[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 7-yr-old, intact, female swift fox ( Vulpes velox ) presented to the Veterinary Health Center at Kansas State University with a history of chronic weight loss, lethargy, inappetence, and myiasis. On physical examination, a firm mass was palpated in the mid- to cranial abdomen. The fox was euthanatized as a result of the grave prognosis. Gross necropsy and histologic findings included a small intestinal adenocarcinoma with diffuse transperitoneal spread throughout the abdominal cavity (carcinomatosis). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal adenocarcinoma with carcinomatosis in a swift fox.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2015; 46(3):596-600. DOI:10.1638/2014-0147.1 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 13-yr-old male cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) presented for an acute history of lateral recumbency and anorexia. Upon physical examination under general anesthesia, severe icterus was noted. A serum biochemical profile confirmed markedly elevated total bilirubin and alanine transaminase. Based on ultrasound-guided liver aspirates and cytology, a presumptive diagnosis of large granular lymphocyte hepatic lymphoma was reached. Abdominal and thoracic radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination and histopathology provided a definitive diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma with acute massive hepatocelluar necrosis and hemorrhage, as well as concurrent lesions of gastric ulcers, ulcerative and sclerosing enteritis, myocardial hypertrophy, and splenic myelolipomas. Immunohistochemistry of the liver yielded CD-3 positive and CD-20 negative results, confirming lymphocytes of a T-cell lineage. Due to concern for possible retrovirus-associated disease, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were performed retrospectively on a banked serum sample and yielded negative results, thus diminishing concern for the male conspecific housed in the same exhibit.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):400-404. DOI:10.1638/2014-0199R.1 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-yr-old, captive, intact female Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) with a 7-mo history of ulcerative dermatitis and weight loss was euthanatized for progressive worsening of clinical signs. Initially the opossum was treated with several courses of antibiotics, both topically and systemically; systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication; and, later, systemic glucocorticoids, with no improvement in clinical signs. Histopathologic samples of skin lesions taken 3 mo into the course of disease revealed no evidence of neoplasia; however, cytologic samples of a skin lesion taken 5 mo into the course of disease revealed mature lymphocytes, and were suggestive of cutaneous lymphoma. Postmortem histopathology revealed neoplastic cells consistent with lymphoma; these were found in the haired skin of the forearm, axilla, hind limb, face, and lateral body wall, as well as the liver, kidney, axillary lymph node, heart, and spleen. Multifocal neutrophilic and eosinophilic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis and folliculitis of the haired skin were also present. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of cutaneous lymphoma in a Virginia opossum and the first documented case with visceral metastases in a marsupial.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 06/2015; 46(2):409-413. DOI:10.1638/2014-0201R1.1 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventeen adult captive American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) (34 eyes) underwent a complete ocular examination, including assessment of menace response, pupillary light reflexes, dazzle reflex, palpebral and corneal reflexes, fluorescein staining, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and direct ophthalmoscopy. Birds were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups for tear production and intraocular pressure measurements. Tear production was measured by modified Schirmer tear test I (n = 9 birds) or phenol red thread test (n = 8 birds), and intraocular pressure was measured indirectly by applanation (Tonopen-XL) (n = 9 birds) or rebound (TonoVet) (n = 8 birds) tonometry. Conjunctival swab samples were taken from one randomly selected eye of all 17 birds to identify surface ocular microbial flora via aerobic bacterial culture. Additionally, 3 of the 17 birds were anesthetized for bilateral B-mode ocular ultrasonography examination to obtain axial globe measurements. Results showed that the menace response and dazzle reflex were absent in all birds. Sixteen of the 17 birds were free of significant ocular disease; a small cataract and pigment on the anterior lens capsule were noted in one eye of one bird. Mean ± SD tear production was 12.3 ± 4.5 mm/min (range, 4-20 mm/min) for modified Schirmer tear test I and 24.2 ± 4.4 mm/15 s (range, 14-30 mm/15 s) for phenol red thread test. Modified Schirmer tear test I measurements were significantly lower than phenol red thread measurements (P < .001). Mean intraocular pressure was 16.1 ± 4.2 mm Hg (range, 7-22 mm Hg) for Tonopen and 9.5 ± 1.7 mm Hg (range, 7-13 mm Hg) for TonoVet. Tonopen measurements were significantly higher than TonoVet measurements (P < .001). An Enterococcus species (9/17 eyes; 53%) and a gram-positive coccus (7/17 eyes; 41%) were the bacteria most commonly isolated from conjunctival swab samples. Mean B-mode ultrasonographic globe measurements of 6 eyes (3 birds) were axial globe length, 13.8 ± 0.16 mm; anterior chamber depth, 1.75 ± 0.05 mm; lens thickness, 4.6 ± 0.06 mm; vitreous body depth, 6.95 ± 0.10 mm; and pecten dimensions, 5.1 ± 0.38 mm length, 2.2 ± 0.14 mm width. In summary, the prevalence of ocular lesions was low in this population of captive American flamingos. Results obtained from 2 types of tear and intraocular pressure measurement tests were significantly different, indicating that a single type of each diagnostic test should be consistently used. A modification of the standard Schirmer tear test or use of phenol red thread test is recommended due to the small flamingo eye.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 06/2015; 29(2):95-105. DOI:10.1647/2014-021 · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 10-yr-old, captive, intact male Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) with a history of bilateral nephrolithiasis was presented for acute-onset lethargy and inappetance of 5 days duration. On physical examination, the otter was about 8% dehydrated and a palpable fluid wave was present in the abdomen. An abdominal ultrasound revealed hydronephrosis of the left kidney and a hyperechoic structure present within the lumen of the left ureter, causing an obstruction. A urinalysis revealed struvite crystalluria, bacteriuria, and an elevated pH. Following 4 days of antibiotic therapy, a left ureteronephrectomy was performed. Upon opening the kidney to retrieve calculi, a large amount of purulent material was noted within the renal pelvis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a nephrectomy in an Asian small-clawed otter. Nephrectomy should be considered as a viable option for treatment of ureteral obstruction, hydronephrosis, or severe pyelonephritis.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2014; 45(3):690-5. DOI:10.1638/2013-0237R2.1 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have established ex situ assurance colonies of two endangered Panamanian harlequin frogs, Atelopus certus and Atelopus glyphus, but observed that males fought with each other when housed as a group. Housing frogs individually eliminated this problem, but created space constraints. To evaluate the potential stress effects from aggressive interactions when grouping frogs, we housed male frogs in replicated groups of one, two, and eight. We measured aggressive behavioral interactions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (GC) concentrations as indicators of stress in each tank. In both small and large groups, frogs initially interacted aggressively, but aggressive interactions and fecal GCs declined significantly after the first 2 weeks of being housed together, reaching the lowest levels by week 4. We conclude that aggressive interactions in same-sex groups of captive Atelopus may initially cause stress, but the frogs become habituated within a few weeks and they can safely be housed in same-sex groups for longer periods of time.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90218. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090218 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of meloxicam in rabbits when administered orally for 29 days. Animals-6 healthy rabbits. Procedures-Meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) was administered to rabbits for 29 days. Blood was collected immediately before (time 0) and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after drug administration on days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam. On day 30, an additional sample was collected 36 hours after treatment. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Weekly plasma biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate any adverse physiologic effects. Rabbits were euthanatized for necropsy on day 31. Results-Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of meloxicam after administration of doses 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 were 0.67 ± 0.19 μg/mL, 0.81 ± 0.21 μg/mL, 1.00 ± 0.31 μg/mL, 1.00 ± 0.29 μg/mL, and 1.07 ± 0.19 μg/mL, respectively; these concentrations did not differ significantly among doses 8 through 29. Results of plasma biochemical analyses were within reference ranges at all time points evaluated. Gross necropsy and histologic examination of tissues revealed no clinically relevant findings. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Plasma concentrations of meloxicam for rabbits in the present study were similar to those previously reported in rabbits that received 1. 0 mg of meloxicam/kg, PO every 24 hours, for 5 days. Results suggested that a dosage of 1. 0 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for up to 29 days may be safe for use in healthy rabbits.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/2014; 75(2):195-9. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.75.2.195 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the effect of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. Animals-Five 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Procedures-Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline isoflurane MAC was determined by use of the tail clamp technique. A loading dose of lidocaine (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was administered followed by a CRI of lidocaine at 50 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined. Another loading dose was administered, and the lidocaine CRI then was increased to 100 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined again. Plasma samples were obtained for lidocaine analysis after each MAC determination. Results-Baseline isoflurane MAC was 2.09%, which was similar to previously reported values in this species. Lidocaine CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min induced significant reductions in MAC. The 50 μg/kg/min CRI resulted in a mean plasma lidocaine concentration of 0.654 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 10.5%. The 100 μg/kg/min CRI of lidocaine resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 1.578 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 21.7%. Lidocaine also induced significant decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. All cardiopulmonary variables were within reference ranges for rabbits anesthetized with inhalation anesthetics. No adverse effects were detected; all rabbits had an uncomplicated recovery from anesthesia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Lidocaine administered as a CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min decreased isoflurane MAC in rabbits. The IV administration of lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in anesthesia of rabbits.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2013; 74(11):1377-84. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.74.11.1377 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in rabbits after oral administration of single and multiple doses. Animals-6 healthy rabbits. Procedures-A single dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered to the rabbits. After a 10-day washout period, meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered to rabbits every 24 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were obtained from rabbits at predetermined intervals during both treatment periods. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Results-The mean peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity after administration of a single dose of meloxicam were 0.83 μg/mL and 10.37 h•μg/mL, respectively. After administration of meloxicam for 5 days, the mean peak plasma concentration was 1.33 μg/mL, and the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from the time of administration of the last dose to 24 hours after that time was 18.79 h•μg/mL. For single- and multiple-dose meloxicam experiments, the mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 6.5 and 5.8 hours and the mean terminal half-life was 6.1 and 6.7 hours, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Plasma concentrations of meloxicam for rabbits in the present study were proportionally higher than those previously reported for rabbits receiving 0.2 mg of meloxicam/kg and were similar to those determined for animals of other species that received clinically effective doses. A dose of 1 mg/kg may be necessary to achieve clinically effective circulating concentrations of meloxicam in rabbits, although further studies are needed.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2013; 74(4):636-41. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.74.4.636 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 16-yr-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented with an acute history of lethargy, inappetance, ataxia, and paralysis. The bird had rapidly progressed from a normal state to complete inability to perch or ambulate within a 48-hr period. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral hind limb paresis with upper motor neuron signs present in both legs and the vent. Radiographs identified multiple nodular soft-tissue opacities within the cranial coelomic cavity and a single nodule superimposed with the thoracic spine. The bird was euthanized and submitted for necropsy, which revealed a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with multiple sites of osseous metastasis, including the vertebrae, and subsequent spinal cord compression. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in this species, although reports of similar tumors in other psittacines have been published. This report, along with others previously published, suggests that vertebral metastasis of primary pulmonary tumors may be more common in psittacine species than previously recognized and, as such, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in psittacine birds exhibiting signs of neurologic dysfunction attributed to a spinal cord lesion.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12/2012; 43(4):909-13. DOI:10.2307/23361390 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and adverse effects of topically administered selamectin in flea-infested rabbits.
18 healthy 5-month-old New Zealand White rabbits.
On day 0, rabbits (n = 6/group) received topically applied selamectin at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg or received no treatment. Each rabbit was infested with 50 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on days -1, 7, and 14. Live and dead flea counts were performed on days 2, 9, and 16, and treatment efficacy was calculated. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration and at 6 and 12 hours and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment for determination of plasma selamectin concentrations via high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined.
On day 2, efficacy of selamectin against flea populations of rabbits in the 10 and 20 mg/kg treatment groups was 91.3% and 97.1%, respectively, but by day 9, these values decreased to 37.7% and 74.2%, respectively. Mean terminal half-life and maximum plasma concentrations of selamectin were 0.93 days and 91.7 ng/mL, respectively, for rabbits in the 10 mg/kg group and 0.97 days and 304.2 ng/mL, respectively, for rabbits in the 20 mg/kg group. No adverse effects were detected.
Selamectin was rapidly absorbed transdermally and was rapidly eliminated in rabbits. Results suggested that topical administration at a dosage of 20 mg/kg every 7 days is efficacious for treatment of flea infestation in rabbits. Further studies are needed to assess long-term safety in rabbits following repeated applications.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2012; 73(4):562-6. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.4.562 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that meiotic competence of dog oocytes is tightly linked with donor follicle size and energy metabolism. Oocytes were recovered from small (<1 mm diameter, n = 327), medium (1-<2 mm, n = 292) or large (≥2 mm, n = 102) follicles, cultured for 0, 24, or 48 hr, and then assessed for glycolysis, glucose oxidation, pyruvate uptake, glutamine oxidation, and nuclear status. More oocytes (P < 0.05) from large follicles (37%) reached the metaphase-II (MII) stage than from the small group (11%), with the medium-sized class being intermediate (18%; P > 0.05). Glycolytic rate increased (P < 0.05) as oocytes progressed from the germinal vesicle (GV) to MII stage. After 48 hr of culture, oocytes completing nuclear maturation had higher (P < 0.05) glycolytic rates than those arrested at earlier stages. GV oocytes recovered from large follicle oocytes had higher (P < 0.05) metabolism than those from smaller counterparts at culture onset. MII oocytes from large follicles oxidized more (P < 0.05) glutamine than the same stage gametes recovered from smaller counterparts. In summary, larger-sized dog follicles contain a more metabolically active oocyte with a greater chance of achieving nuclear maturation in vitro. These findings demonstrate a significant role for energy metabolism in promoting dog oocyte maturation, information that will be useful for improving culture systems for rescuing intraovarian genetic material.
Molecular Reproduction and Development 03/2012; 79(3):186-96. DOI:10.1002/mrd.22011 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8-yr-old, captive, spayed, female maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) developed progressive lethargy and weakness over a 24-hr period. Clinical signs included vomiting, recumbency, horizontal nystagmus, possible blindness, pale icteric mucus membranes, and port-wine colored urine. A complete blood cell count revealed severe anemia (packed cell volume [PCV], 6%) and intraerythrocytic piroplasms consistent with a Babesia species. Polymerase chain reaction testing later confirmed babesiosis. The wolf was treated with imidocarb dipropionate, antibiotics, and fluid therapy. A whole-blood transfusion from a sibling maned wolf also was performed. Despite aggressive treatment, the wolf failed to improve and was euthanized. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of babesiosis in a captive maned wolf in North America. Surveillance of infectious diseases in captive and wild maned wolf populations should be expanded to include screening for Babesia species. Tick control also should be implemented to prevent and decrease transmission of the disease to this endangered species.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 03/2012; 43(1):162-7. DOI:10.2307/41417084 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 5.5-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with a history of adrenal disease, respiratory disease, and chronic obesity was evaluated for progressive lethargy and ataxia, diminished appetite, and possible polyuria and polydipsia. Physical examination revealed obesity, lethargy, tachypnea, dyspnea, a pendulous abdomen, significant weakness and ataxia of the hindlimbs, prolonged skin tenting, and mild tail-tip alopecia. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed severe hyperglycemia, azotemia, an increased anion gap, glucosuria, ketonuria, proteinuria, and hematuria. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperechoic hepatomegaly, bilateral adrenomegaly, splenic nodules, mild peritoneal effusion, and thickened and mildly hypoechoic limbs of the pancreas with surrounding hyperechoic mesentery. Fine-needle aspirates of the liver were highly suggestive of hepatic lipidosis. In light of a diagnosis of concurrent diabetic ketoacidosis and pancreatitis, the ferret was treated with fluid therapy, regular and long-acting insulin administration, and pain medication. However, electrolyte derangements, metabolic acidosis, dyspnea, and the clinical appearance of the ferret progressively worsened despite treatment, and euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed severe hepatic lipidosis, severe suppurative pancreatitis and vacuolar degeneration of pancreatic islet cells, a pancreatic β islet cell tumor, bilateral adrenal cortical adenomas, and myocardial fibrosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of concurrent diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, pancreatic β islet cell tumor (insulinoma), and adrenal disease in a domestic ferret. The simultaneous existence of 3 endocrine diseases, pancreatitis, and their associated complications is a unique and clinically challenging situation.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 07/2011; 50(4):531-5. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 5-year-old female African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was presented with a mass on its left caudodorsal flank and progressive lethargy. A fine-needle aspirate of the mass was suggestive of a malignant spindle cell tumor. After the diagnostic test results were obtained, the mass was surgically removed. Histopathological examination of tissue sections from the mass revealed incomplete excision of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Approximately 2 months after surgery, the patient suddenly died. Gross examination at necropsy revealed multifocal nodules within the spleen, liver, and lungs. Histopathology of the tissues that contained the multifocal nodules was consistent with metastatic osteosarcoma, originating from the original extraskeletal soft tissue osteosarcoma on the flank. Incidental uterine leiomyoma was also discovered at necropsy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported attempt at surgical treatment of the rarely documented extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a hedgehog.
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 04/2011; 20(2):151-155. DOI:10.1053/j.jepm.2011.02.011 · 0.51 Impact Factor