Jianzhu Chen

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (119)858.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Influenza virus infection causes significantly higher levels of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Studies have shown that impaired immunity in the elderly contributes to the increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection, however, how aging affects the lung tissue damage and repair has not been completely elucidated.Methods Aged (16¿18 months old) and young (2¿3 months old) mice were infected with influenza virus intratracheally. Body weight and mortality were monitored. Different days after infection, lung sections were stained to estimate the overall lung tissue damage and for club cells, pro-SPC+ bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar type I and II cells to quantify their frequencies using automated image analysis algorithms.ResultsFollowing influenza infection, aged mice lose more weight and die from otherwise sub-lethal influenza infection in young mice. Although there is no difference in damage and regeneration of club cells between the young and the aged mice, damage to alveolar type I and II cells (AT1s and AT2s) is exacerbated, and regeneration of AT2s and their precursors (pro-SPC-positive bronchiolar epithelial cells) is significantly delayed in the aged mice. We further show that oseltamivir treatment reduces virus load and lung damage, and promotes pulmonary recovery from infection in the aged mice.Conclusions These findings show that aging increases susceptibility of the distal lung epithelium to influenza infection and delays the emergence of pro-SPC positive progenitor cells during the repair process. Our findings also shed light on possible approaches to enhance the clinical management of severe influenza pneumonia in the elderly.
    Respiratory research. 09/2014; 15(1):116.
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy-resistant microenvironments represent a major barrier toward effective elimination of disseminated malignancies. Here, we show that select microenvironments can underlie resistance to antibody-based therapy. Using a humanized model of treatment refractory B cell leukemia, we find that infiltration of leukemia cells into the bone marrow rewires the tumor microenvironment to inhibit engulfment of antibody-targeted tumor cells. Resistance to macrophage-mediated killing can be overcome by combination regimens involving therapeutic antibodies and chemotherapy. Specifically, the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide induces an acute secretory activating phenotype (ASAP), releasing CCL4, IL8, VEGF, and TNFα from treated tumor cells. These factors induce macrophage infiltration and phagocytic activity in the bone marrow. Thus, the acute induction of stress-related cytokines can effectively target cancer cells for removal by the innate immune system. This synergistic chemoimmunotherapeutic regimen represents a potent strategy for using conventional anticancer agents to alter the tumor microenvironment and promote the efficacy of targeted therapeutics.
    Cell 01/2014; 156(3):590-602. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy-resistant microenvironments represent a major barrier toward effective elimination of disseminated malignancies. Here, we show that select microenvironments can underlie resistance to antibody-based therapy. Using a humanized model of treatment refractory B cell leukemia, we find that infiltration of leukemia cells into the bone marrow rewires the tumor microenvironment to inhibit engulfment of antibody-targeted tumor cells. Resistance to macrophage-mediated killing can be overcome by combination regimens involving therapeutic antibodies and chemotherapy. Specifically, the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide induces an acute secretory activating phenotype (ASAP), releasing CCL4, IL8, VEGF, and TNFα from treated tumor cells. These factors induce macrophage infiltration and phagocytic activity in the bone marrow. Thus, the acute induction of stress-related cytokines can effectively target cancer cells for removal by the innate immune system. This synergistic chemoimmunotherapeutic regimen represents a potent strategy for using conventional anticancer agents to alter the tumor microenvironment and promote the efficacy of targeted therapeutics.
    Cell 01/2014; 156(3):590-602. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host-specific pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum that causes human malaria. Supplementation of immunodeficient mice with human RBCs supports infection by human Plasmodium parasites, but these mice lack the human immune system. By combining human RBC supplementation and humanized mice that are optimized for human immune cell reconstitution, we have developed RBC-supplemented, immune cell-optimized humanized (RICH) mice that support multiple cycles of P. falciparum infection. Depletion of human natural killer (NK) cells, but not macrophages, in RICH mice results in a significant increase in parasitemia. Further studies in vitro show that NK cells preferentially interact with infected RBCs (iRBCs), resulting in the activation of NK cells and the elimination of iRBCs in a contact-dependent manner. We show that the adhesion molecule lymphocyte-associated antigen 1 is required for NK cell interaction with and elimination of iRBCs. Development of RICH mice and validation of P. falciparum infection should facilitate the dissection of human immune responses to malaria parasite infection and the evaluation of therapeutics and vaccines.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; 111(4):1479-84. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain) using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e86912. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) targeted gene transfer is an attractive treatment option for a number of hematopoietic disorders caused by single gene defects. However, extensive methylation of promoter sequences results in silencing of therapeutic gene expression. The choice of an appropriate promoter is therefore crucial for reproducible, stable and long-term transgene expression in clinical gene therapy. Recent studies suggest efficient and stable expression of transgenes from the ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) derived from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 locus can be achieved in murine HSC. Here, we compared the use of HNRPA2B1-CBX3 UCOE (A2UCOE)-mediated transgene regulation to two other frequently used promoters namely EF1α and PGK in human fetal liver-derived HSC (hflHSC). Efficient transduction of hflHSC with a lentiviral vector containing an HNRPA2B1-CBX3 UCOE-eGFP (A2UCOE-eGFP) cassette was achieved at higher levels than that obtained with umbilical cord blood derived HSC (3.1x; p<0.001). While hflHSC were readily transduced with all three test vectors (A2UCOE-eGFP, PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP), only the A2-UCOE construct demonstrated sustained transgene expression in vitro over 24 days (p<0.001). In contrast, within 10 days in culture a rapid decline in transgene expression in both PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP transduced hflHSC was seen. Subsequently, injection of transduced cells into immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID/Il2rg-/-) demonstrated sustained eGFP expression for the A2UCOE-eGFP group up to 10 months post transplantation whereas PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP transduced hflHSC showed a 5.1 and 22.2 fold reduction respectively over the same time period. We conclude that the A2UCOE allows a more efficient and stable expression in hflHSC to be achieved than either the PGK or EF1α promoters and at lower vector copy number per cell.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104805. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulation of patients' immune systems for the treatment of solid tumors is an emerging therapeutic paradigm. The use of enriched autologous T cells for adoptive cell therapy or vaccination with antigen-loaded dendritic cells have shown clinical efficacy in melanoma and prostate cancer, respectively. However, the long-term effects of immune responses on selection and outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor cells in specific tumor types must be determined to understand and achieve long-term therapeutic effects. In this study, we have investigated the expression of a tumor-specific antigen in situ after treatment with tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer. After T-cell treatment, aggregates of dead antigen-positive tumor cells were concentrated in the lumen of the prostate gland and were eventually eliminated from the prostate tissue. Despite the elimination of antigen-positive tumor cells, prostate tumor continued to grow in T-cell-treated mice. Interestingly, the remaining tumor cells were antigen negative and downregulated MHC class I expression. These results show that CD8(+) T cells are effective in eliminating antigen-bearing prostate tumor cells but they also can select for the outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor cells. These findings provide insights into the requirements for an effective cancer immunotherapy within the prostate that not only induces potent immune responses but also avoids selection and outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor cells. Cancer Immunol Res; 1(6); 393-401. ©2013 AACR.
    Cancer immunology research. 12/2013; 1(6):393-401.
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    Dahai Zheng, Lu Yin, Jianzhu Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Transformation related protein 63-expressing (p63+) basal cells are confined to the trachea in the mouse lung. However, after influenza virus infection or bleomycin treatment, patches of p63+ cells were observed in the damaged lung parenchyma. To address whether the newly induced p63+ cells are derived from the p63+ basal cells, we carried out lineage tracing. In keratin 5 (Krt5) promoter-driven CreER system, although pre-existing p63+ basal cells were labeled by EGFP following tamoxifen treatment, none or only a small fraction (~15%) of the p63+ patches were labeled by EGFP following bleomycin treatment or influenza virus infection, respectively. In contrast, most (>60%) of p63+ patches contained EGFP+ cells in Scgb1a1-CreER transgenic system where Clara cells are labeled. Furthermore, many p63+ cells were found in bronchiole-like lumen structures with columnar cells at the lumen side. The columnar cells were positive for Clara cell marker Cyp2f2 and could be traced to the newly induced p63+ cells. These results suggest that most of the newly induced p63+ cells in the damaged parenchyma are likely derived from Clara cells rather than p63+ basal cells and that newly induced p63+ cells may be involved in the regeneration of bronchioles.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 10/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, polymer-attached zanamivir had been found to inhibit influenza A viruses in vitro far better than did small-molecule zanamivir (1) itself. The aim of this study was to identify in vitro-using the plaque reduction assay-a highly potent 1-polymer conjugate, and subsequently test its antiviral efficacy in vivo. By examining the structure-activity relationship of 1-polymer conjugates in the plaque assay, we have determined that the most potent inhibitor against several representative influenza virus strains has a neutral high-molecular-weight backbone and a short alkyl linker. We have examined this optimal polymeric inhibitor for efficacy and immunogenicity in the mouse and ferret models of infection. 1 attached to poly-L-glutamine is an effective therapeutic for established influenza infection in ferrets, reducing viral titers up to 30-fold for 6 days. There is also up to a 190-fold reduction in viral load when the drug is used as a combined prophylactic/therapeutic in mice. Additionally, we see no evidence that the drug conjugate stimulates an immune response in mice upon repeat administration. 1 attached to a neutral high-molecular-weight backbone through a short alkyl linker drastically reduced both in vitro and in vivo titers compared to those observed with 1 itself. Thus, further development of this polymeric zanamivir for the mitigation of influenza infection seems warranted.
    Pharmaceutical Research 09/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Initial genetic characterizations have suggested that the influenza A (H7N9) viruses responsible for the current outbreak in China are novel reassortants. However, little is known about the pathways of their evolution and, in particular, the generation of diverse viral genotypes. Here we report an in-depth evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequence data of 45 H7N9 and 42 H9N2 viruses isolated from humans, poultry, and wild birds during recent influenza surveillance efforts in China. Our analysis shows that the H7N9 viruses were generated by at least two steps of sequential reassortments involving distinct H9N2 donor viruses in different hosts. The first reassortment likely occurred in wild birds and the second in domestic birds in east China in early 2012. Our study identifies the pathways for the generation of diverse H7N9 genotypes in China and highlights the importance of monitoring multiple sources for effective surveillance of potential influenza outbreaks.
    Cell host & microbe 09/2013; · 13.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A characteristic clinical feature of dengue virus infection is thrombocytopenia though its underlying mechanism is not definitively determined. By adoptive transfer of human CD34(+) fetal liver cells into immunodeficient mice, we have constructed humanized mice with significant levels of human platelets, monocytes/macrophages and hepatocytes. Infection of these mice with both lab-adapted and clinical strains of dengue virus induces characteristic human hematological changes, including transient leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. We show that the specific depletion of human platelets is not mediated by antibodies in the periphery or reduced production of human thrombopoietin in the liver but reduction of human megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte progenitors in the bone marrow of the infected mice. These findings identify inhibition of platelet production in the bone marrow as a key mechanism underlying dengue-induced thrombocytopenia and suggest the utility of the improved humanized mouse model in studying dengue virus infection and pathogenesis in a human cell context.
    Journal of Virology 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Engraftment of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice leads to robust reconstitution of human T and B cells but not monocytes and macrophages. To identify the cause underlying the poor monocyte and macrophage reconstitution, we analyzed human myeloid cell development in humanized mice and found that it was blocked at the promonocyte stage in the bone marrow. Expression of human M-CSF or GM-CSF by hydrodynamic injection of cytokine-encoding plasmid completely abolished the accumulation of promonocytes in the bone marrow. M-CSF promoted the development of mature monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages whereas GM-CSF did not. Moreover, correlating with an increased human macrophages at the sites of infection, M-CSF-treated humanized mice exhibited an enhanced protection against influenza virus and Mycobacterium infection. Our study identifies the precise stage at which human monocyte/macrophage development is blocked in humanized mice and reveals overlapping and distinct functions of M-CSF and GM-CSF in human monocyte and macrophage development. The improved reconstitution and functionality of monocytes/macrophages in the humanized mice following M-CSF expression provide a superior in vivo system to investigate the role of macrophages in physiological and pathological processes.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By attaching multiple copies of the influenza M2 ion channel inhibitors amantadine (1) and rimantadine (2) to polymeric chains, we endeavored to recover their potency in inhibiting drug-resistant influenza viruses. Depending on loading densities, as well as the nature of the drug, the polymer, and the spacer arm, polymer-conjugated drugs were up to 30-fold more potent inhibitors of drug-resistant strains than their monomeric parents. In particular, a 20% loading density and a short linker group on the negatively charged poly-l-glutamate resulted in one of the most potent inhibitors for 2's conjugates against drug-resistant influenza strains. Although full recovery of the inhibitory action against drug-resistant strains was not achieved, this study may be a step toward salvaging anti-influenza drugs that are no longer effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung injury caused by influenza virus infection is widespread. Understanding lung damage and repair progression post infection requires quantitative spatiotemporal information on various cell types mapping into the tissue structure. Based on high content images acquired from an automatic slide scanner, we have developed algorithms to quantify cell infiltration in the lung, loss and recovery of Clara cells in the damaged bronchioles and alveolar type II cells (AT2s) in the damaged alveolar areas, and induction of pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SPC)-expressing bronchiolar epithelial cells (SBECs). These quantitative analyses reveal: prolonged immune cell infiltration into the lung that persisted long after the influenza virus was cleared and paralleled with Clara cell recovery; more rapid loss and recovery of Clara cells as compared to AT2s; and two stages of SBECs from Scgb1a1+ to Scgb1a1-. These results provide evidence supporting a new mechanism of alveolar repair where Clara cells give rise to AT2s through the SBEC intermediates and shed light on the understanding of the lung damage and repair process. The approach and algorithms in quantifying cell-level changes in the tissue context (cell-based tissue informatics) to gain mechanistic insights into the damage and repair process can be expanded and adapted in studying other disease models.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 04/2013; 18(4):46001. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much controversy surrounds the identity and origin of human hepatic stem and progenitor cells in part because of a lack of small animal models in which the developmental potential of isolated candidate cell populations can be functionally evaluated. We show here that adoptive transfer of CD34(+) cells from human fetal liver into sublethally irradiated NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/-) (NSG) mice leads to an efficient development of not only human hematopoietic cells but also human hepatocyte-like cells in the liver of the recipient mice. Using this simple in vivo assay in combination with cell fractionation, we show that CD34(+) fetal liver cells can be separated into three distinct subpopulations: CD34(hi) CD133(hi) , CD34(lo) CD133(lo) , and CD34(hi) CD133(neg) . The CD34(hi) CD133(hi) population contains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) as they give rise to T cells, B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages in NSG mice and CFU-GEMM cells in vitro. The CD34(lo) CD133(lo) population does not give rise to hematopoietic cells, but reproducibly generates hepatocyte-like cells in NSG mice and in vitro. The CD34(hi) CD133(neg) population only gives rise to CFU-GM and BFU-E in vitro. Furthermore, we show that the CD34(lo) CD133(lo) cells express hematopoietic, hepatic, and mesenchymal markers, including CD34, CD133, CD117, EpCAM, CD73, albumin, α-fetal protein and vimentin and transcriptionally are more closely related to HSPCs than to mature hepatocytes. These results show that CD34(lo) CD133(lo) fetal liver cells possess the hepatic progenitor cell properties and that human hepatic and hematopoietic progenitor cells are distinct, although they may originate from the same precursors in the fetal liver.
    Stem Cells 02/2013; · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: In this study, we investigate whether pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) can target regions of lung injury associated with influenza infection. Materials & methods: Fluorophore-conjugated pHLIP was injected intraperitoneally into mice infected with a sublethal dose of H1N1 influenza and visualized histologically. Results: pHLIP specifically targeted inflamed lung tissues of infected mice in the later stages of disease and at sites where alveolar type I and type II cells were depleted. Regions of pHLIP-targeted lung tissue were devoid of peroxiredoxin 6, the lung-abundant antioxidant enzyme, and were deficient in pneumocytes. Interestingly, a pHLIP variant possessing mutations that render it insensitive to pH changes was also able to target damaged lung tissue. Conclusion: pHLIP holds potential for delivering therapeutics for lung injury during influenza infection. Furthermore, there may be more than one mechanism that enables pHLIP variants to target inflamed lung tissue.
    Future Microbiology 02/2013; 8:257-269. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regeneration of alveolar epithelia following severe pulmonary damage is critical for lung function. We and others have previously shown that Scgb1a1-expressing cells, most likely Clara cells, can give rise to newly generated alveolar type 2 cells (AT2s) in response to severe lung damage induced by either influenza virus infection or bleomycin treatment. In this study, we have investigated cellular pathway underlying the Clara cell to AT2 differentiation. We show that the initial intermediates are bronchiolar epithelial cells that exhibit Clara cell morphology and express Clara cell marker, Scgb1a1, as well as the AT2 cell marker, pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SPC). These cells, referred to as pro-SPC(+) bronchiolar epithelial cells (or SBECs), gradually lose Scgb1a1 expression and give rise to pro-SPC(+) cells in the ring structures in the damaged parenchyma, which appear to differentiate into AT2s via a process sharing some features with that observed during alveolar epithelial development in the embryonic lung. These findings suggest that SBECs are intermediates of Clara cell to AT2 differentiation during the repair of alveolar epithelia following severe pulmonary injury.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71028. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Covalently conjugating multiple copies of the drug zanamivir (ZA; the active ingredient in Relenza) via a flexible linker to poly-L-glutamine (PGN) enhances the anti-influenza virus activity by orders of magnitude. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of this phenomenon. Like ZA itself, the PGN-attached drug (PGN-ZA) binds specifically to viral neuraminidase and inhibits both its enzymatic activity and the release of newly synthesized virions from infected cells. Unlike monomeric ZA, however, PGN-ZA also synergistically inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection, thus contributing to the markedly increased antiviral potency. This inhibition is not caused by a direct virucidal effect, aggregation of viruses, or inhibition of viral attachment to target cells and the subsequent endocytosis; rather, it is a result of interference with intracellular trafficking of the endocytosed viruses and the subsequent virus-endosome fusion. These findings both rationalize the great anti-influenza potency of PGN-ZA and reveal that attaching ZA to a polymeric chain confers a unique mechanism of antiviral action potentially useful for minimizing drug resistance.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2012; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells into immunodeficient mice that lack T cells, B cells, and NK cells results in reconstitution of human blood lineage cells, especially B cells, in the recipient mice. However, these humanized mice do not make any significant level of IgG Ab in response to Ag stimulation. In this study, we show that in humanized mice, B cells are immature, and there is a complete deficiency of CD209(+) (DC-SIGN) human dendritic cells. These defects can be corrected by expression of human GM-CSF and IL-4 in humanized mice. As a result, these cytokine-treated humanized mice produced significant levels of Ag-specific IgG after immunization, including the production of neutralizing Abs specific for H5N1 avian influenza virus. A significant level of Ag-specific CD4 T cell response was also induced. Thus, we have identified defects in humanized mice and devised approaches to correct these defects such that the platform can be used for studying Ab responses and to generate novel human Abs against virulent pathogens and other clinically relevant targets.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous efforts to derive lung progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells using embryoid body formation or stromal feeder cocultures had been limited by low efficiencies. Here, we report a step-wise differentiation method to drive both hES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward the lung lineage. Our data demonstrated a 30% efficiency in generating lung epithelial cells (LECs) that expresses various distal lung markers. Further enrichment of lung progenitor cells using a stem cell marker, CD166 before transplantation into bleomycin-injured NOD/SCID mice resulted in enhanced survivability of mice and improved lung pulmonary functions. Immunohistochemistry of lung sections from surviving mice further confirmed the specific engraftment of transplanted cells in the damaged lung. These cells were shown to express surfactant protein C, a specific marker for distal lung progenitor in the alveoli. Our study has therefore demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using iPS cells for the repair of acute lung injury, demonstrating the potential usefulness of using patient's own iPS cells to prevent immune rejection which arise from allogenic transplantation.Molecular Therapy (2012); doi:10.1038/mt.2012.182.
    Molecular Therapy 09/2012; · 7.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
858.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Biological Engineering
      • • Department of Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2010–2013
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Biophysics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Singapore-MIT Alliance
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • National University of Singapore
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Singapore, Singapore
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2008
    • Sejong University
      • Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology KRIBB
      • Laboratory of Immunology
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea