Jean-Michel Azorin

Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (96)313.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4-14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23-26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and stronger prospective data on treatment options are required before more decisive conclusions can be made regarding the neurobiology and specific treatment of suicide risk in bipolar disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 07/2015; DOI:10.1177/0004867415594427 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors. A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords 'bipolar disorder' and 'suicide attempts or suicide'. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples. Factors were subcategorized into: (1) sociodemographics, (2) clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder, (3) comorbidities, and (4) other clinical variables. We identified 141 studies that examined how 20 specific factors influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths. While the level of evidence and degree of confluence varied across factors, there was at least one study that found an effect for each of the following factors: sex, age, race, marital status, religious affiliation, age of illness onset, duration of illness, bipolar disorder subtype, polarity of first episode, polarity of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. There is a wealth of data on factors that influence the likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in people with bipolar disorder. Given the heterogeneity of study samples and designs, further research is needed to replicate and determine the magnitude of effect of most of these factors. This approach can ultimately lead to enhanced risk stratification for patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 07/2015; DOI:10.1177/0004867415594428 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence to medication is a major issue in bipolar disorder. Non-planning impulsivity, defined as a lack of future orientation, has been demonstrated to be the main impulsivity domain altered during euthymia in bipolar disorder patients. It was associated with comorbidities. To investigate relationship between adherence to medication and non-planning impulsivity, we included 260 euthymic bipolar patients. Adherence to medication was evaluated by Medication Adherence Rating Scale and non-planning impulsivity by Barrat Impulsiveness Scale. Univariate analyses and linear regression were used. We conducted also a path analysis to examine whether non-planning impulsivity had direct or indirect effect on adherence, mediated by comorbidities. Adherence to medication was correlated with non-planning impulsivity, even after controlling for potential confounding factors in linear regression analysis (Beta standardized coefficient=0.156; p=0.015). Path analysis demonstrated only a direct effect of non-planning impulsivity on adherence to medication, and none indirect effect via substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and adherence to medication was assessed only by self-questionnaire. Higher non-planning impulsivity is associated with low medication adherence, without an indirect effect via comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2015; 184:60-66. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.041 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    Edited by Aysegul Yildiz, Pedro Ruiz, and Charles Nemeroff, 05/2015; Oxford University Press., ISBN: 9780199300532
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    ABSTRACT: A national network of expert centers for bipolar disorders was set up in France to provide support, mainly for psychiatrists, who need help for managing bipolar disorder patients. The aims of this article are to present the main characteristics of the patients referred to an expert center in order to highlight the major disturbances affecting these patients and to understand the most significant difficulties encountered by practitioners dealing with bipolar disorder patients. Patients were evaluated by trained psychiatrists and psychologists, with standardized and systematic assessment using interviews and self-report questionnaires. All patients (n = 839) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria for bipolar disorder I (48.4%), bipolar disorder II (38.1%) or bipolar disorder-not otherwise specified (13.5%). Mean illness duration was 17 years (±11.3), with 41.9% of patients having a history of suicide attempts. Lifetime comorbidities were 43.8% for anxiety disorders and 32.8% for substance abuse. At the point of inclusion, most patients (76.2%) were not in an acute phase, being considered to have a syndromal remission, but which still required referral to a tertiary system of care. Among these patients, 37.5% had mild to moderate residual depressive symptoms (Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale ranging from 7 to 19) despite 39% receiving an antidepressant. However, 47.8% were considered to be poorly adherent to medication; 55% showed evidence of sleep disturbances, with half being overweight; 68.1% of patients showed poor functioning (Functioning Assessment Short Test ⩾ 12) with this being linked to residual depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances and increased body mass index. It appears that bipolar disorder patients referred to an expert center in most cases do not suffer from a severe or resistant illness but they rather have residual symptoms, including subtle but chronic perturbations that have a major impact on levels of functioning. The longitudinal follow-up of these patients will enable a better understanding of the evolution of such residual symptoms. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/0004867415585582 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is associated with impaired decision-making. Little is known about how treatment, especially lithium, influences decision-making abilities in bipolar patients when euthymic. We aimed at testing for an association between lithium medication and decision-making performance in remitted bipolar patients. Decision-making was measured using the Iowa Gambling Task in 3 groups of subjects: 34 and 56 euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder, treated with lithium (monotherapy and lithium combined with anticonvulsant or antipsychotic) and without lithium (anticonvulsant, antipsychotic and combination treatment), respectively, and 152 matched healthy controls. Performance was compared between the 3 groups. In the 90 euthymic patients, the relationship between different sociodemographic and clinical variables and decision-making was assessed by stepwise multivariate regression analysis. Euthymic patients with lithium (p=0.007) and healthy controls (p=0.001) selected significantly more cards from the safe decks than euthymic patients without lithium, with no significant difference between euthymic patients with lithium and healthy controls (p=0.9). In the 90 euthymic patients, the stepwise linear multivariate regression revealed that decision-making was significantly predicted (p<0.001) by lithium dose, level of education and no family history of bipolar disorder (all p≤0.01). Because medication was not randomized, it was not possible to discriminate the effect of different medications. Lithium medication might be associated with better decision-making in remitted bipolar patients. A randomized trial is required to test for the hypothesis that lithium, but not other mood stabilizers, may specifically improve decision-making abilities in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.03.003 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients diagnosed with major depressive episode (MDE) according to conceptually different definitions and to compare their clinical validity. This multicenter, multinational cross-sectional Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE)-II-MIX study enrolled 2,811 adult patients experiencing an MDE. Data were collected per protocol on sociodemographic variables, current and past psychiatric symptoms, and clinical variables that are risk factors for bipolar disorder. The frequency of mixed features was determined by applying both DSM-5 criteria and a priori described Research-Based Diagnostic Criteria (RBDC). Clinical variables associated with mixed features were assessed using logistic regression. Overall, 212 patients (7.5%) fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for MDE with mixed features (DSM-5-MXS), and 818 patients (29.1%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a predefined RBDC depressive mixed state (RBDC-MXS). The most frequent manic/hypomanic symptoms were irritable mood (32.6%), emotional/mood lability (29.8%), distractibility (24.4%), psychomotor agitation (16.1%), impulsivity (14.5%), aggression (14.2%), racing thoughts (11.8%), and pressure to keep talking (11.4%). Euphoria (4.6%), grandiosity (3.7%), and hypersexuality (2.6%) were less represented. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, RBDC-MXS was associated with the largest number of variables including diagnosis of bipolar disorder, family history of mania, lifetime suicide attempts, duration of the current episode > 1 month, atypical features, early onset, history of antidepressant-induced mania/hypomania, and lifetime comorbidity with anxiety, alcohol and substance use disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Depressive mixed state, defined as the presence of 3 or more manic/hypomanic features, was present in around one-third of patients experiencing an MDE. The valid symptom, illness course and family history RBDC criteria we assessed identified 4 times more MDE patients as having mixed features and yielded statistically more robust associations with several illness characteristics of bipolar disorder than did DSM-5 criteria. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/2015; 76(3):e351-8. DOI:10.4088/JCP.14m09092 · 5.14 Impact Factor
  • Jean-Michel Azorin · Raoul Belzeaux · Marc Adida
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive illnesses with subthreshold bipolar features are still misdiagnosed as unipolar. The goal of this study was to identify depressive disorder subtypes at risk for bipolarity. Four hundred ninety three major depressive patients were submitted to a cluster analysis on the basis of affective illness history and symptoms of the current episode. Seven clusters were identified which were regrouped into three age-at-onset subgroups; subgroups were further differentiated into subtypes according to predominant comorbidities. The latter were found to precede the occurrence of the related depressive disorder subtypes, decrease their age-at-onset, and increase their risk of belonging to the bipolar spectrum: the earlier the comorbidity, the higher the bipolar propensity was. This is likely to have implications for the diagnosis, natural history, as well as prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Behavioural Brain Research 01/2015; 282. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.014 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mood disorders are frequently characterized by uncertain prognosis and studying mRNA expression variations in blood cells represents a promising avenue of identifying biomarkers for mood disorders. State-dependent gene expression variations have been described during a major depressive episode (MDE), in particular for SLC6A4 mRNA, but how this transcript varies in relation to MDE evolution remains unclear. In this study, we prospectively assessed time trends of SCL6A4 mRNA expression in responder and nonresponder patients. Methods: We examined SLC6A4 mRNA expression in blood samples from 13 patients treated for severe MDE and their matched controls by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR. All subjects were followed for 30 weeks. Patients were classified as either responders or nonresponders based on improvement of depression according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Using a longitudinal design, we ascertained mRNA expression at baseline, 2, 8, and 30 weeks and compared mRNA expression between responder and nonresponder patients, and matched controls. Results: We observed a decrease of SLC6A4 mRNA expression in responder patients across a 30-week follow-up, while nonresponder patients exhibited up-regulated SLC6A4 mRNA. Conclusion: Peripheral SLC6A4 mRNA expression could serve as a biomarker for monitoring and follow-up during an MDE and may help to more appropriately select individualized treatments. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neuropsychobiology 01/2015; 70(4):220-227. DOI:10.1159/000368120 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Jean-Michel Azorin · Marc Adida · Raoul Belzeaux
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    ABSTRACT: High rates of bipolar disorder (BD) have been found among major depressives with seasonal pattern (SP) consulting in psychiatric departments, as well as among patients seeking primary care. As SP was reported to be common in the latter, the current study was designed to assess (a) the frequency and characteristics of SP among major depressives attending primary care and (b) the prevalence and aspects of BD in this population. Among 400 patients who consulted French general practitioners (GPs) for major depression between February and December 2010, 390 could be included in the study: 167 (42.8%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for seasonal pattern [SP(+)], whereas 223 (57.2%) did not meet these criteria [SP(-)]. The two groups were compared on demographic, clinical, family history and temperamental characteristics. Compared to SP(-), SP(+) patients were more frequently female, married and with a later age at first depressive episode, and showed more atypical vegetative symptoms, comorbid bulimia and stimulant abuse. They also exhibited more lifetime depressive episodes, were more often diagnosed as having BD II and met more often bipolarity specifier criteria, with higher rates of bipolar temperaments and a higher BD family loading. Among SP(+) patients, 68.9% met the bipolarity specifier criteria, whereas 31.1% did not. Seasonality was not influenced by climatic conditions. The following independent variables were associated with SP: BD according to bipolarity specifier, female gender, comorbid bulimia nervosa, hypersomnia, number of depressive episodes and family history of substance abuse. Seasonal pattern is frequent among depressive patients attending primary care in France and may be indicative of hidden bipolarity. Given the risks associated with both SP and bipolarity, GPs are likely to have a major role in regard to prevention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    General Hospital Psychiatry 11/2014; 37(1). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.11.002 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is associated with a high risk of suicide attempts and suicide death. The main objective of the present study was to identify and quantify the demographic and clinical correlates of attempted and completed suicide in people with bipolar disorder. Within the framework of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide, a systematic review of articles published since 1980, characterized by the key terms bipolar disorder and ‘suicide attempts’ or ‘suicide’, was conducted, and data extracted for analysis from all eligible articles. Demographic and clinical variables for which ≥ 3 studies with usable data were available were meta-analyzed using fixed or random-effects models for association with suicide attempts and suicide deaths. There was considerable heterogeneity in the methods employed by the included studies. Variables significantly associated with suicide attempts were: female gender, younger age at illness onset, depressive polarity of first illness episode, depressive polarity of current or most recent episode, comorbid anxiety disorder, any comorbid substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, any illicit substance use, comorbid cluster B/borderline personality disorder, and first-degree family history of suicide. Suicide deaths were significantly associated with male gender and first-degree family history of suicide. This paper reports on the presence and magnitude of the correlates of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder. These findings do not address causation, and the heterogeneity of data sources should limit the direct clinical ranking of correlates. Our results nonetheless support the notion of incorporating diagnosis-specific data in the development of models of understanding suicide in bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disorders 10/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12271 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in a cohort of French patients with bipolar disorder; determine correlations with sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment-related factors; and investigate the gap between optimal care and effective care of the treated patients. Method: 654 bipolar disorder patients from the FACE-BD cohort were included from 2009 to 2012. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, lifestyle information, and data on antipsychotic treatment and comorbidities were collected, and a blood sample was drawn. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders was used to confirm the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: 18.5% of individuals with bipolar disorder met criteria for MetS. Two-thirds of bipolar disorder patients did not receive adequate treatment for MetS components. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of MetS in men was nearly twice that in women (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8), and older patients had a 3.5 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.5-7.8) of developing MetS than patients under the age of 35 years. Moreover, patients receiving antipsychotic treatment had a 2.3 times increased risk (95% CI, 1.2-3.5) of having MetS, independent of other potential confounders. Conclusions: The prevalence of MetS is high in bipolar disorder patients, and there was considerable undertreatment of the components of MetS in this population. The prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in these patients should be assessed systematically. The findings highlight the need for integrated care, with more interaction and coordination between psychiatrists and primary care providers. (C) Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10/2014; 75(10):1078-85. DOI:10.4088/JCP.14m09038 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    Eric Fakra · Elisabeth Jouve · Fabrice Guillaume · Jean-Michel Azorin · Olivier Blin
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Method: Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Results: Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Neuropsychology 09/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1037/neu0000136 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    Jean-Michel Azorin · Raoul Belzeaux · Marc Adida
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    ABSTRACT: This review traces the history of negative symptom profiles in neuropsychiatry from their earliest emergence in the 19th century to the current psychiatric concepts and therapeutic approaches. Recent investigations performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis have suggested that negative symptoms are multidimensional, including evidence for at least two distinct negative symptom subdomains: diminished expression and amotivation. Preliminary studies have demonstrated the clinical validity of this distinction. Several potential pathophysiological validating factors based on brain imaging analysis of emotional experiences and expressions in individuals with schizophrenia are examined. Finally, the potential of different treatment strategies, including medications and various psychotherapeutic techniques, to most favorably treat each of these subdomains is discussed.
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 06/2014; 20(9). DOI:10.1111/cns.12292 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have shown that major depressive patients may differ in several features according to gender, but the existence of a specific male depressive syndrome remains controversial. Methods: As part of the EPIDEP National Multisite French Study of 493 consecutive DSM-IV major depressive patients evaluated in at least two semi-structured interviews 1 month apart, 125 (27.7%) were of male gender, whereas 317 (72.3%) were female, after exclusion of bipolar I patients. Results: Compared to women, men were more often married, had more associated mixed features, with more bipolar disorder NOS, more hyperthymic temperaments, and less depressive temperaments. Women had an earlier age at onset of depression, more depressive episodes and suicide attempts. A higher family loading was shown in men for bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorder, impulse control disorders and suicide, whereas their family loading for major depressive disorder was lower. Men displayed more comorbidities with alcohol use, impulse control, and cardiovascular disorders, with lower comorbidities with eating, anxiety and endocrine/metabolic disorders. The following independent variables were associated with male gender: hyperthymic temperament (+), alcohol use disorder (+), impulse control disorders (+), and depressive temperament (-). Limitations: The retrospective design and the lack of specific tools to assess the male depressive syndrome. Conclusion: Study findings may lend support to the male depression syndrome concept and draw attention to the role of hyperthymic temperament, soft bipolarity as well as comorbidities as determinants of this syndrome. The latter could help recognize an entity which is probably underdiagnosed, but conveys a high risk of suicide and cardiovascular morbidity.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2014; 167C:85-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.058 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    Marc Adida · Jean-Michel Azorin
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    ABSTRACT: Adjunctive use of methylphenidate, a central stimulant, has been considered as a potential therapeutic choice for patients with refractory unipolar, geriatric, or bipolar depression, and depression secondary to medical illness. We present a case of bipolar depression in which the patient responded significantly to augmentation with methylphenidate, without any side effects, after failure of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy. Mr U, a 56-year-old man with bipolar I disorder, had melancholic symptoms during his sixth episode of bipolar depression. After failure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy, he was treated with fluoxetine 80 mg/day, duloxetine 360 mg/day, mirtazapine 60 mg/day, and sodium valproate 1,000 mg/day, with no improvement. We added methylphenidate at a dose of 10 mg/day for one week, which resulted in mild clinical improvement, and then methylphenidate extended-release 20 mg/day for one week, with significant clinical improvement. He tolerated his medications well. His clinical recovery was stable over one year. The patient's antidepressants and methylphenidate were gradually tapered and finally discontinued after one year with no withdrawal syndrome. To date, he remains well on sodium valproate as monotherapy and is being followed up at our bipolar department. This case suggests that methylphenidate augmentation might be a therapeutic option when treating highly treatment-resistant patients with bipolar depression, even if they had not responded to adjunctive neuromodulation. In these clinical situations, physicians might be interested in prescribing methylphenidate because of its efficacy and safety.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 04/2014; 10:559-62. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S58644 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thought and language disturbances are crucial clinical features in Bipolar Disorders (BD), and constitute a fundamental basis for social cognition. In BD, clinical manifestations such as disorganization and formal thought disorders may play a role in communication disturbances. However, only few studies have explored language disturbances in BD at a neurophysiological level. Two main Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) have been used in language comprehension research: the N400 component, elicited by incongruous word with the preceding semantic context, and the Late Positive Component (LPC), associated with non-specifically semantic and more general cognitive processes. Previous studies provided contradictory results regarding N400 in mood disorders, showing either preserved N400 in depression or dysthymia, or altered N400 in BD during semantic priming paradigm. The aim of our study was to explore N400 and LPC among patients with BD in natural speech conditions. ERPs from 19 bipolar type I patients with manic or hypomanic symptomatology and 19 healthy controls were recorded. Participants were asked to listen to congruous and incongruous complete sentences and to judge the match between the final word and the sentence context. Behavioral results and ERPs data were analyzed. At the behavioral level, patients with BD show worst performances than healthy participants. At the electrophysiological level, our results show preserved N400 component in BD. LPC elicited under natural speech conditions shows preserved amplitude but delayed latency in difference waves. Small size of samples, absence of schizophrenic group and medication status. In contrast with the only previous N400 study in BD that uses written semantic priming, our results show a preserved N400 component in ecological and natural speech conditions among patients with BD. Possible implications in terms of clinical specificity are discussed.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2014; 158:161-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.11.013 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    Raoul Belzeaux · Jean-Michel Azorin · El Chérif Ibrahim
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    ABSTRACT: Although psychiatric disorders are frequently characterized by clinical heterogeneity, high recurrence, and unpredictable prognosis, studies of mRNA expression variations in blood cells from psychiatric patients constitute a promising avenue to establish clinical biomarkers. We report here, to our knowledge, the first genetic monitoring of a major depressive episode (MDE). The subject is a 51-year-old male, who was healthy at baseline and whose blood mRNA was monitored over 67 weeks for expression variations of 9 candidate genes. At week 20 the subject experienced a mild to moderate unexpected MDE, and oral antidepressant treatment was initiated at week 29. At week 36, the patient recovered from his MDE. After 6 months, antidepressant treatment was discontinued and the subject remained free of depressive symptoms. Genetic monitoring revealed that mRNA expression of SLC6A4/5HTT increased with the emergence of a depressive state, which later returned to basal levels after antidepressant treatment and during MDE recovery. PDLIM5, S100A10 and TNF mRNA showed also an interesting pattern of expression with regards to MDE evolution. This case demonstrated the applicability of peripheral mRNA expression as a way to monitor the natural history of MDE.
    BMC Psychiatry 03/2014; 14(1):73. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-73 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Eduard Vieta · Heinz Grunze · Jean-Michel Azorin · Andrea Fagiolini
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenology of mania and depression in bipolar patients experiencing a manic episode with mixed features as defined in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). In this multicenter, international on-line survey (the IMPACT study), 700 participants completed a 54-item questionnaire on demographics, diagnosis, symptomatology, communication of the disease, impact on life, and treatment received. Patients with a manic episode with or without DSM-5 criteria for mixed features were compared using descriptive and inferential statistics. Patients with more than 3 depressive symptoms were more likely to have had a delay in diagnosis, more likely to have experienced shorter symptom-free periods, and were characterized by a marked lower prevalence of typical manic manifestations. All questionnaire items exploring depressive symptomatology, including the DSM-5 criteria defining a manic episode as "with mixed features", were significantly overrepresented in the group of patients with depressive symptoms. Anxiety associated with irritability/agitation was also more frequent among patients with mixed features. Retrospective cross-sectional design, sensitive to recall bias. Two of the 6 DSM-5 required criteria for the specifier "with mixed features" were not explored: suicidality and psychomotor retardation. Bipolar disorder patients with at least 3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode self-reported typical symptomatology. Anxiety with irritability/agitation differentiated patients with depressive symptoms during mania from those with "pure" manic episodes. The results support the use of DSM-5 mixed features specifier and its value in research and clinical practice.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2014; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.031 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic drug side effects are common and can cause stigmatisation, decreased quality of life, poor adherence, and secondary morbidity and mortality. Systematic assessment of anticipated side effects is recommended as part of good clinical care, but is uncommon in practice and patients may not spontaneously report side effects. We aimed to develop a simple patient-completed checklist to screen systematically for potential antipsychotic side effects. The SMARTS checklist was developed over a series of group meetings by an international faculty of 12 experts (including psychiatrists, a general physician and a psychopharmacologist) based on their clinical experience and knowledge of the literature. The emphasis is on tolerability (i.e. assessment of side effects that 'trouble' the patient) as subjective impact of side effects is most relevant to medication adherence. The development took account of feedback from practising psychiatrists in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, a process that contributed to face validity. The SMARTS checklist assesses whether patients are currently 'troubled' by 11 well-established potential antipsychotic side effects. Patients provide their responses to these questions by circling relevant side effects. An additional open question enquires about any other possible side effects. The checklist has been translated into Italian and Turkish. The SMARTS checklist aims to strike a balance between brevity and capturing the most common and important antipsychotic side effects. It is appropriate for completion by patients prior to a clinical consultation, for example, in the waiting room. It can then form the focus for a more detailed clinical discussion about side effects. It can be used alone or form part of a more comprehensive assessment of antipsychotic side effects including blood tests and a physical examination when appropriate. The checklist assesses current problems and can be used longitudinally to assess change.
    Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 02/2014; 4(1):15-21. DOI:10.1177/2045125313510195 · 1.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
313.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      • Pôle Psychiatrique
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
    • Advance MRI
      Frisco, Texas, United States
  • 2007–2015
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
    • Universität Ulm
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
    • University of Leipzig
      • Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2008–2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Hôpital Européen, Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France