B Biagiarelli

Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Urbino, The Marches, Italy

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Publications (18)29.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (0.2-0.5 mT) on rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) that were exposed simultaneously to the action of an oxygen radical-generating system, Fe(II)/ascorbate. Previous data obtained in our laboratory showed at the exposure of rabbit erythrocytes or reticulocytes to Fe(II)/ascorbate hexokinase inactivation, whereas the other glycolytic enzymes do not show any decay. We also observed depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) content with a concomitant intracellular and extracellular increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and a decrease in energy charge. In this work we investigated whether 50 Hz magnetic fields could influence the intracellular impairments that occur when erythrocytes or reticulocytes are exposed to this oxidant system, namely, inactivation of hexokinase activity, GSH depletion, a change in energy charge, and hemoglobin oxidation. The results obtained indicate the a 0.5 mT magnetic field had no effect on intact RBCs, whereas it increased the damage with Fe(II)/ascorbate to a 0.5 mT magnetic field induced a significant further decay in hexokinase activity (about 20%) as well as a twofold increase in methemoglobin production compared with RBCs that were exposed to the oxidant system alone. Although further studies will be needed to determine the physiological implications of these data, the results reported in this study demonstrate that the effects of the magnetic fields investigated are able to potentiate the cellular damage induced in vitro by oxidizing agents.
    Bioelectromagnetics 02/1997; 18(2):125-31. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammalian tissues hexokinase (ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) exists as four isoenzymes encoded by distinct genes. These proteins are homologous and are organized in two homologous domains, with the exception of hexokinase type IV which has only one. This organization is believed to be the result of a duplication and tandem fusion event involving the gene encoding for the ancestral hexokinase. In this study, we cloned the carboxyl-domain of human hexokinase type III and expressed it in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, using the pGEX-2T expression vector. The recombinant protein showed catalytic activity. A comparative study of the kinetic properties of the expressed carboxyl-domain and the enzyme partially purified from human lymphocytes is also shown. The results now allow a better understanding of the role of the carboxyl-domain in determining the catalytic properties of the enzyme.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 03/1996; 155(1):23-9. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammalian brain tissue, most hexokinase is bound to the mitochondria and only a small amount of the enzyme is present in soluble form. In this study we report that, in rabbit brain, hexokinase is present in two distinct molecular forms, which we designated HKH and HKL, both of which are separable using hydrophobic interaction or anion-exchange chromatography. These two molecular forms can be detected when hexokinase is prepared at pH 7.4, whereas at pH 10.0 only the more hydrophobic form, HKH, is present. The two subtypes of hexokinase do not show significant differences in Km values for glucose and ATP, in Ki values for glucose-6-phosphate or in their molecular weights. HKH is able to rebind mitochondrial membranes, while HKL has lost this ability, suggesting that the hydrophobic peptide at the N-terminal has been removed. The susceptibility of the N-terminal peptide to proteolysis is completely inhibited by using antiproteolytic compounds, such as leupeptin or E-64. The results reported in this paper suggest that a cysteine protease, probably belonging to a the class of cathepsins, may be involved in the processing of bindable hexokinase to the non-bindable form in rabbit brain, and that the activity of this protease is pH-dependent.
    Biochemistry and molecular biology international 12/1995; 37(4):665-74.
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    ABSTRACT: High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) was applied to the separation of protein and peptide mixtures with molecular masses ranging from 1300 to 96000 Da using a new bonded hydrophilic phase capillary, CElect-P150. This coated capillary reduces the interaction between proteins and silanol groups in capillary walls, allowing a complete recovery of the proteins and peptides of interest. HPCE was also used for the analysis of a complex mixture of tryptic fragments and to monitor the process of enzymatic digestion. Moreover, using a CElect-P150 capillary, highly reproducible analysis was possible without preconditioning the capillary with acid or basic solutions before each new analysis.
    Electrophoresis 05/1995; 16(4):625-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of rabbit reticulocytes to Fe(II)/ascorbate induced a pronounced decay in hexokinase activity. In reticulocytes, this enzyme is present in at least three different molecular forms, Ia, Ia* and Ib, sub-types of hexokinase type I, which show different intracellular distribution. Hexokinase Ia and Ib are soluble, whereas hexokinase Ia* is almost entirely bound to the mitochondria. Anion exchange chromatography of hexokinase from intact reticulocytes exposed to Fe(II)/ascorbate revealed a selective inactivation of forms Ia and Ib, whereas the form Ia* did not show any decay. Binding to the mitochondrial membrane seems to be responsible for the observed resistance of the form Ia* to the inactivation elicited by Fe(II)/ascorbate. Indeed, by using a cell-free system in which hexokinase Ia* was solubilized using Triton X-100, the decay in hexokinase activity induced by iron/ascorbate involved all three enzymatic forms.
    Biochemistry and molecular biology international 05/1995; 35(5):1133-42.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes a high-performance capillary electrophoretic (HPCE) method which allows a quick, simultaneous and quantitative determination of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in mammalian red blood cells using a Supelco-bonded hydrophilic phase capillary CElect-P150. The extraction procedure of GSH and GSSG from erythrocytes using Microcon-10 membranes is very simple and allows a correct evaluation of these compounds present in the red blood cells. Furthermore, the HPCE method does not require removal of the excess N-ethylmaleimide used to block the glutathione in its reduced state, making the simultaneous evaluation of GSH and GSSG possible in a very short time (ca. 4 min), with a sensitivity at femtomole level.
    Journal of Chromatography A 08/1994; 676(1):239-46. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rabbit red blood cell hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) has been shown to be inactivated in vitro by incubating intact erythrocytes in the presence of an oxygen-radical-generating system represented by ascorbate and iron. It was interesting to note that among the glycolytic enzymes, only hexokinase was found to be susceptible to the action of oxygen radicals, suggesting that the loss of activity of this enzyme may be one of the first signals of cellular damage in rabbit red blood cells. This statement is supported by the fact that, under the experimental conditions used, we did not observe any significant plasma membrane lipid peroxidation nor intracellular proteolysis. Furthermore, mature erythrocytes are unable to synthesize hexokinase as well as other proteins de novo; therefore, the inactivation of this enzyme, which is both the first and one of the rate-limiting enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, could play an important role in determining metabolic impairment of red blood cells, with possible physiological implications. We also investigated the effect of various radical scavengers and antioxidants (glucose, vitamin E, dithiothreitol, flavonoids) which are able to influence the inactivation of hexokinase activity to different extents. Finally, under the experimental conditions used (90 min of incubation at 37 degrees C), we did not observe any difference in the hemolysis of rabbit red blood cells incubated in the presence or absence of ascorbate and iron (hemolysis was about 1% after 90 min of incubation), suggesting that the system used was able to furnish information about the cellular damage produced by oxygen radicals without provoking cell lysis.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 06/1994; 311(1):160-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells show a cell density-dependent modification of ATP levels during the growth cycle. Cells were seeded at a density of 500,000 cells/75 cm2 flask in 10 ml of growth medium and at various time intervals, samples were taken and assayed for cell number, for adenine (ATP, ADP, AMP) and pyridine (NAD+, NADP+) nucleotide levels and for the activity of some glycolytic enzymes. Glucose consumption was also evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the rate of cell growth was exponential for up to the 4th day of culture after which the cell number remained pratically unchanged up to the 9th day. Under these experimental conditions we found that, whereas the intracellular levels of NAD+ and some glycolytic enzymes were not significantly affected, a drop in ATP content was apparent after 48 hr of culture. The decline in ATP levels progressively increased, reaching a maximum after 4 days of culture, and then remained unchanged. In order to evaluate whether this effect on ATP was determined by a reduced availability of nutritional factors or was really a function of cell density, we also performed experiments similar to those reported above, with the exception that the cells were grown in 40 ml of culture medium. Under these experimental conditions, the exponential growth was longer (in comparison with the cell growth in 10 ml of medium) and a plateau was reached after 6 days of culture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biochemistry and molecular biology international 03/1994; 32(2):251-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromaiographic method for the evaluation of taurine in human plasma samples is presented. Two different extraction procedures have been employed: perchloric acid extraction and filtration using the CF-50 Amicon membrane, obtaining comparable results. After extraction the samples were derivatized with the 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4′-sulfonyl chloride (DABS-CI) reagent and the DABS-derivatives. included DABS-taurine, analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC obtaining a sensitivity at picomole level. However, the plasma filtration using the CF-50 Amicon membranes is a quicker procedure (10 min) also allowing the simultaneous evaluation of acid-labile amino acids such as asparagine. glutamine and tryptophan and a higher recovery of taurine (>96%). The taurine levels in human plasma samples of ten normal adults (mean age, 20 years) using the perchloric extraction and the plasma filtration were 38 ± 5 and 42 ± 4 nmol/ml of plasma respectively.
    Journal of liquid chromatography 01/1994; 17(2):347-357.
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal dialysis in uremic subjects produces erythrocyte alterations on energetic and redox metabolism. On this basis, we have tried to verify a fundamental parameter for the integrity of the red blood cell namely the glutathione content both in the oxidized and reduced form. Comparisons were made between two groups of subjects (similar in age, sex and number). One group consisted of uremic subjects undergoing dialysis and the other in healthy controls. As well as a slight increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), an accumulation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was found which, in postdialysis patients, reached values up to 3 times higher than in controls. This means a lowering in the ratio GSH/GSSG. There was also a decrease in total Mg(++)-ATPase activity, significantly found in erythrocyte ghosts of postdialysis patients. The hypothesis of a reduced efflux of GSSG as well as an increase in its formation speed (activation of glutathione peroxidase) is taken into consideration.
    Bollettino della Società italiana di biologia sperimentale 02/1993; 69(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated a new anion exchange chromatographic support (Toyopearl DEAE 650 S) which simultaneously allows easily to remove hemoglobin from hemolysates and to obtain a very high resolution of enzymes present in multiple forms. The results obtained are better than those obtainable using an anion-exchange HPLC column. The data obtained at analytical level suggest a wider use of this new matrix also for preparative purposes without significant changes in the resolution.
    Preparative biochemistry 04/1992; 22(1):11-40.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we report the purification of pig erythrocyte hexokinase type III, at preparative level, using 52 liters of starting material (hemolysate). This was possible using a new efficient anion exchanger support, the Toyopearl DEAE 650 M which allows completely to change the strategy of removing hemoglobin from hemolysates, permitting to handle large amounts of starting material and reducing work would have required months using conventional anion exchanger supports, to only 2-3 days. Furthermore, we have tested the binding of other red blood cell enzymes to the Toyopearl DEAE 650 M, showing a wider potential use of this chromatographic support for their purification at a preparative level.
    Preparative biochemistry 04/1992; 22(1):41-51.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we report the complete separation of amino acids as DABS-derivatives using a 3µm Supelcosil LC-18 (25 cm × 2.1 mm I.D.) narrowbore column. The system described makes it possible to perform the analysis of DABS-amino acids with a sensitivity to the femtomole level. We have also studied the conditions necessary for using the narrow-bore columns for routine analysis, paying particular attention to the problem of providing adequate protection for the analytical column. We have found it very suitable to use a (2 cm × 2.1 mm I.D.) guard column filled with a 40µm Pelliguard LC-18, pellicular packing resin, without affecting the complete resolution of the DABS-amino acids. Comparing the results obtained using conventional HPLC columns (3–5µm Supelcosil LC-18) of different lengths (15 and 25 cm × 4.6 mm I.D.) with those obtainable with the narrow-bore columns used in this work, it is possible to achieve a much greater sensitivity using the narrow-bore columns. In short, using the appropriate guard column and the “standard” HPLC apparatus used, the narrow-bore columns are very useful for routine analyses of DABS-amino acids with a sensitivity at the femtomole level.
    Amino Acids 01/1992; 3(3):303-309. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work we reported the results of the study of erythrocyte membrane Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Mg(2+)-ATPase in patients with essential hypertension and controls. In the 40 patients with hypertension, a more marked decrease of Na+, K(+)-ATPase was observed. The behavior of the enzyme at Mg2+ activation, ouabain inhibition and the response to different temperature suggest the possibility of differences between the two groups. The normal erythrocyte Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in two groups suggest also the possible role of ratio Na+, K(+)-ATPase/Mg(2+)-ATPase in the study of essential hypertension. However the relevance of magnesium and Mg(2+)-ATPase to the pathogenesis of essential hypertension remains unclear but merits further study. On the basis of these considerations the aim of the present study was to identify, in a kinetic approach, the presence of different abnormalities of Na+ transport and Na+, K(+)-ATPase in erythrocytes from patients with essential hypertension. Much evidence has supported the hypothesis that essential hypertension is a heterogeneous disease in the pathophysiological mechanisms as well as in its clinical and therapeutical consideration.
    Bollettino della Società italiana di biologia sperimentale 08/1991; 67(7):659-66.
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    ABSTRACT: Rabbit red blood cells (RBC) were exposed in vitro to an oxygen-radical-generating system represented by iron and ascorbic acid. Under these experimental conditions we have investigated the effect of this system on some intracellular rabbit reticulocyte and erythrocyte enzymes. The results obtained have shown a pronounced decay of hexokinase activity both in the erythrocytes and reticulocytes when exposed to these radical species. We have found that the amount of hexokinase inactivated is at least three times higher in a blood sample with a percentage of reticulocytes of 50-60%. This different behaviour of the hexokinase decay in the erythrocytes and reticulocytes could be due to its different intracellular distribution related to the two distinct cells. In addition we have evaluated some important intracellular compounds involved in maintaining the redox and the energetic state of the cell such as the reduced glutathione and the adenine nucleotides and their degradation products, in order to understand if there is any correlation between the hexokinase decay and a change concerning the metabolic conditions of the rabbit reticulocytes and erythrocytes exposed to free radicals.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1991; 307:217-23. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors studied the behavior of enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway incubating intact reticulocyte and erythrocyte at 37C in the presence of ascorbic acid and Fe{sup 2+}. The results obtained have shown evidence that among the glycolytic enzymes the hexokinase activity shows a pronounced decay. For this reason the authors have investigated how the chromatographic profile of hexokinase changes after exposure of reticulocytes and erythrocytes to the oxygen-radical generating system in trying to understand the molecular basis of this inactivation. The results obtained have shown a different effect of free radicals on the reticulocyte and erythrocyte hexokinase molecular forms. The analysis of the chromatographic profile was performed using a TSK Gel Toyopearl DEAE 650 S column which allows a complete resolution of the distinct forms of hexokinase together with a complete recovery of the enzyme activities. Concomitantly to the hexokinase decay, there is a fall in the GSH level when intact rabbit erythrocytes and reticulocytes are incubated in presence of iron and ascorbic acid. However, the fall of GSH is significantly higher in the erythrocytes where, after incubation of one hour, it reaches a mean value of 0.3 μmoles per ml of cells representing about 10% of the initial value. In the reticulocytes the GSH value, after the same treatment, remain as high as 1.6 μmoles per ml of cells. If we consider that the initial value of GSH is almost the same in the erythrocytes are reticulocytes the highest decay rate of hexokinase observed in these latter cells, cannot be related to the fall of the GSH level, but to a possible direct effect of free-radicals on the enzyme.
    The FASEB Journal 01/1991; 5(5). · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and fast reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the complete separation of 35 dimethylaminoazobenzene sulfonyl (DABS)-amino acids and by-products. This method allows simultaneous determination of primary and secondary amino acids which can be present in protein and peptide hydrolysates and also detects the presence of cysteic acid, S-sulfocysteine, hydroxyproline, taurine, norleucine, cystine, and delta-hydroxylysine. The precolumn derivatization of amino acids with dimethylaminoazobenzene sulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) is simple and quick (10 min at 70 degrees C) and allows the complete reaction of primary and secondary amino acids. The separation of the compounds under investigation is achieved in 25 min using a reversed-phase 3-microns Supelcosil LC-18 column at room temperature. The versatility of the proposed method is documented by amino acid determination on protein samples obtained using different hydrolysis techniques (HCl, methane-sulfonic acid, and NaOH), with attention given to the detection of tryptophan in protein samples with high sugar concentration. Furthermore, we have reported the experimental conditions necessary to apply this method to the amino acid analysis of very low amount of proteins (1 to 5 micrograms) electroeluted from a stained band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The stability of DABS-derivatives, the short time of analysis, the high reproducibility and sensitivity of the system, and the complete resolution of all compounds of interest make this method suitable for routine analysis. Furthermore, we have also developed a fast reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the complete separation of dimethylaminoazobenzene thiohydantoin (DABTH)-amino acids. The separation of the compounds under investigation is obtained, at room temperature, in less than 18 min using a reversed-phase Supelcosil LC-18 DB column, 3-micron particles, and also allows the complete separation of DABTH-Ile, DABTH-Leu, and DABTH-Norleu. The short time of analysis, together with the high reproducibility of the system and its sensitivity at picomole levels, make this method very suitable for the identification of DABTH-amino acids released during microsequencing studies of proteins and peptides with the dimethylaminoazobenzene isothiocyanate reagent. In addition, we have shown that it is possible to obtain complete separation of DABTH-amino acids also under isocratic conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
    Analytical Biochemistry 05/1989; 178(1):107-17. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Bollettino della Società italiana di biologia sperimentale 10/1988; 64(9):801-7.