Jessica Noelting

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Scottsdale, AZ, United States

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Publications (6)51.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS:: Disordered defecation is attributed to pelvic floor dyssynergia. However, clinical observations indicate a spectrum of anorectal dysfunctions. The extent to which these disorders are distinct or overlap is unclear; anorectal manometry might be used in diagnosis, but healthy persons can also have abnormal rectoanal pressure gradients during simulated evacuation. We aimed to characterize phenotypic variation in constipated patients through high-resolution anorectal manometry. METHODS:: We evaluated anorectal pressures, measured with high-resolution anorectal manometry, and rectal balloon expulsion time in 62 healthy women and 295 women with chronic constipation. Phenotypes were characterized by principal components analysis of high-resolution anorectal manometry. RESULTS:: Two healthy persons and 71 patients had prolonged (>180 s) rectal balloon expulsion time. A principal components logistic model discriminated healthy people from patients with prolonged balloon expulsion time with 75% sensitivity at a specificity of 75%. Four phenotypes discriminated healthy people from patients with abnormal balloon expulsion times; 2 phenotypes discriminated healthy people from those with constipation but normal balloon expulsion time. Phenotypes were characterized based on high anal pressure at rest and during evacuation ( high anal), low rectal pressure alone ( low rectal) or low rectal pressure with impaired anal relaxation during evacuation ( hybrid), and a short anal high-pressure zone. Symptoms were not useful for predicting which patients had prolonged balloon expulsion times. CONCLUSIONS:: Principal components analysis of rectoanal pressures identified 3 phenotypes (high anal, low rectal and hybrid) that can discriminate among patients with normal and abnormal balloon expulsion time. These phenotypes might be useful to classify patients and increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of defecatory disorders.
    Gastroenterology 11/2012; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution manometry (HRM) is used to measure anal pressures in clinical practice but normal values have not been available. Although rectal evacuation is assessed by the rectoanal gradient during simulated evacuation, there is substantial overlap between healthy people and defecatory disorders, and the effects of age are unknown. We evaluated the effects of age on anorectal pressures and rectal balloon expulsion in healthy women. Anorectal pressures (HRM), rectal sensation, and balloon expulsion time (BET) were evaluated in 62 asymptomatic women ranging in age from 21 to 80 years (median age 44 years) without risk factors for anorectal trauma. In total, 30 women were aged <50 years. Age is associated with lower (r=-0.47, P<0.01) anal resting (63 (5) (≥50 years), 88 (3) (<50 years), mean (s.e.m.)) but not squeeze pressures; higher rectal pressure and rectoanal gradient during simulated evacuation (r=0.3, P<0.05); and a shorter (r=-0.4, P<0.01) rectal BET (17 (9) s (≥50 years) vs. 31 (10) s (<50 years)). Only 5 women had a prolonged (>60 s) rectal BET but 52 had higher anal than rectal pressures (i.e., negative gradient) during simulated evacuation. The gradient was more negative in younger (-41 (6) mm Hg) than older (-12 (6) mm Hg) women and negatively (r=-0.51, P<0.0001) correlated with rectal BET but only explained 16% of the variation in rectal BET. These observations provide normal values for anorectal pressures by HRM. Increasing age is associated with lower anal resting pressure, a more positive rectoanal gradient during simulated evacuation, and a shorter BET in asymptomatic women. Although the rectoanal gradient is negatively correlated with rectal BET, this gradient is negative even in a majority of asymptomatic women, undermining the utility of a negative gradient for diagnosing defecatory disorders by HRM.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2012; 107(10):1530-6. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background  Inter-observer variability limits the reproducibility of pelvic floor motion measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our aim was to develop a semi-automated program measuring pelvic floor motion in a reproducible and refined manner. Methods  Pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction (squeeze) and rectal evacuation were assessed by MRI in 64 women with fecal incontinence (FI) and 64 age-matched controls. A radiologist measured anorectal angles and anorectal junction motion. A semi-automated program did the same and also dissected anorectal motion into perpendicular vectors representing the puborectalis and other pelvic floor muscles, assessed the pubococcygeal angle, and evaluated pelvic rotation. Key Results  Manual and semi-automated measurements of anorectal junction motion (r = 0.70; P < 0.0001) during squeeze and evacuation were correlated, as were anorectal angles at rest, squeeze, and evacuation; angle change during squeeze or evacuation was less so. Semi-automated measurements of anorectal and pelvic bony motion were also reproducible within subjects. During squeeze, puborectalis injury was associated (P ≤ 0.01) with smaller puborectalis but not pelvic floor motion vectors, reflecting impaired puborectalis function. The pubococcygeal angle, reflecting posterior pelvic floor motion, was smaller during squeeze and larger during evacuation. However, pubococcygeal angles and pelvic rotation during squeeze and evacuation did not differ significantly between FI and controls. Conclusion & Inferences  This semi-automated program provides a reproducible, efficient, and refined analysis of pelvic floor motion by MRI. Puborectalis injury is independently associated with impaired motion of puborectalis, not other pelvic floor muscles in controls and women with FI.
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 07/2012; 24(10):e467-e475. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart is frequently involved in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). However, the mechanics of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in CSS has not been studied. To assess the mechanics of LV function and to characterize the contribution of longitudinal, circumferential and rotational deformation to LV dysfunction in CSS. We enrolled 22 CSS patients (eight males, mean age 43.2 ± 9.5 years) in remission of their disease and 22 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All patients underwent conventional and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Global longitudinal, circumferential and rotational deformation parameters were calculated. CSS subjects demonstrated lower LV ejection fraction (EF) than controls (56.6 ± 15.0% vs 63.8 ± 3.4%; P < 0.05). When compared to those with LVEF ≥ 50% (n = 14), CSS patients with LVEF < 50% (n = 7) had decreased global peak-systolic longitudinal and circumferential strain/strain rate (all P < 0.001) and tended to have lower global peak-systolic radial strain (P = 0.05). There were no differences between these two subgroups in global peak-systolic radial strain rate and LV twist/torsion. When comparing individual systolic and diastolic parameters early diastolic longitudinal and circumferential strain rate demonstrated the highest correlation with corresponding global longitudinal and circumferential peak-systolic strain/strain rate (r < -0.80, P < 0.001 for all correlations). In CSS LV systolic dysfunction strongly correlates with longitudinal and circumferential, but not radial or rotational systolic components, indicating that impaired LV systolic function may result predominantly from impaired contraction of inner and middle, but not outer myocardial fiber layers. The spatial correspondence between systolic and diastolic deformation parameters suggests the similar impact of pathologic process on systolic and diastolic function in CSS.
    Echocardiography 02/2012; 29(5):568-78. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of right ventricular (RV) involvement diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) early after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). CMR allows accurate and reproducible RV assessment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the prognostic value of RV involvement detected by CMR early after STEMI. Ninety-nine patients (77 men, mean age 57 ± 11 years) who underwent CMR 3 to 5 days after STEMI treated with primary angioplasty were followed for 1,150 ± 337 days for cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and hospitalizations due to decompensated heart failure). Cox proportional hazards model was applied in stepwise forward fashion to identify outcome predictors. Event-free survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups by the log-rank test. Cardiac events occurred in 34 patients (7 cardiac deaths, 8 MIs, 26 hospitalizations). By multivariable analysis, the independent outcome predictors were left ventricular (LV) MI transmurality index (hazard ratio: 1.03 per 1%; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.04; p = 0.001), RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (hazard ratio: 1.46 per 10% decrease; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.02; p = 0.03), and RVMI extent (hazard ratio: 1.50 per each infarcted RV segment; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 2.01; p = 0.007). Compared with clinical data (global chi-square = 5.2), LV ejection fraction [LVEF] (global chi-square = 11.1), RVEF (global chi-square = 17.1), LVMI transmural extent (global chi-square = 26.0), and RVMI extent (global chi-square = 34.9) improved outcome prediction in sequential Cox model analysis (p < 0.05 for all steps). RVEF stratified risk in patients with LVEF <40% in whom the 4-year event-free survival was 66.7% for RVEF ≥40% and 40.0% for RVEF <40% (p < 0.05). The extent of RVMI and RV dysfunction assessed early after STEMI are independent outcome predictors, which provide incremental prognostic value to clinical data, LV systolic function, and infarct burden. Measurement of RVEF may be particularly useful to stratify risk in patients with depressed LV function after STEMI.
    JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 12/2010; 3(12):1237-46. · 14.29 Impact Factor