributes to the increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection, however, how aging affects the lung tissue damage and repair has not been completely elucidated.Methods Aged (16¿18 months old) and young (2¿3 months old) mice were infected with influenza virus intratracheally. Body weight and mortality were monitored. Different days after infection, lung sections were stained to estimate the overall lung tissue damage and for club cells, pro-SPC+ bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar type I and II cells to quantify their frequencies using automated image analysis algorithms.ResultsFollowing influenza infection, aged mice lose more weight and die from otherwise sub-lethal influenza infection in young mice. Although there is no difference in damage and regeneration of club cells between the young and the aged mice, damage to alveolar type I and II cells (AT1s and AT2s) is exacerbated, and regeneration of AT2s and their precursors (pro-SPC-positive bronchiolar epithelial cells) is significantly delayed in the aged mice. We further show that oseltamivir treatment reduces virus load and lung damage, and promotes pulmonary recovery from infection in the aged mice.Conclusions These findings show that aging increases susceptibility of the distal lung epithelium to influenza infection and delays the emergence of pro-SPC positive progenitor cells during the repair process. Our findings also shed light on possible approaches to enhance the clinical management of severe influenza pneumonia in the elderly.
    Respiratory Research 09/2014; 15(1):116. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1989848861132152 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) targeted gene transfer is an attractive treatment option for a number of hematopoietic disorders caused by single gene defects. However, extensive methylation of promoter sequences results in silencing of therapeutic gene expression. The choice of an appropriate promoter is therefore crucial for reproducible, stable and long-term transgene expression in clinical gene therapy. Recent studies suggest efficient and stable expression of transgenes from the ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) derived from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 locus can be achieved in murine HSC. Here, we compared the use of HNRPA2B1-CBX3 UCOE (A2UCOE)-mediated transgene regulation to two other frequently used promoters namely EF1α and PGK in human fetal liver-derived HSC (hflHSC). Efficient transduction of hflHSC with a lentiviral vector containing an HNRPA2B1-CBX3 UCOE-eGFP (A2UCOE-eGFP) cassette was achieved at higher levels than that obtained with umbilical cord blood derived HSC (3.1x; p<0.001). While hflHSC were readily transduced with all three test vectors (A2UCOE-eGFP, PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP), only the A2-UCOE construct demonstrated sustained transgene expression in vitro over 24 days (p<0.001). In contrast, within 10 days in culture a rapid decline in transgene expression in both PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP transduced hflHSC was seen. Subsequently, injection of transduced cells into immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID/Il2rg-/-) demonstrated sustained eGFP expression for the A2UCOE-eGFP group up to 10 months post transplantation whereas PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP transduced hflHSC showed a 5.1 and 22.2 fold reduction respectively over the same time period. We conclude that the A2UCOE allows a more efficient and stable expression in hflHSC to be achieved than either the PGK or EF1α promoters and at lower vector copy number per cell.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104805. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104805 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain) using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e86912. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086912 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy-resistant microenvironments represent a major barrier toward effective elimination of disseminated malignancies. Here, we show that select microenvironments can underlie resistance to antibody-based therapy. Using a humanized model of treatment refractory B cell leukemia, we find that infiltration of leukemia cells into the bone marrow rewires the tumor microenvironment to inhibit engulfment of antibody-targeted tumor cells. Resistance to macrophage-mediated killing can be overcome by combination regimens involving therapeutic antibodies and chemotherapy. Specifically, the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide induces an acute secretory activating phenotype (ASAP), releasing CCL4, IL8, VEGF, and TNFα from treated tumor cells. These factors induce macrophage infiltration and phagocytic activity in the bone marrow. Thus, the acute induction of stress-related cytokines can effectively target cancer cells for removal by the innate immune system. This synergistic chemoimmunotherapeutic regimen represents a potent strategy for using conventional anticancer agents to alter the tumor microenvironment and promote the efficacy of targeted therapeutics.
    Cell 01/2014; 156(3):590-602. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.041 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy-resistant microenvironments represent a major barrier toward effective elimination of disseminated malignancies. Here, we show that select microenvironments can underlie resistance to antibody-based therapy. Using a humanized model of treatment refractory B cell leukemia, we find that infiltration of leukemia cells into the bone marrow rewires the tumor microenvironment to inhibit engulfment of antibody-targeted tumor cells. Resistance to macrophage-mediated killing can be overcome by combination regimens involving therapeutic antibodies and chemotherapy. Specifically, the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide induces an acute secretory activating phenotype (ASAP), releasing CCL4, IL8, VEGF, and TNFα from treated tumor cells. These factors induce macrophage infiltration and phagocytic activity in the bone marrow. Thus, the acute induction of stress-related cytokines can effectively target cancer cells for removal by the innate immune system. This synergistic chemoimmunotherapeutic regimen represents a potent strategy for using conventional anticancer agents to alter the tumor microenvironment and promote the efficacy of targeted therapeutics.
    Cell 01/2014; 156(3):590-602. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.041. · 33.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host-specific pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum that causes human malaria. Supplementation of immunodeficient mice with human RBCs supports infection by human Plasmodium parasites, but these mice lack the human immune system. By combining human RBC supplementation and humanized mice that are optimized for human immune cell reconstitution, we have developed RBC-supplemented, immune cell-optimized humanized (RICH) mice that support multiple cycles of P. falciparum infection. Depletion of human natural killer (NK) cells, but not macrophages, in RICH mice results in a significant increase in parasitemia. Further studies in vitro show that NK cells preferentially interact with infected RBCs (iRBCs), resulting in the activation of NK cells and the elimination of iRBCs in a contact-dependent manner. We show that the adhesion molecule lymphocyte-associated antigen 1 is required for NK cell interaction with and elimination of iRBCs. Development of RICH mice and validation of P. falciparum infection should facilitate the dissection of human immune responses to malaria parasite infection and the evaluation of therapeutics and vaccines.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; 111(4):1479-84. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323318111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Guangan Hu · Jianzhu Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Memory CD8(+) T-cell development is defined by the expression of a specific set of memory signature genes. Despite recent progress, many components of the transcriptional control of memory CD8(+) T-cell development are still unknown. To identify transcription factors and their interactions in memory CD8(+) T-cell development, we construct a genome-wide regulatory network and apply it to identify key transcription factors that regulate memory signature genes. Most of the known transcription factors having a role in memory CD8(+) T-cell development are rediscovered and about a dozen new ones are also identified. Sox4, Bhlhe40, Bach2 and Runx2 are experimentally verified, and Bach2 is further shown to promote both development and recall proliferation of memory CD8(+) T cells through Prdm1 and Id3. Gene perturbation study identifies the interactions between the transcription factors, with Sox4 positioned as a hub. The identified transcription factors and insights into their interactions should facilitate further dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying memory CD8(+) T-cell development.
    Nature Communications 12/2013; 4:2830. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3830 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulation of patients' immune systems for the treatment of solid tumors is an emerging therapeutic paradigm. The use of enriched autologous T cells for adoptive cell therapy or vaccination with antigen-loaded dendritic cells have shown clinical efficacy in melanoma and prostate cancer, respectively. However, the long-term effects of immune responses on selection and outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor cells in specific tumor types must be determined to understand and achieve long-term therapeutic effects. In this study, we have investigated the expression of a tumor-specific antigen in situ after treatment with tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer. After T-cell treatment, aggregates of dead antigen-positive tumor cells were concentrated in the lumen of the prostate gland and were eventually eliminated from the prostate tissue. Despite the elimination of antigen-positive tumor cells, prostate tumor continued to grow in T-cell-treated mice. Interestingly, the remaining tumor cells were antigen negative and downregulated MHC class I expression. These results show that CD8(+) T cells are effective in eliminating antigen-bearing prostate tumor cells but they also can select for the outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor cells. These findings provide insights into the requirements for an effective cancer immunotherapy within the prostate that not only induces potent immune responses but also avoids selection and outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor cells. Cancer Immunol Res; 1(6); 393-401. ©2013 AACR.
    12/2013; 1(6):393-401. DOI:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0109
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    Dahai Zheng · Lu Yin · Jianzhu Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Transformation related protein 63-expressing (p63+) basal cells are confined to the trachea in the mouse lung. However, after influenza virus infection or bleomycin treatment, patches of p63+ cells were observed in the damaged lung parenchyma. To address whether the newly induced p63+ cells are derived from the p63+ basal cells, we carried out lineage tracing. In keratin 5 (Krt5) promoter-driven CreER system, although pre-existing p63+ basal cells were labeled by EGFP following tamoxifen treatment, none or only a small fraction (~15%) of the p63+ patches were labeled by EGFP following bleomycin treatment or influenza virus infection, respectively. In contrast, most (>60%) of p63+ patches contained EGFP+ cells in Scgb1a1-CreER transgenic system where Clara cells are labeled. Furthermore, many p63+ cells were found in bronchiole-like lumen structures with columnar cells at the lumen side. The columnar cells were positive for Clara cell marker Cyp2f2 and could be traced to the newly induced p63+ cells. These results suggest that most of the newly induced p63+ cells in the damaged parenchyma are likely derived from Clara cells rather than p63+ basal cells and that newly induced p63+ cells may be involved in the regeneration of bronchioles.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 10/2013; 50(3). DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2013-0327OC · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, polymer-attached zanamivir had been found to inhibit influenza A viruses in vitro far better than did small-molecule zanamivir (1) itself. The aim of this study was to identify in vitro-using the plaque reduction assay-a highly potent 1-polymer conjugate, and subsequently test its antiviral efficacy in vivo. By examining the structure-activity relationship of 1-polymer conjugates in the plaque assay, we have determined that the most potent inhibitor against several representative influenza virus strains has a neutral high-molecular-weight backbone and a short alkyl linker. We have examined this optimal polymeric inhibitor for efficacy and immunogenicity in the mouse and ferret models of infection. 1 attached to poly-L-glutamine is an effective therapeutic for established influenza infection in ferrets, reducing viral titers up to 30-fold for 6 days. There is also up to a 190-fold reduction in viral load when the drug is used as a combined prophylactic/therapeutic in mice. Additionally, we see no evidence that the drug conjugate stimulates an immune response in mice upon repeat administration. 1 attached to a neutral high-molecular-weight backbone through a short alkyl linker drastically reduced both in vitro and in vivo titers compared to those observed with 1 itself. Thus, further development of this polymeric zanamivir for the mitigation of influenza infection seems warranted.
    Pharmaceutical Research 09/2013; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s11095-013-1175-4 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Initial genetic characterizations have suggested that the influenza A (H7N9) viruses responsible for the current outbreak in China are novel reassortants. However, little is known about the pathways of their evolution and, in particular, the generation of diverse viral genotypes. Here we report an in-depth evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequence data of 45 H7N9 and 42 H9N2 viruses isolated from humans, poultry, and wild birds during recent influenza surveillance efforts in China. Our analysis shows that the H7N9 viruses were generated by at least two steps of sequential reassortments involving distinct H9N2 donor viruses in different hosts. The first reassortment likely occurred in wild birds and the second in domestic birds in east China in early 2012. Our study identifies the pathways for the generation of diverse H7N9 genotypes in China and highlights the importance of monitoring multiple sources for effective surveillance of potential influenza outbreaks.
    Cell host & microbe 09/2013; 14(4). DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2013.09.001 · 12.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,100.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • • Division of Health Sciences and Technology
      • • Department of Biological Engineering
      • • Department of Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Singapore-MIT Alliance
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2010
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Biophysics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2008
    • Sejong University
      • Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology KRIBB
      • Laboratory of Immunology
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2002
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States